John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich facts for kids

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The Earl of Sandwich

John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich.jpg
Secretary of State for the Northern Department
In office
19 December 1770 – 12 January 1771
Prime Minister Lord North
Preceded by The Earl of Rochdale
Succeeded by The Earl of Halifax
In office
9 September 1763 – 10 July 1765
Prime Minister George Grenville
Preceded by The Earl of Halifax
Succeeded by The Duke of Grafton
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
1771–1782
Prime Minister Lord North
Preceded by Sir Edward Hawke
Succeeded by The Viscount Keppel
In office
1763–1763
Prime Minister The Earl of Bute
Preceded by George Grenville
Succeeded by The Earl of Egmont
In office
1748–1751
Prime Minister George Grenville
Preceded by The Duke of Bedford
Succeeded by The Lord Anson
Postmaster General
In office
1768–1771
Prime Minister The Duke of Grafton
Lord North
Preceded by The Marquess of Downshire
Succeeded by Henry Carteret
Personal details
Born (1718-11-13)13 November 1718
Died 30 April 1792(1792-04-30) (aged 73)
Chiswick, England
Spouse(s) Dorothy Montagu, Countess of Sandwich
Martha Ray
Alma mater Eton College, Trinity College, Cambridge
Profession Statesman

John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, PC, FRS (13 November 1718 – 30 April 1792) was a British statesman who succeeded his grandfather Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich as the Earl of Sandwich in 1729, at the age of ten.

During his life, he held various military and political offices, including Postmaster General, First Lord of the Admiralty, and Secretary of State for the Northern Department. He is also known for the claim that he was the inventor of the sandwich.

Sandwich retired from public duty in 1782, and lived another ten years in retirement at the family seat, Hinchingbrooke House, Huntingdonshire, dying on 30 April 1792. His title of Earl of Sandwich passed to his eldest son, John Montagu, 5th Earl of Sandwich, who was 48 at the time.

The sandwich

The modern sandwich is named after Lord Sandwich, but the exact circumstances of its invention and original use are still the subject of debate. The story goes that he did not take the time to have a meal during his long hours playing at the card table. Consequently, he would ask his servants to bring him slices of meat between two slices of bread, a habit well known among his gambling friends. Other people, according to this account, began to order "the same as Sandwich!", and thus the "sandwich" was born. The original sandwich was a piece of salt beef between two slices of toasted bread.

Islands named after Sandwich by Capt James Cook

Hawaje-NoRedLine
"Sandwich Islands" in honor of John Montagu

Lord Sandwich was a great supporter of Captain James Cook. As First Lord of the Admiralty, Sandwich approved Admiralty funds for the purchase and fit-out of the Resolution, Adventure and Discovery for Cook’s second and third expeditions of exploration in the Pacific Ocean.

In honour of Sandwich, Cook named the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) after him, as well as Montague Island off the south east coast of Australia, the South Sandwich Islands in the Southern Atlantic Ocean and Montague Island in the Gulf of Alaska. Hinchinbrook Island was named for the House owned by the Montagu family.

Lord Sandwich donated the various items given him by Cook to Trinity College at the University of Cambridge.

Chronology

  • 1718 The 4th Earl of Sandwich is born on 13 November 1718
  • 1729 Succeeds his grandfather, Edward Montague, 3rd Earl of Sandwich, in the earldom
  • 1729 Educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge
  • 1740/41 (old style/new style), 14 March, marries The Hon. Dorothy Fane at St James's, Westminster
  • 1746 Sent as plenipotentiary to the congress at Breda, and continues to take part in the negotiations for peace until the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed in 1748
  • 1748-1751 First term as First Lord of the Admiralty of Great Britain
  • 1749–56 Bailiff of the Bedford Level Corporation
  • 1763 Becomes one of the principal secretaries of state
  • 1763 Second term as First Lord of the Admiralty of Great Britain
  • 1768 Appointed Postmaster General
  • 1770 Becomes Secretary of State
  • 1771–1782 Third and last term as First Lord of the Admiralty of Great Britain (during this term: the American Revolutionary War, 1775–1783)
  • 1779 His mistress Martha Ray, mother of five of his children, murdered by her admirer James Hackman in Covent Garden
  • 1782 Retires in March
  • 1792 Dies on 30 April

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