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Saint Paul, Minnesota
City of Saint Paul
Nearer to the camera, a park area with trees and grass. Behind that is a river which crosses the image. Across the river is a medium-sized downtown with mid- and high-rise building primarily gray and beige in color. The sky is clear with some cloud cover.
A reddish-brown three-story stone mansion with several high chimneys, photographed from a low angle.
The wide, convex facade of a glassy sports arena and the sidewalk, lawn, and lampposts in front of it. The words "Xcel Energy Center" sit in red atop the stadium.
A one-story glass conservatory lit up yellow from the inside on a bluish night.
A towering gray stone cathedral with a round copper roof stands above autumn trees.
A wide white stone building photographed head-on at night. It rises in the center to a hemispherical central rotunda.
Clockwise from the top: Downtown Saint Paul as seen from Harriet Island, the Xcel Energy Center, the Saint Paul Cathedral, the Minnesota State Capitol, the Marjorie McNeely Conservatory, and the historic James J. Hill House
Flag of Saint Paul, Minnesota
Official seal of Saint Paul, Minnesota
"the Capital City", "the Saintly City", "Twin Cities" (with Minneapolis), "Pig's Eye", "STP", "Last City of the East"
The most livable city in America
Country  United States
State  Minnesota
County Ramsey
Incorporated March 4, 1854
Named for St. Paul the Apostle
 • City 56.20 sq mi (145.55 km2)
 • Land 51.98 sq mi (134.62 km2)
 • Water 4.22 sq mi (10.93 km2)
795 ft (214 m)
 • City 311,527
 • Estimate 
 • Rank City: 63rd MN: 2nd
 • Density 5,993.20/sq mi (2,313.99/km2)
 • Metro
3,629,190 (US: 16th)
 • Demonym
Saint Paulite
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
55101–55108, 55114, 55116, 55117, 55119, 55130
Area code(s) 651
FIPS code 27-58000
Major airport Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport
Interstates I-94 (MN).svg I-35E (MN).svg
U.S. Routes US 52.svg US 12.svg US 61.svg US 10.svg
Public transportation Metro Transit
* Current as of July 30, 2008.

Saint Paul (abbreviated St. Paul) is the capital of the U.S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of Ramsey County. Situated on a series of limestone bluffs overlooking a bend in the Mississippi River, Saint Paul is the center of Minnesota's government. The Minnesota State Capitol and the state government offices all sit on a hill close to the city's downtown district. One of the oldest cities in Minnesota, Saint Paul has several historic neighborhoods and landmarks, such as the Summit Avenue Neighborhood, the James J. Hill House, and the Cathedral of Saint Paul. Like the nearby and larger city of Minneapolis, Saint Paul is known for its cold, snowy winters and humid summers.

As of 2020, its population was 311,527, making it the 63rd-largest city in the United States and the second-most populous in Minnesota. Most of the city lies east of the Mississippi River near its the confluence with the Minnesota River. Minneapolis is mostly across the Mississippi River to the west. Together, they are known as the "Twin Cities" and make up the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area, the third most populous metro in the Midwest.

The Legislative Assembly of the Minnesota Territory established the Town of St. Paul as its capital near existing Dakota Sioux settlements in November 1849. It was incorporated as a city in 1854. The Dakota name for where Saint Paul is situated is "Imnizaska" for the "white rock" bluffs along the river. The city has two sports stadiums: Xcel Energy Center, home to the Minnesota Wild, and Allianz Field, home to the Minnesota United.

Saint Paul is the hometown of writer F. Scott Fitzgerald, hockey coach Herb Brooks, former Supreme Court Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, and former Governor of Minnesota Tim Pawlenty.


Indian Mounds park
A burial mound at Indian Mounds Park

Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was originally inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe. They called the area I-mni-za ska dan ("little white rock") for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.

Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, a U.S. Army officer named Zebulon Pike negotiated approximately 100,000 acres (40,000 ha; 160 sq mi) of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 in order to establish a fort. The negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations. The 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U.S. Government. Taoyateduta (Chief Little Crow V) moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders, explorers, and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians who lived nearby. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands. Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who particularly irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called the area Pig's Eye (French: L'Œil du Cochon) or Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern.

Joseph Rolette c1841
Joe Rolette was responsible for preventing the capital of Minnesota from moving to Saint Peter.

In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French-Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school. The Minnesota Territory was formalized in 1849 and Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move. On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital.

That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason that the city became a landing. The area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway.

On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million ($57.98 million present-day) in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown. The city also contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a fully built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities. The annual Rondo Days celebration commemorates the African American community.

Downtown had short skyscraper-building booms beginning in the 1970s. The tallest buildings, such as Galtier Plaza (Jackson and Sibley Towers), The Pointe of Saint Paul condominiums, and the city's tallest building, Wells Fargo Place (formerly Minnesota World Trade Center), were constructed in the late 1980s. In the 1990s and 2000s, the tradition of bringing new immigrant groups to the city continued. As of 2004, nearly 10% of the city's population were recent Hmong immigrants from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar. Saint Paul is the location of the Hmong Archives.


Meeker Island Lock and Dam
The Meeker Island Lock and Dam was the first lock and dam on the Mississippi River in 1902.

Saint Paul's history and growth as a landing port are tied to water. The city's defining physical characteristic, the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers, was carved into the region during the last ice age, as were the steep river bluffs and dramatic palisades on which the city is built. Receding glaciers and Lake Agassiz forced torrents of water from a glacial river that undercut the river valleys. The city is situated in east-central Minnesota.

The Mississippi River forms a municipal boundary on part of the city's west, southwest, and southeast sides. Minneapolis, the state's largest city, lies to the west. Falcon Heights, Lauderdale, Roseville, and Maplewood are north, with Maplewood lying to the east. The cities of West Saint Paul and South Saint Paul are to the south, as are Lilydale, Mendota, and Mendota Heights, although across the river from the city. The city's largest lakes are Pig's Eye Lake, which is part of the Mississippi, Lake Phalen, and Lake Como. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 56.18 square miles (145.51 km2), of which 51.98 square miles (134.63 km2) is land and 4.20 square miles (10.88 km2) is water.


Saint Paul's Department of Planning and Economic Development divides Saint Paul into seventeen Planning Districts, created in 1979 to allow neighborhoods to participate in governance and utilize Community Development Block Grants. With a funding agreement directly from the city, the councils share a pool of funds. The councils have significant land-use control, a voice in guiding development, and they organize residents. The boundaries are adjusted depending on population changes; as such, they sometimes overlap established neighborhoods. Though these neighborhoods changed overtime, many of their historically significant structures have been saved by preservationists.

The city's seventeen Planning Districts are:

  1. Sunray-Battle Creek-Highwood
  2. Greater East Side
  3. West Side
  4. Dayton's Bluff
  5. Payne-Phalen
  6. North End
  7. Thomas Dale (Frogtown)
  8. Summit-University
  9. West End
  10. Como Park
  11. Hamline-Midway
  12. Saint Anthony Park
  13. Union Park
  14. Macalester-Groveland
  15. Highland Park
  16. Summit Hill
  17. Downtown


Saint paul mn
The city skyline from the southwest in the winter

Saint Paul has a continental climate typical of the Upper Midwestern United States. Winters are frigid and snowy, while summers are hot and humid. On the Köppen climate classification, Saint Paul falls in the hot summer humid continental climate zone (Dfa). The city experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events, including snow, sleet, ice, rain, thunderstorms, tornadoes, and fog.

Due to its northerly location in the United States and lack of large bodies of water to moderate the air, Saint Paul is sometimes subjected to cold Arctic air masses, especially during late December, January, and February. The average annual temperature of 47.05 °F (8.36 °C) gives the Minneapolis−Saint Paul metropolitan area the coldest annual mean temperature of any major metropolitan area in the continental U.S.

Climate data for Saint Paul, Minnesota
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 57
Average high °F (°C) 26
Daily mean °F (°C) 16.5
Average low °F (°C) 7
Record low °F (°C) −29
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.79
Source 1: U.S. climate data
Source 2: The Weather Channel


Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 1,112
1860 10,401 835.3%
1870 20,030 92.6%
1880 41,473 107.1%
1890 133,156 221.1%
1900 163,065 22.5%
1910 214,744 31.7%
1920 234,698 9.3%
1930 271,606 15.7%
1940 287,736 5.9%
1950 311,349 8.2%
1960 313,411 0.7%
1970 309,980 −1.1%
1980 270,230 −12.8%
1990 272,235 0.7%
2000 287,151 5.5%
2010 285,068 −0.7%
2020 311,527 9.3%
U.S. Decennial Census
Demographic profile 2020 2010 2000 1990 1970
White (non-Hispanic) 48.8% 55.9% 64.0% 80.4% 93.6%
Asian (non-Hispanic) 19.2% 14.9% 12.4% 7.1% 0.2%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 16.5% 15.3% 11.7% 7.4% 3.5%
Hispanic or Latino 9.7% 9.6% 7.9% 4.2% 2.1%
Race and ethnicity 2010- Minneapolis (5560453662)
Map of racial distribution in Minneapolis-St. Paul, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic (of any race), or Other (yellow)

The earliest known inhabitants from about 400 A.D. were members of the Hopewell tradition who buried their dead in mounds (now Indian Mounds Park) on the river bluffs. The next known inhabitants were the Mdewakanton Dakota in the 17th century who fled their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake in central Minnesota in response to westward expansion of the Ojibwe nation. The Ojibwe later occupied the north (east) bank of the Mississippi River.

By 1800, French-Canadian explorers came through the region and attracted fur traders to the area. Fort Snelling and Pig's Eye Tavern also brought the first Yankees from New England and English, Irish, and Scottish immigrants who had enlisted in the army and settled nearby after discharge. These early settlers and entrepreneurs built houses on the heights north of the river. The first wave of immigration came with the Irish, who settled at Connemara Patch along the Mississippi, named for their home, Connemara, Ireland. The Irish became prolific in politics, city governance, and public safety, much to the chagrin of the Germans and French who had grown into the majority. In 1850, the first of many groups of Swedish immigrants passed through Saint Paul on their way to farming communities in northern and western regions of the territory. A large group settled in Swede Hollow, which later became home to Poles, Italians, and Mexicans. The last Swedish presence moved up Saint Paul's East Side along Payne Avenue in the 1950s.

Of people who specified European ancestry in the 2005–07 American Community Survey of St. Paul, 26.4% were German, 13.8% Irish, 8.4% Norwegian, 7.0% Swedish, and 6.2% English. There is also a visible community of people of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, representing 4.2% of the population. By the 1980s, the Thomas-Dale area, once an Austro-Hungarian enclave known as Frogtown (German: Froschburg), became home to Vietnamese people who had left their war-torn country. A settlement program for the Hmong diaspora came soon after, and by 2000, the Saint Paul Hmong were the largest urban contingent in the United States. Mexican immigrants have settled in Saint Paul's West Side since the 1930s, and have grown enough that Mexico opened a foreign consulate in 2005.

The majority of residents claiming religious affiliation are Christian, split between the Roman Catholic Church and various Protestant denominations. The Roman Catholic presence comes from Irish, German, Scottish, and French Canadian settlers, who in time were bolstered by Hispanic immigrants. There are Jewish synagogues such as Mount Zion Temple and relatively small populations of Hindus, Muslims, and Buddhists. The city has been dubbed "paganistan" due to its large Wiccan population.

As of the 2005–07 American Community Survey, White Americans made up 66.5% of Saint Paul's population, of whom 62.1% were non-Hispanic whites, down from 93.6% in 1970. Blacks or African Americans made up 13.9% of the population, of whom 13.5% were non-Hispanic Blacks. American Indians made up 0.8%, of whom 0.6% were non-Hispanic. Asian Americans made up 12.3%, of whom 12.2% were non-Hispanic. Pacific Islander Americans made up less than 0.1%. People of other races made up 3.4%, of whom 0.2% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 3.1%, of whom 2.6% were non-Hispanic. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 8.7%.

As of the 2000 U.S. Census, there were 287,151 people, 112,109 households, and 60,999 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 67.0% White, 11.7% African American, 1.1% Native American, 12.4% Asian (mostly Hmong), 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.8% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 7.9% of the population.

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, there were 285,068 people, 111,001 households, and 59,689 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,484.2 inhabitants per square mile (2,117.5/km2). There were 120,795 housing units at an average density of 2,323.9 per square mile (897.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 60.1% white, 15.7% African American, 1.1% Native American, 15.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from other races, and 4.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 9.6% of the population.

There were 111,001 households, of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.1% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.2% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.33.

The median age in the city was 30.9 years. 25.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 13.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 29.6% were from 25 to 44; 22.6% were from 45 to 64; and 9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.9% male and 51.1% female.


Como Park Zoo and Conservatory is a free public greenhouse and urban zoo open year-round.

In winter months, Saint Paul hosts the Saint Paul Winter Carnival, a tradition that originated in 1886 when a New York reporter called Saint Paul "another Siberia." Attended by 350,000 visitors annually, the event showcases ice sculpting, an annual treasure hunt, winter food, activities, and an ice palace. The Como Zoo and Conservatory and adjoining Japanese Garden are popular year-round. The historic Landmark Center in downtown Saint Paul hosts cultural and arts organizations. The city's notable recreation locations include Indian Mounds Park, Battle Creek Regional Park, Harriet Island Regional Park, Highland Park, the Wabasha Street Caves, Lake Como, Lake Phalen, and Rice Park, as well as several areas abutting the Mississippi River. The Irish Fair of Minnesota is also held annually at the Harriet Island Pavilion area. And the country's largest Hmong American sports festival, the Freedom Festival, is held the first weekend of July at McMurray Field near Como Park.

The city is associated with the Minnesota State Fair in nearby Falcon Heights just west of Saint Paul's Como Park neighborhood and southeast of the University of Minnesota Saint Paul Campus. Though Fort Snelling is on the Minneapolis side of the Mississippi River bluff, the area including Fort Snelling State Park and Pike Island is managed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources headquartered in the city.

Minnesota Centennial Showboat at night, October 2013
The Minnesota Centennial Showboat is permanently anchored in the Mississippi River along Harriet Island.

Saint Paul is the birthplace of cartoonist Charles M. Schulz (Peanuts), who lived in Merriam Park from infancy until 1960. Schulz's Snoopy cartoon inspired giant, decorated Peanuts sculptures around the city, a Chamber of Commerce promotion in the late 1990s. Other notable residents include writer F. Scott Fitzgerald, playwright August Wilson, who premiered many of the ten plays in his Pittsburgh Cycle at the local Penumbra Theater, painter LeRoy Neiman, and photographer John Vachon.

The Ordway Center for the Performing Arts hosts theater productions and the Minnesota Opera is a founding tenant. RiverCentre, attached to Xcel Energy Center, serves as the city's convention center. The city has contributed to the music of Minnesota and the Twin Cities music scene through various venues. Great jazz musicians have passed through the influential Artists' Quarter, first established in the 1970s in Whittier, Minneapolis, and moved to downtown Saint Paul in 1994. Artists' Quarter also hosts the Soapboxing Poetry Slam, home of the 2009 National Poetry Slam Champions. At The Black Dog, in Lowertown, many French or European jazz musicians (Evan Parker, Tony Hymas, Benoît Delbecq, François Corneloup...) have met Twin Cities musicians and started new groups touring in Europe. Groups and performers such as Fantastic Merlins, Dean Magraw/Davu Seru, Merciless Ghosts, and Willie Murphy are regulars. The Turf Club in Midway has been a music scene landmark since the 1940s. Saint Paul is also the home base of the internationally acclaimed Rose Ensemble. As an Irish stronghold, the city boasts popular Irish pubs with live music, such as Shamrocks, The Dubliner, and O'Gara's. The internationally acclaimed Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra is the nation's only full-time professional chamber orchestra. The Minnesota Centennial Showboat on the Mississippi River began in 1958 with Minnesota's first centennial celebration.

Saint Paul hosts a number of museums, including the University of Minnesota's Goldstein Museum of Design, the Minnesota Children's Museum, the Schubert Club Museum of Musical Instruments, the Minnesota Museum of American Art, the Traces Center for History and Culture, the Minnesota History Center, the Alexander Ramsey House, the James J. Hill House, the Minnesota Transportation Museum, the Science Museum of Minnesota, and The Twin City Model Railroad Museum.


Interstate and roadways

Saint Paul-2005-10-27
I-94 as it enters downtown Saint Paul from the west

Residents use Interstate 35E running north–south and Interstate 94 running east–west. Trunk highways include U.S. Highway 52, Minnesota State Highway 280, and Minnesota State Highway 5. St. Paul has several unique roads such as Ayd Mill Road, Phalen Boulevard and Shepard Road/Warner Road, which diagonally follow particular geographic features in the city. Biking is also gaining popularity, due to the creation of more paved bike lanes that connect to other bike routes throughout the metropolitan area and the creation of Nice Ride Minnesota, a seasonally operated nonprofit bicycle sharing and rental system that has over 1,550 bicycles and 170 stations in both Minneapolis and St. Paul. Downtown St. Paul has a five-mile (8 km) enclosed skyway system over 25 city blocks. The 563-mile (906 km) Avenue of the Saints connects St. Paul with St. Louis, Missouri.

The layout of city streets and roads has often drawn complaints. While he was Governor of Minnesota, Jesse Ventura appeared on the Late Show with David Letterman, and remarked that the streets were designed by "drunken Irishmen". He later apologized, though people had been complaining about the fractured grid system for more than a century by that point. Some of the city's road design is the result of the curve of the Mississippi River, hilly topography, conflicts between developers of different neighborhoods in the early city, and grand plans only half-realized. Outside of downtown, the roads are less confusing, but most roads are named, rather than numbered, increasing the difficulty for non-natives to navigate.

Mass transit

Metro Transit provides bus service and light rail in the Minneapolis–St. Paul area. The METRO Green Line is an 11-mile (18 km) light rail line that connects downtown St. Paul to downtown Minneapolis with 14 stations in St. Paul. The Green Line runs west along University Avenue, through the University of Minnesota campus, until it links up and then shares stations with the METRO Blue Line in downtown Minneapolis. Construction began in November 2010 and the line began service on June 14, 2014. The Green Line averaged 42,500 rides per weekday in 2018. Planning is underway for the Riverview Corridor, a rail line that will connect downtown Saint Paul to the airport and Mall of America.

The METRO A Line opened in 2016 as Minneapolis–Saint Paul's first arterial bus rapid transit line. The A Line connects the Blue Line at 46th Street station to Rosedale Center with a connection at the Green Line Snelling Avenue station. Future METRO lines are planned that will serve Saint Paul with the B Line and E Line Line running primarily on arterial streets, and the Gold Line and Purple Line running primarily in their own right of way.


Amtrak's Empire Builder between Chicago and Seattle stops twice daily in each direction at the newly renovated Saint Paul Union Depot. Ridership on the train increased about 6% from 2005 to over 505,000 in fiscal year 2007. A Minnesota Department of Transportation study found that increased daily service to Chicago should be economically viable, especially if it originates in St. Paul and does not experience delays from the rest of the western route of the Empire Builder. Saint Paul is the site of the Pig's Eye Yard, a major freight classification yard for Canadian Pacific Railway. As of 2003, the yard handled over 1,000 freight cars per day. Both Union Pacific and Burlington Northern Santa Fe run trains through the yard, though they are not classified at Pig's Eye. Burlington Northern Santa Fe operates the large Northtown Yard in Minneapolis, which handles about 600 cars per day. There are several other small yards located around the city.

Saint Paul Downtown Airport (Holman Field)


Holman Airfield is across the river from downtown St. Paul. Lamprey Lake was there until the Army Corps of Engineers filled it with dredgings starting in the early 1920s. Northwest Airlines began initial operations from Holman in 1926. During WWII Northwest had a contract to install upgraded radar systems in B-24s, employing 5,000 at the airfield. After WWII, Holman Airfield competed with the Speedway Field for the Twin Cities' growing aviation industry and lost out in the end. Today Holman is a reliever airport run by the Metropolitan Airports Commission. It is home to Minnesota's Air National Guard and a flight training school and is tailored to local corporate aviation. There are three runways, with the Holman Field Administration Building and Riverside Hangar on the National Register of Historic Places. The historical importance of the original Northwest Airlines building was realized only after demolition commenced.

For the most part St. Paul's aviation needs are served by the Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP), which sits on 2,930 acres (11.9 km2) in the Fort Snelling Unorganized Territory bordering the city to the southwest. MSP serves 17 commercial passenger airlines and is the hub of Delta Air Lines, Mesaba Airlines and Sun Country Airlines.

Sister cities


MN Ford plant
The Ford Motor Company's Twin Cities Assembly Plant in 2006

The Minneapolis–Saint Paul–Bloomington area employs 1,570,700 people in the private sector as of July 2008, 82.43% of whom work in private service providing-related jobs.

Major corporations headquartered in Saint Paul include Ecolab, a chemical and cleaning product company that the Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal named in 2008 as the eighth-best place to work in the Twin Cites for companies with 1,000 full-time Minnesota employees, and Securian Financial Group Inc.

The 3M Company moved to St. Paul in 1910. It built a art deco headquarters at 900 Bush that still stands. Headquarters operations moved to the Maplewood campus in 1964. 3M manufacturing continued for a couple more decades until all St. Paul operations ceased.

The city was home to the Ford Motor Company's Twin Cities Assembly Plant, which opened in 1924 and closed at the end of 2011. The plant was in Highland Park on the Mississippi River, adjacent to Lock and Dam No. 1, Mississippi River, which generates hydroelectric power. The site is now being cleared of buildings and tested for contamination to prepare for redevelopment. The lead developer, the Ryan Company, has released a proposed set of zoning changes that will shape how the land will be used.

Saint Paul has financed city development with tax increment financing (TIF). In 2018, it had 55 TIF districts. Projects that have benefited from TIF funding include the St. Paul Saints stadium, and the affordable housing along the Twin Cities Metro Green Line.


2006 WCHA Final Five
The Xcel Energy Center hosts hockey and other professional sports in addition to concerts and other events.

The Saint Paul division of Parks and Recreation runs over 1,500 organized sports teams.

Saint Paul hosts a number of professional, semi-professional, and amateur sports teams. The Minnesota Wild play their home games in downtown Saint Paul's Xcel Energy Center, which opened in 2000. The Wild brought the NHL back to Minnesota for the first time since 1993, when the Minnesota North Stars left the state for Dallas, Texas. (The World Hockey Association's Minnesota Fighting Saints played in Saint Paul from 1972 to 1977.) Citing the history of hockey in the Twin Cities and teams at all levels, Sports Illustrated called Saint Paul the new Hockeytown U.S.A. in 2007.

The Xcel Energy Center, a multipurpose entertainment and sports venue, can host concerts and accommodate nearly all sporting events. It occupies the site of the demolished Saint Paul Civic Center. The Xcel Energy Center hosts the Minnesota high school boys hockey tournament, the Minnesota high school girls' volleyball tournament, and concerts throughout the year. In 2004, it was named the best overall sports venue in the US by ESPN.

CJ silks August
Two Circus Juventas students on silks

The St. Paul Saints are the city's Minor League Baseball team, which plays in the Triple-A East as an affiliate of the Minnesota Twins. There have been several different teams called the Saints over the years. Founded in 1884, they were shut down in 1961 after the Minnesota Twins moved to Bloomington. The Saints were brought back in 1993 as an independent baseball team in the Northern League, moving to the American Association in 2006. They joined affiliated baseball in 2021. Their home games are played at the open-air CHS Field in downtown's Lowertown Historic District. Four noted Major League All-Star baseball players are natives of Saint Paul: Hall of Fame outfielder Dave Winfield, Hall of Fame infielder Paul Molitor, Hall of Fame pitcher Jack Morris, and first baseman Joe Mauer. The all-black St. Paul Colored Gophers played four seasons in Saint Paul from 1907 to 1911.

The St. Paul Twin Stars of the National Premier Soccer League play their home games at Macalester Stadium. St. Paul's first curling club was founded in 1888. The current club, the St. Paul Curling Club, was founded in 1912 and is the largest curling club in the United States. The Minnesota RollerGirls are a flat-track roller derby league based in the Roy Wilkins Auditorium. Minnesota's oldest athletic organization, the Minnesota Boat Club, resides in the Mississippi River on Raspberry Island. Saint Paul is also home to Circus Juventas, the largest circus arts school in North America.

On March 25, 2015, Major League Soccer announced that it had awarded its 23rd MLS franchise to Minnesota United FC, a team from the lower-level North American Soccer League. Bill McGuire and his ownership group, which includes Jim Pohlad of the Minnesota Twins, Glen Taylor of the Minnesota Timberwolves, former Minnesota Wild investor Glen Nelson, and his daughter Wendy Carlson Nelson of the Carlson hospitality company, had intended to build a privately financed soccer-specific stadium in Downtown Minneapolis near the Minneapolis Farmer's Market. But their plan was met with heavy opposition from former Minneapolis Mayor Betsy Hodges, who said her city was suffering from "stadium fatigue" after building three stadiums for the Minnesota Twins, Minnesota Vikings and the Minnesota Golden Gophers, within a six-year span. On July 1, 2015, after failing to reach an agreement with the city of Minneapolis, McGuire and his partners turned their focus to Saint Paul.

On October 23, 2015, Bill McGuire of Minnesota United FC and former Saint Paul Mayor Chris Coleman announced that a privately financed soccer-specific stadium would be built on the vacant Metro Transit bus barn site in Saint Paul's Midway neighborhood near the intersection of Snelling Avenue and University Avenue. It is midway between downtown Saint Paul and downtown Minneapolis. The stadium, Allianz Field, opened in April 2019 and seats 19,400. The team began playing in the MLS in 2017.

On May 15, 2018, the Minnesota Whitecaps joined the Premier Hockey Federation (the former National Women's Hockey League) as its fifth franchise. Founded in 2004, the team originally played in the Western Women's Hockey League before going independent in 2010 when that league folded. The Whitecaps play their home games at TRIA Rink, a 1,200-seat arena and practice facility in downtown Saint Paul. The team began playing in the PHF in 2018.

The Timberwolves, Twins, Vikings, and Lynx all play in Minneapolis.

Professional sports in Saint Paul
Club Sport League Venue (capacity) Championships
Minnesota Wild Ice hockey National Hockey League Xcel Energy Center (17,954)
Minnesota Whitecaps Ice hockey Premier Hockey Federation TRIA Rink (1,200) Clarkson Cup: 2010

Isobel Cup: 2019

Minnesota United FC Soccer Major League Soccer Allianz Field (19,400) NASL: 2011 and 2014
Minnesota Wind Chill Ultimate American Ultimate Disc League Sea Foam Stadium (3,500)
St. Paul Saints Baseball International League CHS Field (7,210) NL: 1993, 1995, 1996, and 2004

AA: 2019


1930s-era students at Hamline University taking finals

Saint Paul is second in the United States in the number of higher education institutions per capita, behind Boston. Higher education institutions that call Saint Paul home include three public and eight private colleges and universities and five post-secondary institutions. Well-known colleges and universities include the Saint Catherine University, Concordia University, Hamline University, Macalester College, and the University of St. Thomas. Metropolitan State University and Saint Paul College, which focus on non-traditional students, are based in Saint Paul, as well as a law school, Mitchell Hamline School of Law.

The Saint Paul Public Schools district is the state's largest school district and serves approximately 39,000 students. The district is extremely diverse with students from families speaking 90 different languages, although only five languages are used for most school communication: English, Spanish, Hmong, Karen, and Somali. The district runs 82 different schools, including 52 elementary schools, 12 middle schools, seven high schools, ten alternative schools, and one special education school, employing over 6,500 teachers and staff. The school district also oversees community education programs for pre-K and adult learners, including Early Childhood Family Education, GED Diploma, language programs, and various learning opportunities for community members of all ages. In 2006, Saint Paul Public Schools celebrated its 150th anniversary. Some students attend public schools in other school districts chosen by their families under Minnesota's open enrollment statute.

A variety of K-12 private, parochial, and public charter schools are also represented in the city. In 1992, Saint Paul became the first city in the US to sponsor and open a charter school, now found in most states across the nation. Saint Paul is currently home to 21 charter schools as well as 38 private schools. The Saint Paul Public Library system includes a central library, twelve branch locations, and a bookmobile.

Notable people

  • Walter Abel (1898–1987), actor
  • Claude Henry Allen (1899-1974), Minnesota state legislator and lawyer
  • Loni Anderson (born 1946), actress
  • Louie Anderson (1953–2022), comedian
  • Wendell Anderson (1933–2016), U.S. Senator
  • Richard Arlen (1899–1976), actor
  • Merrill Ashley (born 1950), ballet dancer and répétiteur
  • Roger Awsumb (1928–2002), TV show host "Casey Jones"
  • Azayamankawin (c. 1803–c. 1873), canoe ferry operator and entrepreneur known as "Old Bets"
  • Tony L. Bennett (born 1940), Minnesota state legislator and police officer
  • Harry Blackmun (1908–1999), US Supreme Court Associate Justice, grew up in St. Paul
  • Winfield S. Braddock (1848–1920), Wisconsin State Assemblyman
  • Herb Brooks (1937–2003), hockey coach
  • Warren E. Burger (1907–1995), US Supreme Court Chief Justice
  • Margaret Mary Byrne (born 1949), Minnesota state legislator
  • John T. Clawson (1945-2011), Minnesota state legislator and Lutheran minister
  • Melva Clemaire (1874–1937), soprano singer
  • Neil Dieterich (born 1943), state legislator and lawyer
  • John Drew (1940-1997), Minnesota state legislator and businessman
  • Kevin Eakin (born 1981), NFL football player
  • Sarah K. England, physiologist and biophysicist
  • Eyedea (1981–2010), rap artist
  • Ray W. Faricy (borm 1934), Minnesota state legislator and lawyer
  • Robert J. Ferderer (1934-2009), politician and businessman
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896–1940), author
  • Michael J. George (1948-2010) state legislator and businessman
  • Rollin Glewwe (1933–2020), state senator and businessman
  • Charles Robert Hansen (1909-2000), state senator and businessman
  • Josh Hartnett (born 1978), actor
  • Andrew Osborne Hayfield (1905-1981), businessman and state legislator
  • Mitch Hedberg (1968–2005), comedian
  • Hippo Campus, indie rock band
  • Paul Holmgren (born 1955), NHL hockey player, general manager, president of Philadelphia Flyers (2014–present)
  • Timothy M. Kaine (born 1958), United States Senator from Virginia, former governor of Virginia
  • Rachel Keller (born 1992), actress
  • Allan Kingdom (born 1993), rap artist
  • Dick Kostohryz (1930-1994), police officer, businessman, and Minnesota state legislator
  • Jim Lange (1932–2014), TV presenter, game show host, and disc jockey
  • Sunisa Lee (born 2003), Olympic gymnast and gold medalist
  • Tony Levine (born 1972), football coach
  • Joe Mauer (born 1983), MLB baseball player
  • Ryan McDonagh (born 1989), NHL hockey player
  • Robert O. McEachern (1927–2008), teacher and state legislator
  • Kate Millett (1934–2017), scholar, author, feminist
  • Paul Molitor (born 1956), MLB baseball player
  • Jack Morris (born 1955), MLB baseball player
  • LeRoy Neiman (1921–2012), artist
  • Kyle Okposo (born 1988), NHL hockey player
  • Sally Olsen (1934–2022), lawyer and state legislator
  • Bruce Olson (born 1941), missionary
  • Joseph T. O'Neill (1931–2022), lawyer and state legislator
  • Howard Orenstein (born 1955), state representative and lawyer
  • Tim Pawlenty (born 1960), former governor of Minnesota
  • Alfred E. Perlman (1902–1983), president of New York Central Railroad and its successor, Penn Central
  • Walt Perlt (1927–2002), state representative
  • Robert W. Reif (1921-2011), state representative and physician
  • Isaac Rosefelt (born 1985), American-Israeli basketball player for Maccabi Ashdod in the Israeli Basketball Premier League
  • Charles M. Schulz (1922–2000), cartoonist, born in Minneapolis, grew up in St. Paul
  • Chad Smith (born 1961), drummer of the Red Hot Chili Peppers since 1988, born in Saint Paul
  • Vernon L. Sommerdorf (1921-2009) state representative and physician
  • Peter P. Stumpf Jr. (1948-2010), businessman and Minnesota state senator, born in Saint Paul
  • Terrell Suggs, former NFL defensive end / linebacker (Baltimore Ravens)
  • Dennis Mark Sullivan (1841-1917), businessman, Saint Paul City Council member, state representative
  • Frances Tarbox (1874–1959), composer
  • John D. Tomlinson (1929-1992), Minnesota state legislator and businessman
  • Fred Tschida (born 1949), artist, born in Saint Paul
  • Kathleen Vellenga (born 1938), Minnesota state legislator and educator
  • Lindsey Vonn (born 1984), Olympic skier and gold medalist
  • DeWitt Wallace (1889–1981), magazine publisher and co-founder of Reader's Digest
  • Dave Winfield (born 1951), MLB baseball player

Medal of Honor recipients:

  • Civil War: Private Marshall Sherman, Co C 1st Minnesota captured the flag of the 28th Virginia Infantry at Gettysburg
  • Indian Wars: Pvt. John Tracy G Co. 8th Cavalry Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, Apache War
  • Indian Wars: Charles H. Welch, I Co. 9th Cavalry (Buffalo soldiers) Ghost Dance War
  • Spanish-American War: Captain Jesse Dyer USMC, Vera Cruz, Mexico
  • World War II: Captain Richard Fleming USMC VMA-241 Squadron, for whom Fleming Field is named
  • Korean War: Lt. Colonel John Page, U.S. Army, Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Images for kids

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Saint Paul (Minnesota) para niños

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