Sugar Land, Texas facts for kids
|Sugar Land, Texas|
|City of Sugar Land|
Sugar Land Town Square, First Colony in 2010
Location in Fort Bend County, Texas
|• Total||34.0 sq mi (88.1 km2)|
|• Land||32.4 sq mi (83.9 km2)|
|• Water||1.6 sq mi (4.2 km2)|
|Elevation||100 ft (30 m)|
|• Estimate (2015)||88,156|
|• Density||2,723/sq mi (1,051.2/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP codes||77478-79, 77487, 77496, and 77498|
|Area code(s)||Mostly 281 also 713 and 832|
|GNIS feature ID||1348034|
Sugar Land is a city in the U.S. state of Texas. The city is within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area and Fort Bend County. It is one of the most affluent and fastest-growing cities in Texas, having grown more than 158 percent between 2000 and 2010. In the time period of 2000–2007, Sugar Land also enjoyed a 46.24% job growth. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 78,817. In 2015 the population had risen to an estimated 88,156. Founded as a sugar plantation in the early mid-20th century and incorporated in 1959, Sugar Land is the largest city and economic center of Fort Bend County.
Sugar Land is home to the headquarters of Imperial Sugar, and the company's main sugar refinery and distribution center were once located in the city. Recognizing this heritage, the Imperial Sugar crown logo can be seen in the city seal and logo.
- See also: History of Texas
Sugar Land's founding
Sugar Land's heritage traces its roots back to the original Mexican land grant to Stephen F. Austin. One of the first settlers of the land, Samuel M. Williams, called this land "Oakland Plantation" because there were many different varieties of oaks on the land, such as willow oak, post oak, water oak, southern red oak, and live oak. Williams' brother, Nathaniel, purchased the land in 1838. They operated the plantation by growing cotton, corn, and sugarcane. During these early years, the area that is now Sugar Land was the center of social life along the Brazos River. In 1853, Benjamin Terry and William J. Kyle purchased the Oakland Plantation from the Williams family. Terry is known for organizing Terry's Texas Rangers during the Civil War and for naming the town. Upon the deaths of Terry and Kyle, Colonel E. H. Cunningham bought the 12,500-acre (5,100 ha) plantation soon after the Civil War, and developed the town around his sugar-refining plant around 1879.
In 1906, the Kempner family of Galveston, under the leadership of Isaac H. Kempner, and in partnership with William T. Eldridge, purchased the 5,300-acre (2,100 ha) Ellis Plantation, one of the few plantations in Fort Bend County to survive the Civil War. The Ellis Plantation had originally been part of the Jesse Cartwright league and in the years after the Civil War had been operated by a system of tenant farming under the management of Will Ellis. In 1908, the partnership acquired the adjoining 12,500-acre (5,100 ha) Cunningham Plantation, with its raw-sugar mill and cane-sugar refinery. The partnership changed the name to Imperial Sugar Company; Kempner associated the name "Imperial", which was also the name of a small raw-sugar mill on the Ellis Plantation, with the Imperial Hotel in New York City. Around the turn of the 20th century, most of the sugarcane crops were destroyed by a harsh winter. As part of the Kempner-Eldridge agreement, Eldridge moved to the site to serve as general manager and build the company-owned town of Sugar Land.
The trains running through Sugar Land are on the route of the oldest railroad in Texas. They run adjacent to the sugar refinery, west of the town, and through the center of what used to be known as the Imperial State Prison Farm, now redeveloped largely into the suburban planned community of Telfair.
As a company town from the 1910s until 1959, Sugar Land was virtually self-contained. Imperial Sugar Company provided housing for the workers, encouraged construction of schools, built a hospital for the workers' well-being, and provided businesses to meet the workers' needs. Many of the original homes built by the Imperial Sugar Company remain today in The Hill and Mayfield Park areas of Sugar Land, and have been passed down through generations of family members.
During the 1950s, Imperial Sugar wanted to expand the town by building more houses. This led to the creation of a new subdivision, Venetian Estates, which featured waterfront homesites on Oyster Creek and on man-made lakes.
A city emerges
In the early 1970s, a new subdivision development called Covington Woods was constructed. Later that year, the Imperial Cattle Ranch sold about 1,200 acres (490 ha) to a developer to create what became Sugar Creek in 1968. As a master-planned community, Sugar Creek introduced country club living, with two golf courses and country clubs, swimming pools, and security.
Encouraged by the success of Sugar Creek, First Colony, a new master-planned community encompassing 10,000 acres (4,000 ha), was organized. Development began in 1977 by Sugarland Properties Inc., and would continue the next 30 years. The master-planned community offered homebuyers formal landscaping, neighborhoods segmented by price range, extensive green belts, a golf course and country club, lakes and boulevards, neighborhood amenities, and shopping.
Around the same time as First Colony, another master-planned community development called Sugar Mill started in the northern portion of Sugar Land, offering traditional, lakefront, and estate lots.
Sugar Land began attracting the attention of major corporations throughout the 1980s, and many chose to make the city their home. Fluor Daniel, Schlumberger, Unocal (though never headquartered in Sugar Land), and others located offices and facilities in the city. This resulted in a 40/60 ratio of residential to commercial tax base within the city.
In 1981, a special city election was held for the purpose of establishing a home-rule municipal government. Voters approved the adoption of a home rule charter. The charter established a mayor-council form of government, with all powers of the city invested in a council composed of a mayor and five councilmen.
A special city election was held Aug. 9, 1986, to submit the proposed changes to the electorate for consideration. By a majority of the voters, amendments to the charter were approved which provided for a change in the city's form of government from that of "mayor-council" (strong mayor) to that of a "council-manager" form of government which provides that the city manager be the chief administrative officer of the city. Approval of this amendment provided for the mayor to become a voting member of council, in addition to performing duties as presiding officer of the council.
Sugar Land annexed the master-planned Sugar Creek community in 1986, with the community being almost built-out. That same year, the city organized the largest celebration in its history—the Texas Sesquicentennial Celebration, celebrating 150 years of Texan independence from Mexican rule.
A decade of growth
An amendment on May 5, 1990, changed the composition of the city council to a mayor and two council members by at-large position.
Throughout much of the 1990s, Sugar Land was one of the fastest-growing communities in the nation. An abundance of commercial growth, with numerous low-rise office buildings, banks and high-class restaurants popping up, can be seen along both Interstate 69/U.S. Highway 59 and State Highway 6.
Sugar Land increased its tax base with the opening of First Colony Mall in 1996. The over one-million-square-foot (100,000 m2) mall, the first in Fort Bend County, is located at the busiest intersection of the city: Interstate 69/U.S. 59 and State Highway 6. The mall was named after the 10,000-acre (4,000 ha) master-planned community of First Colony.
In November 1997, Sugar Land annexed the remaining municipal utility districts (MUDs) of the 10,000-acre (4,000 ha) First Colony master-planned community, bringing the city's population to almost 60,000. This was Sugar Land's largest annexation to date.
Sugar Land boasted the highest growth among Texas' largest cities per the U.S. Census 2000, with a population of 63,328. In 2003, Sugar Land became a "principal" city as the title changed to Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. Sugar Land replaced Galveston as the second-most important city in the metropolitan area, after Houston.
The new millennium saw the need of higher education facility expansion located within the city. In 2002, the University of Houston System at Fort Bend moved to its new 250-acre (100 ha) campus located off the University Boulevard and Interstate 69/U.S. 59 intersection. The city helped fund the Albert and Mamie George Building, and as a result, the multi-institution teaching center was renamed the University of Houston Sugar Land.
In 2003, the Imperial Sugar Company refinery plant and distribution center was put out of operation, but its effect on the local economy was minimal, since Sugar Land today has much more of a reputation as an affluent Houston suburb than the blue-collar, agriculture-dependent town it was a generation ago. However, the company maintains its headquarters in Sugar Land.
The Texas Department of Transportation sold 2,018 acres (817 ha) of prison land in the western portion Sugar Land to Newland Communities, a developer, by bid in 2003. Thereafter, the developer announced to build a new master-planned community called Telfair in this location. In July 2004, Sugar Land annexed all of this land into the city limits to control the quality of development, extending the city limits westward. This was unusual, since Sugar Land only annexed built-out areas in the past, not prior to development.
In December 2005 Sugar Land annexed the recently built-out, master-planned community of Avalon and four sections of Brazos Landing subdivision, adding approximately 3,200 residents. The city is currently negotiating with the communities of Greatwood, New Territory, and River Park, along with the subdivisions of Tara Colony and Tara Plantation, to annex in the near future. This annexation will be the largest, surpassing the annexation of First Colony in 1992 and 1997, which would bring the city proper's population to approximately 120,000.
As of 2007, Sugar Land held the title of "Fittest City in Texas" for the population 50,000–100,000 range, a title it has held for four consecutive years.
In 2006 CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Sugar Land third on its list of the "100 Best Cities to Live in the United States".
In 2007, CQ Press ranked Sugar Land fifth on its list of "Safest Cities in the United States" (14th annual "City Crime Rankings: Crime in Metropolitan American"), and in 2010 it was ranked the twelfth Safest City in the United States, as well as the safest city in Texas.
In 2008, Forbes selected Sugar Land along with Bunker Hill Village and Hunters Creek Village as one of the three Houston-area "Top Suburbs to Live Well", noting its affluence despite its large population.
Geography and climate
Sugar Land is located in northeast Fort Bend County, 20 miles (32 km) southwest of downtown Houston. It is bordered by Houston to the northeast, and by Stafford, Missouri City, and Meadows Place to the east. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Sugar Land has a total area of 34.0 square miles (88.1 km2), of which 32.4 square miles (83.9 km2) is land and 1.6 square miles (4.2 km2), or 4.82%, is water. The elevation of most of the city is between 70 and 90 feet (21 and 27 m) above sea level. The elevation of Sugar Land Regional Airport is 82 feet (25 m).
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Sugar Land has two major waterways running through the city. The Brazos River runs through the southwestern and southern portion of the city and then into Brazoria County. Oyster Creek runs from the northwest to the eastern portion of the city limits and into Missouri City. Sugar Land has many artificial lakes connecting to Oyster Creek or the Brazos River, constructed in connection with the development of the city's master-planned communities.
Underpinning the area's land surface are unconsolidated clays, clay shales, and poorly-cemented sands extending to depths of several miles. The region's geology developed from stream deposits from the erosion of the Rocky Mountains. These sediments consist of a series of sands and clays deposited on decaying organic matter that, over time, were transformed into oil and natural gas. Beneath these tiers is a water-deposited layer of halite, a rock salt. The porous layers were compressed over time and forced upward. As it pushed upward, the salt dragged surrounding sediments into dome shapes, often trapping oil and gas that seeped from the surrounding porous sands.
The region is earthquake-free. While the neighboring city of Houston contains 86 mapped and historically active surface faults with an aggregate length of 149 miles (240 km), the clay below the surface precludes the buildup of friction that produces ground shaking in earthquakes. These faults move only very gradually in what is termed "fault creep".
Sugar Land's climate is classified as being humid subtropical. The city is located in the gulf coastal plains biome, and the vegetation is classified as a temperate grassland. The average yearly precipitation is 48 inches. Prevailing winds are from the south and southeast during most of the year, bringing heat and moisture from the Gulf of Mexico.
In the summer time, daily high temperatures are in the 95 °F (35 °C) range throughout much of July and August. The air tends to feel still and the abundant humidity, with dewpoints typically in the low to mid 70s, creates a heat index around 100 each day. Summer thunderstorms are common with 1/3 to 1/2 of the days hearing thunder. The highest temperature recorded in the area was 109 °F in September 2000.
Winters in the Houston area are cool and temperate. The average winter high/low is 62 °F/45 °F (16 °C/7 °C). The coldest period is usually in January, when north winds bring winter rains. Snow is almost unheard of and typically does not accumulate when it is seen. One such rare snowstorm hit Houston on Christmas Eve 2004. A few inches accumulated, but was all gone by the next afternoon. But the earliest snowfall to occur in any winter did happen on December 4, 2009 and also meant that snow fell for 2 consecutive years for the first time since records were held.
|Climate data for Sugar Land, Texas|
|Average high °F (°C)||61.9
|Average low °F (°C)||41.5
|Precipitation inches (mm)||4.06
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the 2010 census there were 78,817 people, 26,709 households, and 21,882 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,432.6 people per square mile (939.4/km2). There were 27,727 housing units at an average density of 855.8 per square mile (330.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 52.0% White, 7.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 35.3% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.3% some other race, and 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.6% of the population.
As of the 2010 census there were 26,709 households, out of which 40.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.0% were headed by married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 18.1% were non-families. 15.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.3% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90, and the average family size was 3.25.
In the city, the age distribution of the population in 2010 showed 24.6% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 34.0% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.2 years. For every 100 females there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males.
According to the 2014 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the city was $115,069, and the median income for a family was $132,534. Male full-time workers had a median income of $98,892 versus $60,053 for females. The per capita income for the city was $48,653. About 6.4% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over.
Sugar Land has the highest concentration of Asians in Texas. Altogether, 35.3% of the city's population is Asian; 10.7% is Asian Indian, 11.5% is Chinese, 4.5% is Vietnamese and 2% is Filipino.
As of 2013, about one-third of the Asian population was Indian American, according to Harish Jajoo, a city council member of Indian origin. The Sugar Land area has Indian grocery stores, temples, several mosques and an Ismaili Center. Jajoo stated that the quality of the jobs, schools, and parks attracts people of Indian origin to Sugar Land.
Catholics account for over thirty percent of the city population with 11,998 households registered by St. Laurence, St. Thomas Aquinas, and St. Theresa parishes.
Culture and sports
Sugar Land has a largely white-collar, university-educated workforce employed in Houston's energy industry.
In 2004, the city was named one of the top 100 places to live, according to HomeRoute, a national real estate marketing company which identifies top American cities each year through its Relocate-America program. Cities are selected based on educational opportunities, crime rates, employment and housing data. The magazine started with statistics on 271 U.S. cities provided by OnBoard LLC, a real estate information company. These cities had the highest median household incomes in the nation and above average population growth.
Sugar Land was awarded the title of "Fittest City in Texas" for the population range 50,000–100,000 in 2004, 2005 (in a tie with Round Rock) and 2006. The "Fittest City in Texas" program is a part of the Texas Roundup program, a statewide fitness initiative.
Local sports are popular both at the recreational and competitive levels. Sugar Land formed its first community swim team, the Sugar Land Sharks, in 1967, and it is still competing as of 2016.
Sugar Land is the home of the Sugar Land Skeeters minor-league baseball team, founded in 2010, and their new stadium, Constellation Field. Sugar Land is also the home of the Sugar Land Imperials, a Tier III Junior "A" ice hockey team that plays in the North American 3 Hockey League. The Imperials play at the Sugar Land Ice & Sports Complex.
Sugar Land Town Square serves as the primary entertainment district in Sugar Land and Fort Bend County. The district offers an array of restaurants, sidewalk cafes, shopping venues, a Marriott Hotel and conference center, mid-rise offices and homes, a public plaza, and Sugar Land City Hall. Festivals and important events take place in the plaza. The new city hall and public plaza, a cornerstone of Sugar Land Town Square, received the "Best Community Impact" award from the Houston Business Journal at the fifth annual Landmark Awards ceremony.
Next door to the district is First Colony Mall, a major regional shopping mall that recently expanded from its original indoor design to include an outdoor lifestyle component, several parking garages, and new signage that blends in with the surrounding area. The mall is anchored by two Dillard's stores, Macy's, JCPenney, and Barnes & Noble, along with over 130 stores.
Sugar Land also hosts the Sugar Land Ice and Sports Center (formerly Sugar Land Aerodrome), offers ice skating and hockey lessons. It is open to the public as an ice skating facility. Previously, it served as the practice facility for the Houston Aeros of the American Hockey League.
Once a year a music festival called Teenstock is held, which showcases various bands from the area. It is sponsored by the First Colony Association.
In May 2016, two sculptures in the Town Square's public plaza were installed as part of a 10-piece collection donated by a Sugar Land resident to the city through the Sugar Land Legacy Foundation. One of the statues, which depicts two girls taking a selfie, has received criticism and acclaim from the media and general public.
Districts and communities
Sugar Land has the most master-planned communities in Fort Bend County, which is home to the largest number of master-planned communities in the nation—including Greatwood, First Colony, Sugar Creek, River Park, Riverstone, New Territory, Telfair, and many others. Many of the communities feature golf courses, country clubs, and lakes. The first master-planned community to be developed in Sugar Land was Sugar Creek. There are now a total of thirteen master-planned communities located in Sugar Land's city limits and its extraterritorial jurisdiction combined.
The northern portion of Sugar Land, sometimes referred to by residents and government officials as "Old Sugar Land", comprises all the communities north of U.S. Highway 90A, but it also includes the subdivisions/areas of Venetian Estates, and Belknap/Brookside, which is just south of U.S. 90A. Most of this area was the original city limits of Sugar Land when it was incorporated in 1959. Located in this part of town is the former Imperial Sugar Company refinery and distribution center that was shut down in 2003. The headquarters are still located within the city. To the east of northern Sugar Land is the Sugar Land Business Park. Many of the electronic and energy companies are located here. Sugar Land Business Park is the largest business and industrial area in the city.
The largest economic and entertainment activities are in the areas of south and southeastern Sugar Land. Most of the population in the city limits are concentrated here. This area is all master-planned communities and it includes nearly all of First Colony, the largest in Sugar Land encompassing 10,000 acres (40 km2). Other master-planned communities in this area are Sugar Creek, Sugar Lakes, Commonwealth, Avalon, Telfair, and Riverstone. This area is the location of First Colony Mall, Sugar Land Town Square, new Sugar Land City Hall, and other major commercial areas. This area boasts a wide range of recreational activities including three golf courses and country clubs. Another recreational facility in the area is the Sugar Land Ice & Sports Center (formerly Sugar Land Aerodrome).
Most of the southwestern area of Sugar Land is outside the city limits, within the extraterritorial jurisdiction of the city. This area is sometimes referred to as the "other side of the river" because it is separated from the rest of Sugar Land's ETJ and the city itself by the Brazos River. All of this area is in the Lamar Consolidated Independent School District. This area has two master-planned communities, Greatwood and River Park. Other communities in this area are Canyon Gate on the Brazos, still in development, and Tara Colony, an older large subdivision which has a Richmond address but is actually in the extraterritorial jurisdiction of Sugar Land and is up for future annexation.
The western portion of Sugar Land is partially in the city limits and partially in the extraterritorial jurisdiction. It is home to the 2,200-acre (890 ha) master-planned community of New Territory and the upcoming 2,018-acre (817 ha) development, Telfair. All of the land of what is now the upcoming Telfair community was a prison farm land owned by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. It was sold in 2003 and annexed to the city limits by Sugar Land in 2004. A new highway, State Highway 99, opened in 1994 as a major arterial in this area. North of this area and north of U.S. Highway 90A is the Sugar Land Regional Airport and the Texas Department of Correction, Central Unit.
Lakeview Auditorium, located on the campus of Lakeview Elementary School, is the oldest public building still standing in the area. Originally one of eleven buildings that composed the campus of the old Sugar Land Independent School District, the auditorium was a focal point for a vibrant and growing community. The stately auditorium still stands today and is a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, as of 2002.
In 1912, Imperial Sugar Company built a small building at the corner of Wood Street and Lakeview Drive (then known as Third Street) to serve as a school. The original campus consisted of 11 buildings arranged in a semicircle with the large, airy auditorium in the center. The buildings were connected by a covered walkway supported by large, white columns. There was a circular driveway for buses and automobiles. All the buildings were finished in white stucco on the outside and had large windows that allowed fresh air to circulate and cool the buildings. The auditorium was a hub of community activity.
Sugar Land currently does not have a mass transit system. However, this could change as it has been a possible candidate for expansion of Houston's METRORail system by means of a planned commuter rail along U.S. Highway 90A. Since many of Sugar Land's residents work in Houston, thus creating routine rush hour traffic along two of the city's main thoroughfares, U.S. Highways 59 and 90A, there has been large support in the area for such a project. It should be noted, however, that the city is not a participant in the Houston area's METRO transit authority; Sugar Land's merchants do not collect the one-cent sales tax that helps support that agency.
Interstate 69/U.S. Highway 59, the major freeway running diagonally through the city, has undergone a major widening project in recent years to accommodate the region's daily commuters. The finished portion of the freeway from east of State Highway 6 to just west of State Highway 99 currently has eight main lanes, with two diamond lanes and six continuous frontage road lanes.
U.S. Highway 90 Alternate is a major highway running through Sugar Land from west to east and traverses a historic area of the city, known as "Old Sugar Land". U.S. Highway 90A is currently widened to an eight-lane highway with a 30-foot (9.1 m) median between State Highway 6 and Interstate 69/U.S. Highway 59.
State Highway 6 is a major highway running from north to southeast Sugar Land and traverses through the 10,000 acres (40 km2) master-planned community of First Colony. There is a freeway section that opened in 2008 from just west of Brooks Street/First Colony Blvd all the way to 3/4 miles north of U.S. Highway 90A.
A segment of State Highway 99/Grand Parkway currently traverses the New Territory and River Park master-planned communities. The original highway opened in 1994, with toll lanes added in 2014. Construction will start soon south of its current terminus at Interstate 69/US 59.
Texas F.M. 1876, widely known as Eldridge Road, is a north-south state highway in north Sugar Land. It traverses through many established areas and acts as the western border of the Sugar Land Business Park.
Sugar Land Regional Airport (formerly Hull Field, later Sugar Land Municipal Airport) was purchased from a private interest in 1990 by the city of Sugar Land. It is the fourth largest airport within the Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown metropolitan area. The airport handles approximately 250 aircraft operations per day. The airport has an on-field United States Customs office, making this airport attractive to energy companies based in the Houston metropolitan area as this allows flights directly to and from countries wherein overseas operations are located, allowing fliers to avoid the delays inherent in high traffic airports such as George Bush Intercontinental.
The airport today serves the area's general aviation (GA) aircraft serving corporate, governmental, and private clientele. A new 20,000-square-foot (1,900 m2) terminal and a 60 acres (24 ha)* GA complex opened in 2006. Sugar Land Regional briefly handled commercial passenger service during the mid-1990s via a now-defunct Texas carrier known as Conquest Airlines. For scheduled commercial service, Sugar Landers rely on Houston's two commercial airports, George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH), 40 miles (64 km) northeast, and William P. Hobby Airport (HOU), 27 miles (43 km) east.
The city of Houston maintains a park that occupies 750 acres (300 ha) of land directly north of the Sugar Land Regional Airport, and developers have built master-planned communities (Telfair, and the future development of TX DOT Tract 3 immediately east of the airport) around the airport, both factors that block airport expansion.
China Airlines operated private bus shuttle services from Wel-Farm Super Market/Metro Bank on State Highway 6 in Sugar Land to George Bush Intercontinental Airport to feed the flight from Bush Intercontinental to Taipei, Taiwan. The service ended when China Airlines pulled out of Houston on January 29, 2008.
Images for kids
City of Sugar Land City Hall, Sugar Land Town Square, First Colony
Sugar Land, Texas Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.