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Richland County, South Carolina facts for kids

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Richland County
The Richland County Justice Center is located across from Columbia City Hall.
The Richland County Justice Center is located across from Columbia City Hall.
Map of South Carolina highlighting Richland County
Location within the U.S. state of South Carolina
Map of the United States highlighting South Carolina
South Carolina's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  South Carolina
Founded 1785
Seat Columbia
Largest city Columbia
 • Total 772 sq mi (2,000 km2)
 • Land 757 sq mi (1,960 km2)
 • Water 15 sq mi (40 km2)  1.9%%
 • Estimate 
 • Density 508/sq mi (196/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts 2nd, 6th

Richland County is a county located in the U.S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 384,504, making it the second-most populous county in South Carolina, behind only Greenville County. The county seat is Columbia, the state capital.

Richland County is part of the Columbia, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area.

In 2010, the center of population of South Carolina was located in Richland County, in the city of Columbia.


Richland County was probably named for its "rich land." The county was formed in 1785 as part of the large Camden District. A small part of Richland later went to Kershaw County (1791). The county seat is Columbia, which is also the state capital. In 1786 the state legislature decided to move the capital from Charleston to a more central location. A site was chosen in Richland County, which is in the geographic center of the state, and a new town was laid out. Richland County’s boundaries were formally incorporated on Dec. 18, 1799. Cotton from the surrounding plantations was shipped through Columbia and later manufactured into textiles there. General William T. Sherman captured Columbia during the Civil War, and his troops burned the town and parts of the county on February 17, 1865. The U. S. Army returned on more friendly terms in 1917, when Fort Jackson was established, which is now the largest and most active Initial Entry Training Center in the U.S. Army.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 772 square miles (2,000 km2), of which 757 square miles (1,960 km2) is land and 15 square miles (39 km2) (1.9%) is water. Richland County is situated in the center of South Carolina.

Rivers and lakes

Adjacent counties

National protected area


Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 3,930
1800 6,097 55.1%
1810 9,027 48.1%
1820 12,321 36.5%
1830 14,772 19.9%
1840 16,397 11.0%
1850 20,243 23.5%
1860 18,307 −9.6%
1870 23,025 25.8%
1880 28,573 24.1%
1890 36,821 28.9%
1900 45,589 23.8%
1910 55,143 21.0%
1920 78,122 41.7%
1930 87,667 12.2%
1940 104,843 19.6%
1950 142,565 36.0%
1960 200,102 40.4%
1970 233,868 16.9%
1980 269,735 15.3%
1990 285,720 5.9%
2000 320,677 12.2%
2010 384,504 19.9%
Est. 2015 407,051 5.9%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790-1960 1900-1990
1990-2000 2010-2015

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 384,504 people, 145,194 households, and 89,357 families residing in the county. The population density was 507.9 inhabitants per square mile (196.1/km2). There were 161,725 housing units at an average density of 213.6 per square mile (82.5/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 47.3% white, 45.9% black or African American, 2.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.9% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 9.6% were German, 8.6% were English, 7.6% were Irish, and 7.1% were American.

Of the 145,194 households, 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.5% were non-families, and 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 32.6 years.

The median income for a household in the county was $47,922 and the median income for a family was $61,622. Males had a median income of $42,453 versus $34,012 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,805. About 10.0% of families and 14.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over.


Public transportation in Richland County is provided by the Central Midlands Regional Transit Authority.





Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities


  • Dutch Fork
  • Fort Jackson
  • Intown
  • Lower Richland
  • Northeast Richland
  • Upper Richland
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