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Northfield
City
Northfield, Minnesota
Downtown Northfield, September 2010
Downtown Northfield, September 2010
Motto: "Striving For Excellence Committed To Service"
Location of the city of Northfieldwithin Rice and Dakota Countiesin the state of Minnesota
Location of the city of Northfield
within Rice and Dakota Counties
in the state of Minnesota
Country United States
State Minnesota
Counties Rice, Dakota
Founded 1855
Incorporated 1868
Area
 • Total 8.61 sq mi (22.30 km2)
 • Land 8.56 sq mi (22.17 km2)
 • Water 0.05 sq mi (0.13 km2)  0.58%
Elevation 912 ft (278 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 20,007
 • Estimate (2015) 20,380
 • Density 2,337.3/sq mi (902.4/km2)
Time zone Central (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) Central (UTC-5)
ZIP code 55057
Area code(s) 507
FIPS code 27-46924
GNIS feature ID 0648725
Website City of Northfield

Northfield is a city in Dakota and Rice counties in the State of Minnesota. The city is mostly in Rice County, with a small portion in Dakota County. The population was 20,007 during the 2010 census.

History

See also: Timeline of Northfield, Minnesota

Northfield was platted in 1855 by John W. North. Northfield was founded by immigrants from New England known as "Yankees" as part of a New England colonization of what was then the far west. Northfield was an early agricultural center with many wheat and corn farms. The town also supported lumber and flour mills powered by the Cannon River. As the "wheat frontier" moved west, dairy operations and diversified farms replaced the wheat-based agriculture. The region has since moved away from dairy and beef operations. Today it produces substantial crops of corn, and soybeans, as well as producing hogs. The local cereal producer Malt-O-Meal is one of the few remnants of Northfield's historic wheat boom. The city's motto, "Cows, Colleges, and Contentment", reflects the influence of the dairy farms.

Since early in its history, Northfield has been a center of higher education. Carleton College (then Northfield College) was founded in 1866 on the northern edge of town by the Minnesota Conference of Congregational Churches whose Congregation consisted of the "Yankee" settlers who had largely founded the town. These were people descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s. St. Olaf College was founded in 1874 on the western edge of town by Norwegian Lutheran immigrant pastors and farmers, who were eager to preserve their faith and culture by training teachers and preachers. These two institutions, which today enroll a total of more than 5,000 students, make Northfield a college town.

In the 1970s, completion of Interstate Highway 35 six miles west of Northfield enabled the expansion of the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metro area south of the Minnesota River. The downtown grain elevator accepted its last load of corn in 2000 and was torn down in 2002. Residential growth has been rapid since the mid-1990s A new area hospital, which opened in 2003 in the northwest corner of town, is in Dakota County.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.61 square miles (22.30 km2); 8.56 square miles (22.17 km2) is land and 0.05 square miles (0.13 km2) is water. The peak elevation is about 912 feet.

Roughly speaking, the town is centered around the Cannon River and rises both to the east and the west away from this bisecting river body.

Interstate 35 is six miles (10 km) west of Northfield. Minnesota State Highways 3, 19, and 246 are three of the main routes in Northfield.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 2,296
1890 2,659 15.8%
1900 3,210 20.7%
1910 3,265 1.7%
1920 4,023 23.2%
1930 4,153 3.2%
1940 4,533 9.2%
1950 7,487 65.2%
1960 8,707 16.3%
1970 10,235 17.5%
1980 12,562 22.7%
1990 14,684 16.9%
2000 17,147 16.8%
2010 20,007 16.7%
Est. 2015 20,380 1.9%
U.S. Decennial Census
2015 Estimate

2010 census

As of the census of 2010, there were 20,007 people, 6,272 households, and 3,946 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,337.3 inhabitants per square mile (902.4/km2). There were 6,832 housing units at an average density of 798.1 per square mile (308.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 88.8% White, 1.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 3.5% Asian, 4.0% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.4% of the population.

There were 6,272 households of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 37.1% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.04.

The median age in the city was 26.4 years. 19.8% of residents were under the age of 18; 29% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 19.1% were from 25 to 44; 20.1% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.4% male and 52.6% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 17,147 people, 4,909 households, and 3,210 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,452.2 people per square mile (947.1/km²). There were 5,119 housing units at an average density of 732.1 per square mile (282.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 92.57% White, 0.90% African American, 0.34% Native American, 2.36% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.78% from other races, and 1.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.73% of the population.

There were 4,909 households out of which 35.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.08.

In the city, the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 32.1% from 18 to 24 (a figure heavily influenced by the student population of St. Olaf and Carleton College), 21.0% from 25 to 44, 16.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $49,972, and the median income for a family was $61,055. Males had a median income of $40,008 versus $28,456 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,619. About 2.8% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.

Arts and culture

Defeat of Jesse James Days

Northfield First National
The First National Bank building in Northfield, site of the attempted robbery.

On September 7, 1876, Northfield experienced one of its most important historical events, when The James-Younger Gang attempted a robbery on the First National Bank of Northfield. Local citizens, recognizing what was happening, armed themselves and resisted the robbers and successfully thwarted the theft. The gang killed the bank's cashier, Joseph Lee Heywood and a Swedish immigrant, Nicholas Gustafson. A couple of members of the gang were killed in the street, while Cole, Bob and Jim Younger were cornered near Madelia, Minnesota. Jesse and Frank James escaped west into the Dakotas, while the remaining gang members were killed or taken into custody. Considering the James gang as related to postwar insurgency, the raid has sometimes been called the last major event of the American Civil War. One of Northfield's slogans is "Jesse James Slipped Here", based on the raid's failure.

The events have become the basis of an annual outdoor heritage festival called The Defeat of Jesse James Days. It is held the weekend after Labor Day and is among the largest outdoor celebrations in Minnesota. Thousands of visitors witness reenactments of the robbery, which is staged on Division street, outside of the First National Bank of Northfield. Other activities during the festival include: a championship rodeo, carnival, car show, and parade, as well as arts and crafts expositions, and musical performances. Many food stations are set up in Bridge Square, and during the evenings live music is played in a "beer tent" on Water Street. A horseshoe hunt takes place the week prior to the celebration; an antique horseshoe is hidden somewhere within the city on public grounds and the finder claims that year's cash purse.

In popular media

  • Films based on the failed raid include The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid (1972) and The Long Riders (1980).

Park and recreation

Bridge-No-8096
Bridge No. 8096 over Spring Creek, which runs through the Carleton College Cowling Arboretum.

The city owns 35 parks consisting of over 400 acres (1.6 km2) of land. Three of these parks have picnic shelters.

The Carleton College Cowling Arboretum is a sizable, well-established arboretum and nature preserve adjacent to Carleton College. It offers extensive trails for walking in the summer and cross-country skiing in the winter.

The Mill Towns State Trail was built in 1998 as a joint effort of the cities of Northfield and Dundas.

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