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Northern America
Northern America (orthographic projection).svg
Area 21,780,142 km2 (8,409,360 sq mi)
Population 364,295,996 (2018 est.)
Population density 16.5/km2 (42.7/sq mi)
GDP (nominal) $22.2 trillion
(2018 est.)
Languages English, French, Spanish, Danish, Greenlandic, and various recognized regional languages
Time zones UTC (Danmarkshavn, Greenland) to
UTC −10:00 (west Aleutians)
Largest cities
UN M49 code 021 – Northern America
003North America

Northern America is the northernmost subregion of North America. The boundaries may be drawn slightly differently. In one definition, it lies directly north of Middle America (including Central America, Clipperton Island, Mexico, and the West Indies). Northern America's land frontier with the rest of North America then coincides with the Mexico–United States border. Geopolitically, according to the United Nations' scheme of geographic regions and subregions, Northern America consists of Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States (the contiguous United States and Alaska only, excluding Hawaii, Navassa Island, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, and other minor U.S. Pacific territories).


Maps using the term Northern America date back to 1755, when the region was occupied by France, Great Britain, and Spain. The Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America in 1813 applied to Mexico. Today, Northern America includes the Canada–US dyad, developed countries that exhibit very high Human Development Indexes and intense economic integration while sharing many socioeconomic characteristics.

The World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions has "Northern America" as the seventh of its nine "botanical continents". Its definition differs from the usual political one: Mexico is included, Bermuda is excluded (being placed in the Caribbean region), Hawaii is excluded (being placed in the Pacific botanical continent) and all of the Aleutian Islands, Russian as well as American, are included.

Countries and dependent territories

Country / Dependency Area
Population density
(per km²)
 Bermuda &&&&&&&&&&&&&053.20000053.2 62,756 1,275 Hamilton
 Canada &&&&&&&&09984670.&&&&&09,984,670 37,064,562 3.4 Ottawa
 Greenland 0Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ","..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ",".2,166,086 56,564 0.026 Nuuk
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon &&&&&&&&&&&&0242.&&&&&0242 5,849 25 Saint Pierre
 United States &&&&&&&&09826675.&&&&&09,826,675 327,096,265 32.7 Washington, D.C.


Year Population of
Northern America
Canada population,
% of Northern America
U.S. population,
% of Northern America
1950 172,603,000 13,733,000 8.0% 158,804,000 92.0%
1960 204,649,000 +18.6% 17,847,000 8.7% 186,721,000 91.2%
1970 230,992,000 +12.9% 21,374,000 9.3% 209,513,000 90.7%
1980 254,007,000 +10.0% 24,417,000 9.6% 229,476,000 90.3%
1990 279,785,000 +10.1% 27,541,000 9.8% 252,120,000 90.1%
2000 312,427,000 +11.7% 30,588,000 9.8% 281,711,000 90.2%
2010 343,287,000 +9.9% 34,148,000 9.9% 309,011,000 90.0%
2020 368,870,000 +7.5% 37,742,000 10.2% 331,003,000 89.7%
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