|City of Dallas|
Top to bottom, left to right: Downtown Dallas skyline, Old Red Museum, NorthPark Center, Dallas City Hall, Dallas Museum of Art, Winspear Opera House, Perot Museum of Nature and Science, State Fair of Texas at Fair Park, Dallas Union Station, the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, and the American Airlines Center
|Nickname(s): Big D, The Four|
Location of Dallas in Dallas County and the U.S. state of Texas
|Incorporated||February 2, 1856|
|Named for||George M. Dallas|
|Counties||Dallas, Collin, Denton, Rockwall, Kaufman|
|• Body||Dallas City Council|
|• Mayor||Mike Rawlings (D)|
|• City||385.8 sq mi (999.3 km2)|
|• Land||340.5 sq mi (881.9 km2)|
|• Water||45.3 sq mi (117.4 km2)|
|• Urban||1,407.2 sq mi (3,645 km2)|
|Elevation||430 ft (131 m)|
|• Estimate (2016)||1,300,092|
|• Rank||(US: 9th)|
|• Density||3,645/sq mi (1,407/km2)|
|• Urban||5,121,892 (6th)|
|• Metro||7,102,796 (4th)|
|• CSA||7,206,144 (7th)|
|Time zone||Central (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||Central (UTC-5)|
|Area code||214, 469, 972, 682, 817|
|GNIS feature ID||1380944|
|ZIP code prefix||752,753|
Dallas (//) is a major city in the U.S. state of Texas. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the United States. The city's population ranks ninth in the U.S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. The city's prominence arose from its historical importance as a center for the oil and cotton industries, and its position along numerous railroad lines. The bulk of the city is in Dallas County, of which it is the county seat; however, sections of the city are located in Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties. According to the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 1,197,816. The United States Census Bureau's estimate for the city's population increased to 1,300,092 as of July 1, 2015.
The city is the largest economic center of the 12-county Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area (commonly referred to as DFW), which had a population of 7,246,231 as of July 1, 2016, representing growth in excess of 807,000 people since the 2010 census. In 2016 DFW ascended to the number one spot in the nation in year-over-year population growth. In 2014, the metropolitan economy surpassed Washington, D.C. to become the fifth largest in the U.S., with a 2014 real GDP over $504 billion. As such, the metropolitan area's economy is the 10th largest in the world. In 2013, the metropolitan area led the nation with the largest year-over-year increase in employment and advanced to become the fourth-largest employment center in the nation (behind New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago) with more than three million non-farm jobs. As of January 2017, the metropolitan job count has increased to 3,558,200 jobs. The city's economy is primarily based on banking, commerce, telecommunications, technology, energy, healthcare and medical research, and transportation and logistics. The city is home to the third-largest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the nation (behind New York City and Houston).
Located in North Texas, Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the South and the largest inland metropolitan area in the United States that lacks any navigable link to the sea. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton, cattle, and later oil in North and East Texas. The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas' prominence as a transportation hub with four major interstate highways converging in the city, and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center, and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways, and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world.
- Sister cities
- See also: Timeline of Dallas
Preceded by thousands of years of varying indigenous cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, France also claimed the area but never established much settlement.
In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain, officially placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory. The area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, and the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, the Republic of Texas, with majority Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico to become a distinct nation.
In 1839, Warren Angus Ferris surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. John Neely Bryan established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841. The origin of the name is uncertain. The Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856.
With construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center, and was booming by the end of the 19th century. It became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South and the Midwest. The Praetorian Building of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time. It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for Thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth, where a similar Drivers Club was based. The rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing.
In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited downtown Dallas' Mexican Park in Little Mexico, the small park was located on the corner of Akard and Caruth Street, site of the current Fairmount Hotel. The small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to the Hispanic population that had come to Dallas due to factors like the American Dream, better living conditions or the Mexican Revolution.
Founding of the United Methodist Church
In 1968, the United Methodist Church was founded by the merging of the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church. Christianity is the dominant religion in Dallas , where 78 percent of the populace are practicing the faith.
John F. Kennedy's assassination
On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas. The upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments.
2016 police shooting
On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states. The gunman, later identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m., killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were also injured. This marked the deadliest day for U.S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he was upset about recent police shootings of black men and wanted to kill whites, especially white officers. After hours of negotiation failed, police resorted to a robot-delivered bomb, killing Johnson inside El Centro College. The shooting occurred in an area of hotels, restaurants, businesses, and residential apartments only a few blocks away from Dealey Plaza.
Dallas is the county seat of Dallas County. Portions of the city extend into neighboring Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 385.8 square miles (999.3 km2), 340.5 square miles (881.9 km2) of it being land and 45.3 square miles (117.4 km2) of it (11.75%) water. Dallas makes up one-fifth of the much larger urbanized area known as the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex, in which one quarter of all Texans live.
- See also: List of Dallas Landmarks and List of tallest buildings in Dallas
Dallas' skyline contains several buildings over 700 feet (210 m) in height. Although some of Dallas' architecture dates from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the notable architecture in the city is from the modernist and postmodernist eras. Iconic examples of modernist architecture include Reunion Tower, the JFK Memorial, I. M. Pei's Dallas City Hall and Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center. Good examples of postmodernist skyscrapers are Fountain Place, Bank of America Plaza, Renaissance Tower, JPMorgan Chase Tower, and Comerica Bank Tower.
Several smaller structures are fashioned in the Gothic Revival style, such as the Kirby Building, and the neoclassical style, as seen in the Davis and Wilson Buildings. One architectural "hotbed" in the city is a stretch of historic houses along Swiss Avenue, which contains all shades and variants of architecture from Victorian to neoclassical. The Dallas Downtown Historic District protects a cross-section of Dallas commercial architecture from the 1880s to the 1940s.
- See also: List of neighborhoods in Dallas
Central Dallas is anchored by Downtown, the center of the city, along with Oak Lawn and Uptown, areas characterized by dense retail, restaurants, and nightlife. Downtown Dallas has a variety of named districts, including the West End Historic District, the Arts District, the Main Street District, Farmers Market District, the City Center business district, the Convention Center District, and the Reunion District. "Hot spots" in this area include Uptown, Victory Park, Oak Lawn, Dallas Design District, Trinity Groves, Turtle Creek, Cityplace, Knox/Henderson, Greenville and West Village.
East Dallas is home to Deep Ellum, a trendy arts area close to Downtown, the homey Lakewood neighborhood (and adjacent areas, including Lakewood Heights, Wilshire Heights, Lower Greenville, Junius Heights, and Hollywood Heights/Santa Monica), historic Vickery Place and Bryan Place, and the architecturally significant neighborhoods of Swiss Avenue and Munger Place. Its historic district has one of the largest collections of Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired Prairie-style homes in the United States. In the northeast quadrant of the city is Lake Highlands, one of Dallas' most unified middle-class neighborhoods.
South Dallas, a distinct neighborhood southeast of Downtown, lays claim to the Cedars, an eclectic artist hotbed, and Fair Park, home of the annual State Fair of Texas, held in late September and through mid-October. Southwest of Downtown lies Oak Cliff, a hilly area that has undergone gentrification in recent years, in neighborhoods such as the Bishop Arts District. Oak Cliff was a township founded in the mid-1800s and annexed in 1903 by the city of Dallas. Today, most of the area's northern residents are Hispanic. The ghost town of La Reunion once occupied the northern tip of Oak Cliff. South Oak Cliff has a population that is a mixture of African American, Hispanic, and Native American.
South Side Dallas is currently a popular location for nightly entertainment at the NYLO rooftop patio and lounge, The Cedars Social, and the famous country bar Gilley's. The neighbourhood has undergone extensive development and community integration. What was once an area characterized by high rates of poverty and crime is now one of the most attractive social and living destinations in the city.
Further east, in the southeast quadrant of the city, is the large neighborhood of Pleasant Grove. Once an independent city, it is a collection of mostly lower-income residential areas stretching to Seagoville in the southeast. Though a city neighborhood, Pleasant Grove is surrounded by undeveloped land on all sides. Swampland and wetlands separating it from South Dallas will in the future be part of the Great Trinity Forest, a subsection of the city's Trinity River Project which is planned to restore and preserve wetlands, newly appreciated for habitat and flood control.
- Bishop Arts District
- Casa Linda
- Casa View
- Cedar Springs (sub-district of Oak Lawn)
- Cedars, The
- Deep Ellum
- Design District
- Exposition Park
- Fair Park
- Highland Hills
- Kessler Park
- Lake Highlands
- Lower Greenville
- "M" Streets
- Oak Cliff
- Oak Lawn
- Park Cities
- Pleasant Grove
- Preston Hollow
- Trinity Groves
- Turtle Creek
- Victory Park
- West End
Dallas and its surrounding area are mostly flat; the city itself lies at elevations ranging from 450 to 550 feet (137 to 168 m). The western edge of the Austin Chalk Formation, a limestone escarpment (also known as the "White Rock Escarpment"), rises 230 feet (70 m) and runs roughly north-south through Dallas County. South of the Trinity River, the uplift is particularly noticeable in the neighborhoods of Oak Cliff and the adjacent cities of Cockrell Hill, Cedar Hill, Grand Prairie, and Irving. Marked variations in terrain are also found in cities immediately to the west in Tarrant County surrounding Fort Worth, as well as along Turtle Creek north of Downtown.
Dallas, like many other cities, was founded along a river. The city was founded at the location of a "white rock crossing" of the Trinity River, where it was easier for wagons to cross the river in the days before ferries or bridges. The Trinity River, though not usefully navigable, is the major waterway through the city. Its path through Dallas is paralleled by Interstate 35E along the Stemmons Corridor, then south alongside the western portion of Downtown and past south Dallas and Pleasant Grove, where the river is paralleled by Interstate 45 until it exits the city and heads southeast towards Houston. The river is flanked on both sides by 50 feet (15 m) tall earthen levees to protect the city from frequent floods.
Since it was rerouted in the late 1920s, the river has been little more than a drainage ditch within a floodplain for several miles above and below downtown Dallas, with a more normal course further upstream and downstream, but as Dallas began shifting towards postindustrial society, public outcry about the lack of aesthetic and recreational use of the river ultimately gave way to the Trinity River Project, which was begun in the early 2000s and was scheduled to be completed in the 2010s. If the project materializes fully, it promises improvements to the riverfront in the form of man-made lakes, new park facilities and trails, and transportation upgrades.
The project area will reach for over 20 miles (32 km) in length within the city, while the overall geographical land area addressed by the Land Use Plan is approximately 44,000 acres (180 km2) in size—about 20% of the land area in Dallas. Green space along the river will encompass approximately 10,000 acres (40 km2), making it one of the largest and diverse urban parks in the world.
White Rock Lake, a reservoir constructed at the beginning of the 20th century, is Dallas' other significant water feature. The lake and surrounding park is a popular destination for boaters, rowers, joggers, and bikers, as well as visitors seeking peaceful respite from the city at the 66-acre (267,000 m2) Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, located on the lake's eastern shore. White Rock Creek feeds into White Rock Lake, and then exits on to the Trinity River southeast of downtown Dallas. Trails along White Rock Creek are part of the extensive Dallas County Trails System.
Bachman Lake, just northwest of Love Field Airport, is a smaller lake also popularly used for recreation. Northeast of the city is Lake Ray Hubbard, a vast 22,745-acre (92 km2) reservoir located in an extension of Dallas surrounded by the suburbs of Garland, Rowlett, Rockwall, and Sunnyvale. To the west of the city is Mountain Creek Lake, once home to the Naval Air Station Dallas (Hensley Field) and a number of defense aircraft manufacturers. North Lake, a small body of water in an extension of the city limits surrounded by Irving and Coppell, initially served as a water source for a nearby power plant but is now being targeted for redevelopment as a recreational lake due to its proximity to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, a plan that the lake's neighboring cities oppose.
Dallas has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) that is characteristic of the Southern Plains of the United States. Dallas experiences distinct four seasons. January is typically the coldest month, with an average low of 37.3 °F (3 °C) and an average high of 56.8 °F (14 °C). Winter is mild but snowfall during winter is not uncommon. On average, there are 2 snowy days per year. Summer is hot and dry. July and August are typically the hottest months, with an average low of 76.7 °F (25 °C) and an average high of 96.0 °F (36 °C). Located at the lower-end of the Tornado Alley, it is often prone to extreme weathers, tornadoes and severe hailstorms.
Winters in Dallas have a normal daily average temperature in January of 47.0 °F (8.3 °C) but sharp swings in temperature as strong cold fronts known as "Blue Northers" pass through the Dallas region, forcing daytime highs below the 50 °F (10 °C) mark for several days at a time and often between days with high temperatures above 80 °F (27 °C). Snow accumulation is seen in the city in about 70% of winter seasons, and snowfall generally occurs 1–2 days out of the year for a seasonal average of 1.5 inches (3.8 cm). Some areas in the region, however, receive more than that, while other areas receive negligible snowfall or none at all.
A few times each winter in Dallas, warm and humid air from the south will override cold, dry air, resulting in freezing rain or ice and causing disruptions in the city if the roads and highways become slick. Temperatures reaching 70 °F (21 °C) on average occur on at least 4 days each winter month. Dallas averages 26 annual nights at or below freezing, with the winter of 1999–2000 holding the all-time record as having the fewest freezing nights, with 14. During this same span of 15 years, the temperature in the region has only twice dropped below 15 °F (−9 °C), though it will generally fall below 20 °F (−7 °C) in most (67%) years. In sum, extremes and variations in winter weather are more readily seen in Dallas and Texas as a whole than along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, due to the state's location in the interior of the North American continent. The lack of any mountainous terrain to the north leaves it open to the sweep of Arctic weather systems.
Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with moderate and pleasant weather. Vibrant wildflowers (such as the bluebonnet, Indian paintbrush and other flora) bloom in spring and are planted around the highways throughout Texas. Springtime weather can be quite volatile, but temperatures themselves are mild. The weather in Dallas is also generally pleasant from late September to early December and on many winter days. Autumn often brings more storms and tornado threat, but usually fewer and less severe than in spring.
Each spring, cold fronts moving south from the North will collide with warm, humid air streaming in from the Gulf Coast, leading to severe thunderstorms with lightning, torrents of rain, hail, and occasionally, tornadoes. Over time, tornadoes have probably been the biggest natural threat to the city, as it is located near the heart of Tornado Alley.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture places Dallas in Plant Hardiness Zone 8a. However, mild winter temperatures in the past 15 to 20 years have encouraged the horticulture of some cold-sensitive plants such as Washingtonia filifera and Washingtonia robusta palms. According to the American Lung Association, Dallas has the 12th highest air pollution among U.S. cities, ranking it behind Los Angeles and Houston. Much of the air pollution in Dallas and the surrounding area comes from a hazardous materials incineration plant in the small town of Midlothian and from concrete installations in neighbouring Ellis County.
The all-time record low temperature within the city itself is −3 °F (−19 °C), set on January 18, 1930, while the all-time record high is 113 °F (45 °C), set on June 26 and 27, 1980 during the Heat Wave of 1980 at nearby Dallas–Fort Worth Airport. The average daily low in Dallas is 57.4 °F (14.1 °C) and the average daily high is 76.9 °F (24.9 °C). Dallas receives approximately 37.6 inches (955 mm) of rain per year.
|Climate data for Dallas (Love Field), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1913–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||88
|Average high °F (°C)||56.8
|Average low °F (°C)||37.3
|Record low °F (°C)||−3
|Precipitation inches (mm)||2.06
|Snowfall inches (cm)||0.5
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||6.7||6.5||7.6||6.7||9.7||8.0||4.9||4.6||5.3||7.5||6.6||6.6||80.7|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.5||0.2||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.3||1.3|
|Source: NOAA (sun and relative humidity 1961–1990 at DFW Airport)|
|Black or African American||24.7%||29.5%||24.9%||13.1%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||42.4%||20.9%||7.5%||n/a|
As of the 2010 Census Dallas had a population of 1,197,816. The median age was 31.8.
According to the 2010 Census, 50.7% of the population was White (28.8% non-Hispanic white), 24.8% was Black or African American, 0.7% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.9% Asian, 2.6% from two or more races. 42.4% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).
At the 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, among the Hispanic population, 36.8% of Dallas was Mexican, 0.3% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Cuban and 4.3% other Hispanic or Latino.
There were 458,057 households at the 2010 census, out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.1% were headed by married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.0% were classified as non-family households. 33.7% of all households had one or more people under 18 years of age, and 17.6% had one or more people who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.42.
At the 2010 census the city's age distribution of the population showed 26.5% under the age of 18 and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.8 years. 50.0% of the population was male and 50.0% was female.
According to the 2005–2007 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the city was $40,147, and the median income for a family was $42,670. Male full-time workers had a median income of $32,265 versus $32,402 for female full-time workers. The per capita income for the city was $25,904. About 18.7% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those aged 65 or over. The median price for a house was $129,600.
Dallas' population was historically predominantly white (non-Hispanic whites made up 82.8% of the population in 1930), but its population has diversified due to immigration policies and "white flight" over the 20th century. Today the non-Hispanic white population has declined to less than one-third of the city's population. In addition, recent data showed that 26.5% of Dallas' population and 17% of residents in the Metroplex as a whole were foreign-born.
Dallas is a major destination for Mexican immigrants. The southwestern portion of the city, particularly Oak Cliff is chiefly inhabited by Hispanic residents. The southeastern portion of the city Pleasant Grove is chiefly inhabited by black and Hispanic residents, while the southern portion of the city is predominantly black. The West and East sides of the city are predominantly Hispanic; Garland also has a large Spanish speaking population. North Dallas is many enclaves of predominantly white, black and especially Hispanic residents.
In addition, Dallas and its suburbs are home to a large number of Asian residents including those of Indian, Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Japanese, and other heritage. There are also a significant number of people from the Horn of Africa, immigrants from Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia. With so many immigrant groups, there are often multilingual signs in the linguistic landscape.
The Dallas-Fort-Worth Metroplex has an estimated 70,000 Russian-speakers, mostly immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc. Included in this population are Russians, Russian Jews, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Moldavians, Uzbek, Kirghiz, and others. The Russian-speaking population of Dallas has continued to grow in the sector of "American husbands-Russian wives". Russian DFW has its own newspaper The Dallas Telegraph.
Recognized for having the sixth largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population in the nation, the Dallas metropolitan is widely noted for being home to a thriving and diverse LGBT community. Throughout the year there are many well-established LGBT events held in the area, most notably the annual Alan Ross Texas Freedom (Pride) Parade and Festival held every September since 1983 which draws tens of thousands from around the world. For decades, the Oak Lawn and Bishop Arts districts have been known as the epicenters of the LGBT community in Dallas.
According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Dallas (78%). There is a large Protestant Christian influence in the Dallas community. Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches are prominent in many neighborhoods and anchor two of the city's major private universities (Southern Methodist University and Dallas Baptist University). Dallas is also home to two evangelical seminaries, the Dallas Theological Seminary and Criswell College and many Bible schools including Christ For The Nations Institute.
The Christian creationist apologetics group Institute for Creation Research is headquartered in Dallas.
Dallas is called "Prison Ministry Capital of the World" by prison ministry community. It is a home for International Network of Prison Ministries, Coalition of Prison Evangelists, Bill Glass Champions for Life, for more than 30 years to Chaplain Ray's International Prison Ministry, and for more than 60 other prison ministries.
The Catholic Church is also a significant organization in the Dallas area and operates the University of Dallas, a liberal-arts university in the Dallas suburb of Irving. The Cathedral Santuario de Guadalupe in the Arts District is home to the second-largest Catholic church membership in the United States, and oversees over 70 parishes in the Dallas Diocese. The Society of Jesus operates the Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas. Dallas is also home to three Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. The city of Dallas and Dallas County have more Catholic than Protestant residents, while the converse is usually true for the suburban areas of Dallas.
Dallas' Jewish population of approximately 45,000 is the largest of any city in Texas. Since the establishment of the city's first Jewish cemetery in 1854 and its first congregation (which would eventually be known as Temple Emanu-El) in 1873, Dallas Jews have been well represented among leaders in commerce, politics, and various professional fields in Dallas and elsewhere. See History of the Jews in Dallas, Texas for more information.
The city is also home to a sizable Latter-day Saint community. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has twenty two stakes throughout Dallas and surrounding suburbs. The Church built the Dallas Texas Temple, the first temple in Texas, in the city in 1984.
Jehovah's Witnesses also have a large number of members throughout Dallas and surrounding suburbs.
There are several Unitarian Universalist congregations, including First Unitarian Church of Dallas, founded in 1903.
Furthermore, a large Muslim community exists in the north and northeastern portions of Dallas, as well as in the northern Dallas suburbs. The oldest mosque in Texas is located in Denton, about 40 miles (64 km) north of Downtown Dallas. The oldest mosque in Dallas is Masjid Al-Islam located just south of Downtown Dallas.
Dallas also has a large Buddhist community. Immigrants from Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Nepal, Tibet, Japan, China, Taiwan, and Sri Lanka have all contributed to the Buddhist population, which is concentrated in the northern suburbs of Garland, Plano and Richardson. Numerous Buddhist temples dot the Metroplex, including The Buddhist Center of Dallas, Lien Hoa Vietnamese Temple of Irving, and Kadampa Meditation Center Texas and Wat Buddhamahamunee of Arlington.
For the atheist, agnostic, nonbeliever and strictly spiritual individuals, there is "The Winter SolstiCelebration". After 15 years, this celebration has become a minor Dallas cultural tradition for the "spiritual but not religious" people of North Texas. "That gentle rejection of commonly held ideas fills many of those who will take part in the event. They are mostly people who refuse to be pigeonholed by any one religion – but who long for the sense of community that an organized faith supplies."
Dallas is known for its barbecue, authentic Mexican, and Tex-Mex cuisine. Famous products of the Dallas culinary scene include the frozen margarita. Fearing's restaurant at the Ritz-Carlton Dallas hotel in Uptown Dallas was named the best hotel restaurant in the US for 2009 by Zagat Survey. The Ritz-Carlton Dallas hotel was also named 2009 best US hotel by Zagat, and 2009 No. 2 hotel in the world by Zagat, trailing only the Four Seasons King George V in Paris, France. A number of nationally ranked steakhouses can be found in the Dallas area, including Bob's Steak & Chop House, currently ranked No. 1 according to the USDA Prime Steakhouses chart.
Arts and museums
The Arts District in the northern section of Downtown is home to several arts venues and is the largest continuous arts district in the United States. Notable venues in the district include the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center home to the Dallas Symphony Orchestra and Dallas Wind Symphony, The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, and the Nasher Sculpture Center. The Perot Museum of Nature and Science, also located downtown, is a natural history and science museum. Designed by 2005 Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate Thom Mayne and his firm Morphosis Architects, the 180,000 square feet facility has six floors and stands about 14 stories high.
Venues that are part of the AT&T Dallas Center for the Performing Arts include the Winspear Opera House home to the Dallas Opera and Texas Ballet Theater, the Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre home to the Dallas Theater Center and the Dallas Black Dance Theater, and City Performance Hall.
Also, not far north of downtown is the Meadows Museum at Southern Methodist University. In 2009 it joined up with "Prado on the Prairie" for a three-year partnership. The Prado focuses on Spanish visual art and has a collection of Spanish art in North America, with works by Picasso, Goya, Velasquez, El Greco, Murillo, Zurbaran, Ribera, Fortuny, Rico, de Juanes, Plensa and other Spaniards. These works, as well as non-Spanish highlights like sculptures by Rodin and Moore, have been so successful of a collaboration that the Prado and Meadows have agreed upon an extension of the partnership.
The former Texas School Book Depository, from which, according to the Warren Commission Report, Lee Harvey Oswald shot and killed President John F. Kennedy in 1963, has served since the 1980s as a county government office building, except for its sixth and seventh floors, which house The Sixth Floor Museum.
The American Museum of the Miniature Arts is located at the Hall of State in Fair Park.
The Arts District is also home to DISD's Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts, a magnet school which was recently expanded.
Deep Ellum, immediately east of Downtown, originally became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hot spot in the South. Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, Huddie "Lead Belly" Ledbetter and Bessie Smith played in original Deep Ellum clubs such as the Harlem and the Palace. Today, Deep Ellum is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues. A major art infusion in the area results from the city's lax stance on graffiti, and a number of public spaces including tunnels, sides of buildings, sidewalks, and streets are covered in murals. One major example, the Good-Latimer tunnel, was torn down in late 2006 to accommodate the construction of a light rail line through the site.
Like Deep Ellum before it, the Cedars neighborhood to the south of Downtown has also seen a growing population of studio artists and an expanding roster of entertainment venues. The area's art scene began to grow in the early 2000s with the opening of Southside on Lamar, an old Sears warehouse converted into lofts, studios and retail. Within this building, Southside on Lamar hosts the Janette Kennedy Gallery with rotating gallery exhibitions featuring many local, national, and international artists. Current attractions include Gilley's Dallas and Poor David's Pub. Dallas Mavericks owner and local entrepreneur Mark Cuban purchased land along Lamar Avenue near Cedars Station in September 2005, and locals speculate that he is planning an entertainment complex for the site.
South of the Trinity River, the Bishop Arts District in Oak Cliff is home to a number of studio artists living in converted warehouses. Walls of buildings along alleyways and streets are painted with murals and the surrounding streets contain many eclectic restaurants and shops.
Dallas has an Office of Cultural Affairs as a department of the city government. The office is responsible for six cultural centers located throughout the city, funding for local artists and theaters, initiating public art projects, and running the city-owned classical radio station WRR. The Los Angeles-class submarine USS Dallas (SSN-700) will become a museum ship located near the Trinity River after her decommissioning in September 2014. She will be taken apart into massive sections in Houston and be transported by trucks to the museum site and will be put back together.
The most notable event held in Dallas is the State Fair of Texas, which has been held annually at Fair Park since 1886. The fair is a massive event, bringing in an estimated $350 million to the city's economy annually. The Red River Shootout, which pits the University of Texas at Austin against The University of Oklahoma at the Cotton Bowl also brings significant crowds to the city. The city also hosts the State Fair Classic and Heart of Dallas Bowl at the Cotton Bowl.
Other well-known festivals in the area include several Cinco de Mayo celebrations hosted by the city's large Mexican American population, and Saint Patrick's Day parade along Lower Greenville Avenue, Juneteenth festivities, Taste of Dallas, the Deep Ellum Arts Festival, the Greek Food Festival of Dallas, the annual Halloween event "The Wake" featuring lots of local art and music, and two annual events on Halloween include; a Halloween parade on Cedar Springs Road and a "Zombie Walk" held in Downtown Dallas in the Arts District.
With the opening of Victory Park, WFAA Channel 8 has begun to host an annual New Year's Eve celebration in AT&T Plaza that the television station hopes will reminisce of celebrations in New York's Times Square, and on New Year's Eve 2011 set a new record of 32,000 people in attendance. Also, several Omni hotels in the Dallas area host large events to welcome in the new year including murder mystery parties, rave inspired events, and other events.
Places of interest
- Adolphus Hotel
- African American Museum (Dallas)
- American Airlines Center
- Arts District, Dallas
- AT&T Performing Arts Center
- Bishop Arts District
- Cedars, Dallas
- Cotton Bowl
- Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden
- Dallas Baptist University
- Dallas Hilton, world's first modern Hilton
- Dallas Holocaust Museum/Center for Education & Tolerance
- Dallas Municipal Building
- Dallas Museum of Art
- Dallas World Aquarium
- Dallas Zoo
- Dealey Plaza
- Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre
- Design District, Dallas
- Fair Park
- Farmers Market, Dallas
- Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
- Frontiers of Flight Museum
- Galleria Dallas
- George W. Bush Presidential Center
- Highland Park Village
- John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial
- Kalita Humphreys Theater, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
- Katy Trail (Dallas)
- Kirby Building
- Klyde Warren Park
- Majestic Theatre
- Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge
- Meadows Museum
- Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center
- Munger Place Historic District, Dallas
- Museum of Biblical Art (Dallas)
- The Nasher Sculpture Center
- Neiman Marcus Building
- NorthPark Center
- Pioneer Plaza
- Perot Museum of Nature and Science
- Reunion Tower
- Ronald Kirk Bridge
- Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza
- South Boulevard-Park Row Historic District
- Southern Methodist University
- Southfork Ranch as seen on Dallas (1978 TV series) and Dallas (2012 TV series)
- Swiss Avenue, Dallas historical district
- Texas School Book Depository
- Texas Theatre
- Thanks-Giving Square
- Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art
- Trinity River Audubon Center
- Victory Park
- White Rock Lake
Dallas maintains and operates 406 parks on 21,000 acres (85 km2) of parkland.
The city's parks contain 17 separate lakes, including White Rock and Bachman lakes, spanning a total of 4,400 acres (17.81 km2). In addition, Dallas is traversed by 61.6 miles (99.1 km) of biking and jogging trails, including the Katy Trail, and is home to 47 community and neighborhood recreation centers, 276 sports fields, 60 swimming pools, 232 playgrounds, 173 basketball courts, 112 volleyball courts, 126 play slabs, 258 neighborhood tennis courts, 258 picnic areas, six 18-hole golf courses, two driving ranges, and 477 athletic fields.
Dallas' flagship park is Fair Park. Built in 1936 for the Worlds Fair and the Texas Centennial Exposition, Fair Park is the world's largest collection of Art Deco exhibit buildings, art, and sculptures; Fair Park is also home to the State Fair of Texas, the largest state fair in the United States.
Klyde Warren Park
Klyde Warren Park is home to countless amenities including: an amphitheater, jogging trails, children's park, My Best Friend's Park (dog park), a putting green, croquet, ping pong, chess, an outdoor library, and two restaurants: Savor and Relish. Food trucks give hungry people another option of dining and are lined along the park's downtown side.
There are also weekly planned events including yoga, zumba, skyline tours, Tai Chi, and meditation.
Klyde Warren park is home to a free trolley stop on Olive St., which riders can connect to Downtown, McKinney Avenue, and West Village.
Turtle Creek Park
Built in 1913, Turtle Creek Park is a 23.7 acre linear park in-between Turtle Creek and Turtle Creek Boulevard in the aptly named Turtle Creek neighborhood.
Archaeological surveys discovered dart points and flint chips dating 3,000 years to 1,000 B.C. This site was later discovered to be home to Native Americans who cherished the trees and natural spring water. The park is across Turtle Creek from Kalita Humphreys Theater, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
Lake Cliff Park
Opened on July 4, 1906, Lake Cliff Park was called "the Southwest's Greatest Playground". The park was home to an amusement park, a large pool, waterslides, the world's largest skating rink, and three theaters, the largest being the 2,500-seat Casino Theater. After the streetcar bridge which brought most of the park visitors collapsed, Lake Cliff Park was sold. The Casino Theater moved and the pool was demolished after a polio scare in 1959. The pool was Dallas' first municipal pool.
In 1935, Dallas purchased 36 acres (15 ha) from John Cole's estate to develop Reverchon Park. Reverchon Park was named after botanist Julien Reverchon, who left France to live in the La Reunion colony in present-day West Dallas. Reverchon Park was planned to be the crown jewel of the Dallas park system and was even referred to as the "Central Park" of Dallas. Improvements were made throughout the years including the Iris Bowl, picnic settings, a baseball diamond, and tennis courts. The Iris Bowl celebrated many Greek pageants, dances, and other performances. The Gill Well was installed for nearby residents and drew people all across Texas who wanted to experience the water's healing powers. The baseball diamond was host to a 1953 exhibition game for the New York Giants and the Cleveland Indians.
Trinity River Project
As part of the ongoing Trinity River Project, the Great Trinity Forest, at 6,000 acres (24 km2), is the largest urban hardwood forest in the United States and is part of the largest urban park in the United States. The Trinity River Audubon Center is a new addition to the park. Opened in 2008, it serves as a gateway to many trails and other nature viewing activities in the area. The Trinity River Audubon Center is the first LEED-certified building constructed by the City of Dallas Parks and Recreation Department.
Named after its former railroad name, the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad (or "MKT" Railroad), the 3.5 mile stretch of railroad was purchased by the City of Dallas and transformed into the city's premier trail. Stretching from Victory Park, the 30-acre Katy Trail passes through the Turtle Creek and Knox Park neighborhoods and runs along the east side of Highland Park. The trail currently terminates at Central Expressway, however extensions are under way to extend the trail to the White Rock Lake Trail in Lakewood.
In 2015, the Katy Trail was awarded "Best Public Place" from the Urban Land Institute.
Dallas also hosts three of the twenty-one preserves of the extensive (3,200 acres (13 km2)) Dallas County Preserve System. Both the Joppa Preserve, the McCommas Bluff Preserve the Cedar Ridge Preserve are all within the Dallas city limits. The Cedar Ridge Preserve was formerly known as the Dallas Nature Center, but management was turned over to Audubon Dallas group, which now manages the 633-acre (2.56 km2) natural habitat park on behalf of the city of Dallas and Dallas County. The preserve sits at an elevation of 755 feet (230 m) above sea level, and contains a variety of outdoor activities, including 10 miles (16 km) of hiking trails and picnic areas.
The city is also home to Texas' first and largest zoo, the 95 acres (0.38 km2) Dallas Zoo, which opened at its current location in 1888.
Dallas has six Sister cities and five Friendship cities.
- Sister cities:
- Friendship cities:
- Sendai, Japan
- Tianjin, People's Republic of China
- Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China
- Dalian, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China
- Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China
DART train in Downtown.
In 2015, the DFW International Airport was the 10th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic.
Dallas Hall at Dedman College at Southern Methodist University in University Park, Texas
SB Hall with Braniff Tower in the background at the University of Dallas (actually located in Irving).
Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts in the Arts District
The Dallas Police headquarters in the Cedars neighborhood.
Dallas Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.