West Caldwell, New Jersey facts for kids

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West Caldwell, New Jersey
Township
Township of West Caldwell
West Caldwell Civic Center
West Caldwell Civic Center
Location in Essex County and the state of New Jersey.
Location in Essex County and the state of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of West Caldwell, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of West Caldwell, New Jersey
Country  United States
State  New Jersey
County Essex
Incorporated February 24, 1904
Area
 • Total 5.070 sq mi (13.129 km2)
 • Land 5.055 sq mi (13.091 km2)
 • Water 0.015 sq mi (0.038 km2)  0.29%
Area rank 274th of 566 in state
8th of 22 in county
Elevation 177 ft (54 m)
Population (2010 Census)
 • Total 10,759
 • Estimate (2015) 11,060
 • Rank 227th of 566 in state
16th of 22 in county
 • Density 2,128.5/sq mi (821.8/km2)
 • Density rank 282nd of 566 in state
18th of 22 in county
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 07006-07007
Area code(s) 201 (cell) and 862/973
FIPS code 3401378510
GNIS feature ID 1729717
Website www.westcaldwell.com

West Caldwell is a township located in the West Essex area in northwestern Essex County, New Jersey. It is located approximately 16 miles (26 km) west of Manhattan and 6 miles (9.7 km) northwest of Newark. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 10,759, reflecting a decline of 474 (-4.2%) from the 11,233 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 811 (+7.8%) from the 10,422 counted in the 1990 Census.

West Caldwell was originally incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 24, 1904, from portions of Caldwell Township (now known as Fairfield Township). In 1981, the borough was one of seven Essex County municipalities to pass a referendum to become a township, joining four municipalities that had already made the change, of what would ultimately be more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis. The borough was named for Caldwell Township, which in turn was named for Presbyterian minister James Caldwell.

New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked West Caldwell as its 60th best place to live in its 2010 rankings of the "Best Places To Live" in New Jersey.

History

Caldwell, West Caldwell, and several neighboring communities were all originally one combined area known as the Horseneck Tract. In the early 18th century, a group of settlers left Newark and purchased a large tract of land northwest of their home city for the equivalent of a few hundred dollars from the Lenape Native Americans. This piece of land extended west and north to the Passaic River, south to the town center of what would become Livingston, and east to the First Watchung Mountain, and was called Horseneck by the natives because it resembled the neck and head of a horse.

What was then known as Horseneck contained most of the present day northern Essex County towns: West Caldwell, along with Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, North Caldwell, Roseland, and Verona are all located entirely in Horseneck, and parts of what are today Livingston, Montclair, and West Orange also were contained in the Horseneck tract. After the Revolutionary War, Horseneck changed its name to "Caldwell Township" in honor of a local war hero and pastor, James Caldwell, who used burning pages from his church's bibles to ignite the ammo in soldiers' cannons and helped to drive the British out of Horseneck.

By the late 1880s, Caldwell had become quite a developed and populated town, however the vast majority of the development, residents, and businesses were located in the center of the town along Bloomfield Avenue, its main connecting route with Newark and New York City. The outskirts of town remained farms and swampland in many places. This bothered the people living in the center of town and in 1892, Caldwell's center area decided to form its own municipality, naming itself Caldwell Borough and leaving the outskirts of town remaining as Caldwell Township.

Caldwell Borough contained what is today the towns of West Caldwell and Caldwell. Soon after, the area of Caldwell Township just to the east of Caldwell Borough between Caldwell Borough and Montclair (present-day Verona and Cedar Grove) decided to follow Caldwell's lead and incorporated itself as its own borough, Verona. Some of the already-developed eastern neighborhoods of Caldwell Township chose to become part of Montclair, as it was a rapidly developing suburb of Newark and Paterson. At around the same time, the area north of Caldwell Borough became its own town, North Caldwell. The ritzy, wooded area directly to the south of downtown Caldwell Borough became Essex Fells. Meanwhile, the farmland to the south of the western portion of Caldwell township attempted to become its own municipality known as South Caldwell. This failed, as much of developed sections of that area lied on its southernmost and easternmost borders, along the expanding Newark suburbs of Livingston and West Orange respectively. Those areas were engulfed by those two towns once they became incorporated municipalities of several small villages and developments. This left only the most rural farmland south of Caldwell Borough and Essex Fells to become its own township, Roseland. At this point, all that remained of the original Caldwell Township was a large piece of undeveloped land in the northwestern-most part of Essex County; eventually, in the early 1950s, Caldwell Township changed its name to Fairfield in order to avoid being confused with Caldwell Borough.

Immediately following the separation of the original Caldwell, the western part of Caldwell Borough generally remained less developed than downtown Caldwell Borough and contained several farms and a large area of undeveloped swampland known as Hatfield Swamp. However, two individual settlements, known as Franklin and Westville, soon formed in the western part of Caldwell Borough. As development increased and population grew in the western part of Caldwell, the town's more rural western population and more urban east often could not reconcile their differences. This led to the areas of Franklin and Westville consolidating into their own borough known as West Caldwell in 1904, leaving only the one square mile of original downtown Horseneck development as the borough of Caldwell. Caldwell Borough became Caldwell Township in the 1980s. To this day, the towns of Caldwell and West Caldwell remain by far the most urbanized, densely populated, and ethnically, racially, and income-diverse in the West Essex area. The town is home Grover Cleveland Park (also partially located in Caldwell and Essex Fells), a county park named in honor of the President of the United States who was born in the neighboring town of Caldwell.

Additionally, West Caldwell contains a number of smaller parks and land preserves, such as Memorial Park and Francisco Park. Hatfield Swamp, located in the western section of the town along its borders with the towns of Fairfield, Roseland, and East Hanover, is a protected preservation that usually very little building is allowed to be done on.

Though today the Caldwell area is considered to be a suburb of both Newark and New York, the area originally developed as its own individual, self-contained town and economy rather than as urban sprawl from a larger city. When it was formed, a few miles of woods separated downtown Caldwell from Newark or any of its developing suburbs. Bloomfield Avenue is located in the center of town, and is home to many of the locally owned stores of the town. West Caldwell has several stores and strip malls, and two public town pools, Cedar Street Pool and Westville Pool. The township has few violent crimes and only two murders in its history.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 5.070 square miles (13.129 km2), including 5.055 square miles (13.091 km2) of land and 0.015 square miles (0.038 km2) of water (0.29%).

Unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the borough include Ferncliff, Franklin, Pine Brook Bridge and Westville.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1910 494
1920 1,085 119.6%
1930 2,911 168.3%
1940 3,458 18.8%
1950 4,666 34.9%
1960 8,314 78.2%
1970 11,913 43.3%
1980 11,407 −4.2%
1990 10,422 −8.6%
2000 11,233 7.8%
2010 10,759 −4.2%
Est. 2015 11,060 −1.5%
Population sources: 1910-1920
1910 1910-1930
1930-1990 2000 2010

Census 2010

As of the census of 2010, there were 10,759 people, 3,913 households, and 2,962 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,128.5 per square mile (821.8/km2). There were 4,009 housing units at an average density of 793.1 per square mile (306.2/km2)*. The racial makeup of the township was 92.91% (9,996) White, 1.26% (136) Black or African American, 0.05% (5) Native American, 3.91% (421) Asian, 0.02% (2) Pacific Islander, 0.73% (79) from other races, and 1.12% (120) from two or more races. [[Hispanic (U.S. Census)|Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.86% (523) of the population.

There were 3,913 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.4% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.3% were non-families. 21.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.16.

In the township, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 21.0% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, and 19.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.9 years. For every 100 females there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and old there were 88.0 males.

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $102,584 (with a margin of error of +/- $7,317) and the median family income was $118,018 (+/- $6,949). Males had a median income of $81,449 (+/- $7,519) versus $51,936 (+/- $5,473) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $44,244 (+/- $3,116). About 3.5% of families and 3.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.5% of those under age 18 and 2.8% of those age 65 or over.

Census 2000

As of the 2000 United States Census there were 11,233 people, 3,990 households, and 3,112 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,224.4 people per square mile (858.8/km2). There were 4,044 housing units at an average density of 800.8 per square mile (309.2/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 93.84% White, 0.89% African American, 0.04% Native American, 3.85% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, and 0.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.80% of the population.

There were 3,990 households out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.1% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.0% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.17.

In the township the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males.

The median income for a household in the township was $83,396, and the median income for a family was $94,379. Males had a median income of $67,108 versus $45,365 for females. The per capita income for the township was $38,345. About 1.2% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.5% of those under age 18 and 2.4% of those age 65 or over.

Transportation

Roads and highways

As of May 2010, the borough had a total of 45.77 miles (73.66 km) of roadways, of which 37.11 miles (59.72 km) were maintained by the municipality and 8.66 miles (13.94 km) by Essex County.

Public transportation

NJ Transit provides bus transportation to Newark on the 29 and 71 bus routes.

Popular culture

Scenes from the HBO television series The Sopranos were filmed in West Caldwell, including the exterior shots of the Soprano house and the fifth-season episode "Rat Pack".

The Marvel Comics techno-terrorist organization Advanced Idea Mechanics has a base of operations in West Caldwell.

Images for kids


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