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Vineland, New Jersey
City
City of Vineland
Downtown Vineland
Downtown Vineland
Motto: "A Harvest of Opportunities in the Heart of the Northeast"
Map of Vineland highlighted within Cumberland County. Right: Location of Cumberland County in New Jersey.
Map of Vineland highlighted within Cumberland County. Right: Location of Cumberland County in New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Vineland, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Vineland, New Jersey
Country  United States
State  New Jersey
County Cumberland
Incorporated February 5, 1952
Area
 • Total 69.029 sq mi (178.785 km2)
 • Land 68.424 sq mi (177.218 km2)
 • Water 0.605 sq mi (1.568 km2)  0.88%
Area rank 16th of 566 in state
2nd of 14 in county
Elevation 98 ft (30 m)
Population (2010 Census)
 • Total 60,724
 • Estimate (2015) 60,818
 • Rank 24th of 566 in state
1st of 14 in county
 • Density 887.5/sq mi (342.7/km2)
 • Density rank 398th of 566 in state
2nd of 14 in county
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 08360-08362
Area code(s) 856
FIPS code 3401176070
GNIS feature ID 0885428
Website www.vinelandcity.org

Vineland is a city in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 60,724, reflecting an increase of 4,453 (+7.9%) from the 56,271 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,491 (+2.7%) from the 54,780 counted in the 1990 Census. Vineland, Millville and Bridgeton are the three principal New Jersey cities of the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses those three cities and all of Cumberland County for statistical purposes and had a population of 156,898 as of the 2010 Census.

Vineland was formed on July 1, 1952, through the merger of Landis Township and Vineland Borough, based on the results of a referendum held on February 5, 1952. Festivities on July 1, 1952, when the merger took effect, included a parade and speeches from such notables as Senator Estes Kefauver. The name is derived from the plans of its founder to use the land to grow grapes.

History

Charles K. Landis purchased 30,000 acres (121 km2) of land in 1861 and another 23,000 acres (93 km2) in 1874, near Millville, New Jersey, and along the West Jersey railroad line with service between Camden and Cape May, to create his own alcohol-free utopian society based on agriculture and progressive thinking. The first houses were built in 1862, and train service was established to Philadelphia and New York City, with the population reaching 5,500 by 1865 and 11,000 by 1875.

Established as a Temperance Town, where the sale of alcohol was prohibited, Landis required that purchasers of land in Vineland had to build a house on the purchased property within a year of purchase, that 2 12 acres (10,000 m2) of the often-heavily wooded land had to be cleared and farmed each year, and that adequate space be placed between houses and roads to allow for planting of flowers and shade trees along the routes through town. Landis Avenue was constructed as a 100-foot (30 m) wide and about 1-mile (2 km) long road running east-west through the center of the community, with other, narrower roads connecting at right angles to each other.

After determining that the Vineland soil was well-suited for growing grapes (hence the name), Landis started advertising to attract Italian grape growers to Vineland, offering 20 acres (81,000 m2) of land that had to be cleared and used to grow grapes. Thomas Bramwell Welch founded Welch's Grape Juice, and purchased the locally grown grapes to make "unfermented wine" (or grape juice). The fertile ground also attracted the glass-making industry and was home to the Progresso soup company. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, most of the city was involved in the poultry industry, which led to the city being dubbed "The Egg Basket of America."

Vineland Poultry Laboratories (now Lohman Animal Health) was started by Arthur Goldhaft. Dr. Goldhaft is credited with putting "a chicken in every pot" after developing the fowl pox chicken vaccine that saved millions of chickens from death. Dr. Goldhaft's work at Vineland Poultry Laboratories in Vineland, helped protect the world's chicken supply from the fowl pox disease.

Vineland had New Jersey's first school for the intellectual disabled, the Vineland Developmental Center, which now has an east and west campus. These institutions housed mentally handicapped women in fully staffed cottages. Henry H. Goddard, an American psychologist, coined the term "Moron" while directing the Research Laboratory at the Training School for Backward and Feeble-minded Children in Vineland. This facility was so sufficiently well known that one American Prison Association pamphlet in 1955 heralded Vineland as "famous for its contributions to our knowledge of the feebleminded".

The city of Vineland celebrated its 150th birthday in 2011. Mayor Robert Romano initially ordered a custom cake from Buddy Valastro of Carlo's Bake Shop in Hoboken, the business featured in the TLC reality television series Cake Boss. After outcry from local business owners, the order was canceled and five Vineland bakeries were commissioned to create elaborate cakes for the event.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 69.029 square miles (178.785 km2), including 68.424 square miles (177.218 km2) of land and 0.605 square miles (1.568 km2) of water (0.88%). Of all the municipalities in New Jersey to hold the label of City, Vineland is the largest in total area. (Hamilton Township in Atlantic County is the largest municipality in New Jersey in terms of land area. Galloway Township, also in Atlantic County, is the largest municipality in total area, including open water within its borders.)

Vineland borders Deerfield Township, Millville, and Maurice River Township. Vineland also borders Salem County, Gloucester County, and Atlantic County. The city is approximately 38 miles (61 km) from the Atlantic Ocean.

Unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the city include Clayville, Hances Bridge, Leamings Mill, Menantico, North Vineland, Parvins Branch, Pleasantville, South Vineland and Willow Grove.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 7,079
1880 6,005 −15.2%
1890 7,677 27.8%
1900 9,091 18.4%
1910 11,717 28.9%
1920 16,834 43.7%
1930 21,603 28.3%
1940 24,439 13.1%
1950 29,573 21.0%
1960 37,685 27.4%
1970 47,399 25.8%
1980 53,753 13.4%
1990 54,780 1.9%
2000 56,271 2.7%
2010 60,724 7.9%
Est. 2015 60,818 0.2%
Population sources: 1870-2000
1870-1920 1870 1880-1890
1890-1910 1910-1930
1930-1990 2000 2010

Vineland has a Ukrainian community and is home to the Ukrainian Evangelical Baptist Church and several other Ukrainian churches.

2010 Census

As of the census of 2010, there were 60,724 people, 21,450 households, and 15,230 families residing in the city. The population density was 887.5 per square mile (342.7/km2). There were 22,661 housing units at an average density of 331.2 per square mile (127.9/km2)*. The racial makeup of the city was 67.03% (40,703) White, 14.16% (8,600) Black or African American, 0.67% (406) Native American, 1.71% (1,036) Asian, 0.04% (24) Pacific Islander, 12.91% (7,841) from other races, and 3.48% (2,114) from two or more races. [[Hispanic (U.S. Census)|Hispanic or Latino of any race were 38.03% (23,093) of the population.

There were 21,450 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.2% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.0% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.23.

In the city, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.7 years. For every 100 females there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and old there were 88.1 males.

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $54,024 (with a margin of error of +/- $2,798) and the median family income was $64,185 (+/- $2,216). Males had a median income of $48,974 (+/- $1,402) versus $35,513 (+/- $2,565) for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,512 (+/- $895). About 11.0% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over.

2000 Census

As of the 2000 United States Census there were 56,271 people, 19,930 households, and 14,210 families residing in the city. The population density was 819.2 people per square mile (316.3/km2). There were 20,958 housing units at an average density of 305.1 per square mile (117.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 67.47% White, 13.62% African American, 0.54% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 14.01% from other races, and 3.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 30.00% of the population.

There were 19,939 households out of which 80.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.7% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.17.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,076, and the median income for a family was $47,909. Males had a median income of $35,195 versus $25,518 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,797. About 9.8% of families and 13.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over.

Points of interest

  • The Delsea Drive-In, located on Route 47 (Delsea Drive) north of County Route 552, is the only drive-in theater in the state of New Jersey, the state in which they were first created in 1932.
  • The Palace of Depression was built by the eccentric and mustached George Daynor, a former Alaska gold miner who lost his fortune in the Wall Street Crash of 1929, and was known as "The Strangest House in the World" or the "Home of Junk", and was built as a testament of willpower against the effects of The Great Depression. A full restoration is ongoing.
  • The Landis MarketPlace opened in 2011 as a two-level indoor public market and includes several vendors on the upper level. As of August 2015, the Amish vendors on the lower level have since departed due to the cost of rent. Currently, the lower level is unoccupied.
  • The Vineland Historical and Antiquarian Society, a museum and research library that has been in function since 1910 and holds a large collection exhibiting the city's history.
  • In 2009, as much as $25 million in grants from the Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 were allocated to help with the cleanup of the Vineland Chemical Company site. The company's owners had paid $3 million towards the cleanup of soil and water at the site polluted with arsenic and other toxic materials, though the United States Environmental Protection Agency has spent more than $120 million to remediate the Superfund site.

Transportation

Roads and highways

As of May 2010, the city had a total of 335.15 miles (539.37 km) of roadways, of which 234.73 miles (377.76 km) were maintained by the municipality, 80.54 miles (129.62 km) by Cumberland County and 19.88 miles (31.99 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 2.79 miles (4.49 km) by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority.

Route 47 (Delsea Drive) runs almost 9.5 miles (15.3 km) north-south in the eastern quarter of the city, connecting Millville in the south to Franklin Township in Gloucester County at the city's northern tip. Route 55 enters the city from Millville for 1.4 miles (2.3 km), heads back into Millville and re-enters Vineland, running along the western border for 8.8 miles (14.2 km) and heads north into Pittsgrove Township in Salem County. Route 56 (Landis Avenue) heads across the city from Pittsgrove Township to its eastern terminus at Route 47.

County Route 540 (Almond Road / Park Avenue / Landis Avenue) enters from the west in Pittsgrove Township and continues for 8 miles (13 km) to Buena Vista Township in Atlantic County, on the city's eastern border. County Route 552 (Sherman Avenue / Mays Landing Road) enters from Deerfield Township in the city's southwest corner and continues for 10.8 miles (17.4 km) into Maurice River Township. County Route 555 (South Main Road / North Main Road) enters from Millville extending for 8 miles (13 km) into Franklin Township.

Public transportation

NJ Transit provides bus transportation on the 313 route between Cape May and Philadelphia, on the 408 route between Millville and Philadelphia and on the 553 route between Upper Deerfield Township and Atlantic City.

Two general aviation airports are located nearby. Vineland-Downstown Airport is located 4 miles (6.4 km) northeast of the central business district and Kroelinger Airport, 3 miles (4.8 km) north.

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