Sandwich, Kent facts for kids

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Sandwich
St Thomas' Hospital Sandwich, Kent.jpg
The 14th-century St Thomas' Hospital
Sandwich shown within Kent
Population 4,989 (2011)
OS grid reference TR335585
District
  • Dover
Shire county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Sandwich
Postcode district CT13
Dialling code 01304
Police Kent
Fire Kent
Ambulance South East Coast
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament
  • South Thanet
List of places
UK
England
KentCoordinates: 51°16′29″N 1°20′20″E / 51.27472°N 1.33888°E / 51.27472; 1.33888

Sandwich /ˈsændw/ is a historic town and civil parish on the River Stour in the non-metropolitan district of Dover, within the ceremonial county of Kent, south-east England. It has a population of 4,985.

Sandwich gave its name to the bread snack by way of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, as described below. The word sandwich is now found in many languages.

Sandwich was one of the Cinque Ports and still has many original medieval buildings, including several listed public houses and gates in the old town walls, churches, almshouses and the White Mill. While once a major port, it is now two miles from the sea due to the disappearance of the Wantsum Channel. Its historic centre has been preserved.

Sandwich Bay is home to nature reserves and two world-class golf courses, Royal St George's and Prince's. The town is also home to educational and cultural events.

Etymology

The place-name 'Sandwich' is first attested in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, where it appears as Sondwic in 851 and Sandwic in 993. In the Domesday Book of 1086 it appears as Sandwice. The name means 'market town on sandy soil'.

History

In 1028 King Canute (c. 995-1035) granted a charter to the monks of Christ Church, Canterbury to operate a ferry across the river and collect tolls.

In 1192, returning from the Third Crusade, Richard the Lionheart was jailed by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI. Henry released Richard in February 1194. On 13 March 1194, Richard landed at the port of Sandwich and came back to England.

The coat of arms of Sandwich is Per pale Gules and Azure three demi-Lions passant guardant in pale Or conjoined with as many sterns of demi-Ships Argent,. It is one of the earliest heraldic examples of dimidiation, an early method of combining two different coats of arms: in this case the Arms of England (1198-1340), Gules three lions passant guardant Or langued and armed Azure, and the Arms of the Cinque Ports, Azure three ships Or.

Before Sandwich became a Cinque Port, the ancient Saxon town of Stonar on the bank of the Wantsum estuary, but on the opposite side of the mouth of the River Stour, was already well established. It remained a place of considerable importance but it disappeared almost without trace in the 14th century. The ruins of the major Roman fort of Richborough are close by. It was the landing place of the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. In 2008, an archaeological dig proved that this was a defensive site of a Roman beachhead, protecting 700 metres of coast.

On 21 May 1216, Prince Louis of France landed at Sandwich in support of the barons' war against King John of England.

The Port of Sandwich is no stranger to odd events in English history. It was here in 1255 that the first captive elephant was landed in England. The prize beast arrived at Sandwich quayside, delivered as a gift to the English monarch Henry III from the French king, and was then taken on foot to the king's menagerie in the Tower of London. The journey through Kent is reported to have proceeded without incident, except when a bull in a field by the roadside took umbrage at the great beast passing and attacked it. In one move, the animal was thrown by the elephant and killed outright.

Fishergate, Sandwich - geograph.org.uk - 1569
The Fisher Gate

The Fisher Gate on the quay dates from 1384, and has been scheduled as an Ancient Monument. It is the only one of the original mediaeval town gates to survive. It is a Grade I listed building. The nearby Barbican dates from the 14th century and stands at the end of the bridge over the River Stour where it was used as a toll house.

On 28 August 1457, after four years of uneasy peace in England the king presided over a wasting realm, with feudal barons lording it over the population of the north and the west. The French took advantage of the situation by sending a raiding party to Kent, burning much of Sandwich to the ground. A force of around 4,000 men from Honfleur, under the command of Marshal de Breze, came ashore to pillage the town, in the process murdering the mayor, John Drury. It thereafter became an established tradition, which survives to this day, that the Mayor of Sandwich wears a black robe in mourning for this ignoble deed.

Sandwich later gained significantly from the skills brought to the town by many Flemish settlers, who were granted the right to settle by letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I, dated 6 July 1561. Sandwich was the only town in England that housed more so-called "strangers" than native Englishmen in the 16th century. Historian Marcel Backhouse estimated there were at least 2,400 Flemish and 500 Walloon exiles living in Sandwich at the time. These settlers brought with them techniques of market gardening, and were responsible for growing the first English celery, which was already and still very popular in Flanders. Elizabeth I granted 25 Flemish families permission to live in Sandwich, and St Peter became the "Stranger's Church" in 1564 when the plague came to the town, in an effort to halt the spread of the disease. The 1661 tower collapse was repaired by the Flemish community, and the distinctive tower reflects their work. The Huguenot refugees also brought over Flemish architectural techniques, that are now as much a part of Kent as the thatched cottage. On can still see the difference between the English (lower section) and Flemish (upper section) of the tower. In addition techniques of silk manufacture were imported, enhancing the Kent cloth industry.

The title Earl of Sandwich was created in 1660 for the prominent naval commander Admiral Sir Edward Montagu (1625-1672).

Sandwich kent map1945
A map of Sandwich from 1945

In 1759, Thomas Paine (1737-1809) had his home and shop in a house at 20 New Street. The house is now marked with a plaque and is a listed building.

In 1912 Sir Edwin Lutyens (1869-1944) built The Salutation in Queen Anne style. The gardens were laid out by Gertrude Jekyll.

In World War One, Sandwich was important as a transit location for troops heading to Ypres.

In 1980 Jean Barker became Baroness Trumpington of Sandwich.

In 2014 an original copy of the Magna Carta, issued in 1300, was found together with a copy of the Charter of the Forest. It was only the second time in history that the two documents have been found together.

Geography

Boats on the River Stour at Sandwich
Boats on the River Stour at Sandwich

There is Monk's Wall nature reserve and a bird observatory at Sandwich Bay, which provides a home for wild duck and other wildlife in a wetland habitat. The reserve was opened by celebrity bird-watcher Bill Oddie in May 2000. Sandwich Bay Bird Observatory Trust proposed the design and a management plan, including modifications to ditches and control of water levels to create ecological conditions that attract wetland species of plants, animals and birds. Historically the land was reclaimed from the river and sea by the monks of Sandwich, and the northern boundary is still the old Monks' wall of the 13th century. In the 1953 floods the sea covered the whole area around Sandwich and after these fields were drained a new river bank was created and the land ploughed for arable farming, with heavy use of fertiliser.

There is also a 15 acres (6 ha) Local Nature Reserve known as Gazen Salts.

Sandwich lies at the southern end of Pegwell Bay, which includes a large nature reserve, known for its migrating waders and wildfowl, with a complete series of seashore habitats including extensive mudflats and salt marsh.

Landmarks

Barbican gate, Sandwich - geograph.org.uk - 1566
The Barbican

The Guildhall, in the town square, was built in 1579. Work in 1812 encased the building in yellow brick, this was removed 100 years later in 1912, when the south-west wing was also added. Further alterations were undertaken later in the 20th century. It contains antique panelling and paintings, particularly within the council chamber. It is a Grade II* listed building. It includes a stained glass window, showing Queen Elizabeth I arriving at Sandown Gate in 1573, which was added in 1906.

The Admiral Owen is a pub in a two storey 15th century timber-framed building. It was refronted in the 18th century but this preserved the overhang of its 1st floor on a Bressummer and massive corner post with 3 brackets. The nearby Crispin Inn was originally called the Crispin and Crispianus. It has similar timber framing and was built in the 16th century. Across the road on the quay is the Bell Hotel, which underwent major rebuilding in the 18th and 19th centuries. There’s been a Bell Inn on the quay since the 14th century.

The three pubs cluster around The Barbican which was built in the late 14th century. It consists of 2 round towers, with chequered work of stone and flints. A narrow road passes between the towers with a semi-circular timber barrel roof over it. A small 2-storeyed 20th-century house built on to north side of the north west tower was occupied by the toll collector for the bridge. The bridge itself was built in 1773 of Portland stone with a Dutch type timber raised platform which was replaced in 1892 with an iron swing bridge.

Windmills

White Mill, Sandwich
White Mill

Sandwich has had at least eight windmills over the centuries, the earliest reference to a mill being dated 1608. Two windmills were marked by Hasted at the New Cut on the Stour estuary. They were most likely pumping mills associated with the saltworks there in the late eighteenth century.

The White Mill is the only survivor. It was built in 1760 and worked by wind until 1929, then by engine until 1957. Today it has been restored and is a heritage and folk museum. The Black Mill was a smock mill which burnt down circa 1910. There was also a post mill which stood near the Black Mill, and was worked in conjunction with it. A smock mill on the Millwall was also known as the Town Mill. It was burnt down. Another mill of unknown type is known to have stood on the Millwall. A sixth windmill stood to the north west of Sandwich, and west of the railway. It formed a group of three with the Black Mill and its neighbour.

Transport

The town is served by Sandwich railway station. It was formerly also served by Sandwich Road railway station on the East Kent Light Railway.

Sandwich has been bypassed by the A256 road, which connects Thanet to Dover. It is reached from Canterbury by the A257, which joins the A256 at Sandwich.

Stagecoach in East Kent operate local buses to other major towns in East Kent. Sandwich is on the Diamond network also including Canterbury, Dover and Deal. The Diamond route from Sandwich is 13 and 14 to Canterbury, where one can transfer to the rest of The Diamond or other routes, or to Deal, where one can transfer on to the rest of The Diamond. Local bus routes 87,88 between Dover and Ramsgate and route 89 between Dover and Canterbury also serve the town.

Religious sites

StPetersChurch.Sandwich
St. Peter's Church

St Bartholomew's Chapel was restored and enlarged by Sir George Gilbert Scott in the 19th century. Nearby were two religious almshouses: St. Barts Hospital dates back to around 1190, and St. Thomas's Hospital was built in the 14th century and named in honour of St. Thomas Becket.

The Church of St Peter includes some evidence of early Norman work, but was rebuilt in the early 13th century. In 1661 the top of the central tower collapsed, destroying the south aisle. The Anglican parish church is St. Clement, which has a tower dating from the latter half of the 12th century; the rest of the church is from the 12th and 14th centuries. St Mary's Church also has Norman features and was built on the site of a convent founded by Domne Eafe, cousin to King Ecgberht of Kent.

Culture

The town's connection with the snack of the same name is that John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, who lived in the 18th century, allegedly invented it. As the story goes, he was an avid gambler, and since he often did not have time to sit for a meal due to his gambling habits, he would order his valet to bring him meat tucked between two pieces of bread. Because Montagu was the Earl of Sandwich, others began to order "the same as Sandwich!" However, the exact circumstances of the invention are still the subject of debate. A rumour in a contemporary travel book called Tour to London by Pierre Jean Grosley (although not confirmed) formed the popular myth that bread and meat sustained Lord Sandwich at the gambling table. An alternative suggestion by Sandwich's biographer, N. A. M. Rodger, is that due to Sandwich's commitments to the navy, to politics and the arts, the first sandwich is more likely to have been consumed at his desk, a practice perpetuated in offices ever since.

Sandwich Festival

The town of Sandwich has an annual festival period towards the end of August when a number of events are staged. During Sandwich festivals of the past there have been European markets, motorcycle meets, an illuminated boat parade or dressed ship parade on The Quay, a street Barn Dance, various concerts (both classical and modern pop/rock), Simultaneous Chess Tournament with Grand Master John Emms and a vintage Car Show. The festival usually lasts for 8 days.

Newspapers

Sandwich has two paid-for newspapers, the Deal and Sandwich Express (published by Kent Regional News and Media) and the East Kent Mercury (published by the KM Group). Free newspapers for the town include the Dover Extra, part of the KM Group; and yoursandwich, part of KOS Media. Free digital only news is provided by SNOOZ.

Radio

The local radio station for Sandwich is KMFM Shepway and White Cliffs Country, although the town has good coverage of KMFM Thanet. Sandwich is also served by the county-wide stations Heart, Gold and BBC Radio Kent.Sandwich is also covered by Podcasting service Dover Community Radio who cover Dover District with local podcasts on their website. They hope to create a district-wide internet based radio station in the future leading to a community licence. Academy FM Thanet can also be well received in the Sandwich area.

Road signs

There is a nearby hamlet to the south called Ham. A fingerpost some miles away in the village of Worth points towards both Ham and Sandwich, thus reading:"Ham Sandwich.".

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