Gladstone, Queensland facts for kids
Auckland Inlet, with the Gladstone Power Station in the background
|Area:||240.2 km² (92.7 sq mi) (2011 urban)|
|Time zone:||AEST (No Daylight Saving) (UTC+10)|
|Location:||532 km (331 mi) from Brisbane|
|LGA:||Gladstone Regional Council, City of Gladstone|
Gladstone // is a city in the Gladstone Region, Queensland, Australia. It is approximately 550 km (340 mi) by road north of Brisbane and 100 km (62 mi) south-east of Rockhampton. Situated between the Calliope and Boyne Rivers, Gladstone is home to Queensland's largest multi-commodity shipping port.
Gladstone, together with Boyne Island and Tannum Sands, had an estimated urban population of 49,248 at June 2015. This urban area covers 240.2 km2 (92.7 sq mi).
Gladstone is the largest settlement within and the seat of the Gladstone Regional Council, which formed in 2008 amalgamating three former local government areas.
Before European settlement, the Gladstone region was home of the Toolooa (or Tulua), Meerooni and Baiali (or Byellee) Aboriginal tribes.
In May 1770, the HM Bark Endeavour, under the command of James Cook, sailed by the entrance to Gladstone Harbour under the cover of darkness. Matthew Flinders, during his 1801–1803 circumnavigation of Australia, became the first recorded European to sight the harbour in August 1802. He named the harbour Port Curtis, after Admiral Roger Curtis, a man who was of assistance to Flinders a year earlier at the Cape of Good Hope. John Oxley conducted further exploration of the harbour and surrounding countryside in November 1823. Oxley was dismissive of the region, noting the harbour was difficult to enter, the countryside was too dry, and the timber useless for construction purposes.
Nevertheless, a colony was eventually established at Port Curtis. Colonel George Barney's expedition was eventful. On 25 January 1847, the Lord Auckland, carrying 87 soldiers and convicts, arrived off the southern entrance of Port Curtis and promptly ran aground on shoals off the southern tip of Facing Island. The settlers spent seven weeks on the island before being rescued by the supply ship Thomas Lowry and delivered the intended site of settlement, the region now known as Barney Point.
On 30 January at a proclamation ceremony, Barney was sworn in as Lieutenant Governor of the colony of North Australia. The convict settlement lasted barely two months. A change of government in Britain ordered the withdrawal of Barney and the settlers. However, interest in the region remained. By 1853, Francis MacCabe was surveying the site of a new town on the shores of Port Curtis. Maurice O'Connell was appointed government resident the following year, resulting in an influx of free settlers as land became available throughout the region. In 1863, the town became a Municipality with Richard Hetherington elected Gladstone's first mayor.
The fledgling town was named after the British Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone and has a 19th-century marble statue on display in its town museum.
Development of Gladstone was slow until 1893, when a meatworks was established at Parsons Point.
On 2 March 1949, a major cyclone hit Gladstone, doing extensive damage to the town.
In 1963, Queensland Alumina Limited established its alumina refinery on the site of the old meatworks. Gladstone's port facilities were expanded and the city launched into an era of industrial development and economic prosperity.
Gladstone has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
- 94 Auckland Street: Gladstone Central State School, Block B
- Gladstone-Monto Road: Glengarry Homestead
- Goondoon Street: Our Lady Star of the Sea Church & School
- 1 Goondoon Street: Port Curtis Sailing Club Clubhouse
- 33 Goondoon Street: Gladstone Post Office
- 40 Goondoon Street: Kullaroo House
- 114 Goondoon Street: Commonwealth Bank Building
- 144 Goondoon Street: Gladstone Regional Art Gallery and Museum (Old Town Hall)
- Roseberry Street: Fig Tree
- 6 Short Street: Port Curtis Co-operative Dairy Association Ltd Factory
- 16 Yarroon Street: Gladstone Court House
* — the historic centre of the city and major business district
Gladstone experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification cfa) and is one of the northernmost places in Australia to have this classification. Extreme temperatures in Gladstone have ranged from 4.4 to 42.0 °C (39.9 to 107.6 °F). These temperatures were recorded by the Bureau of Meteorology. The temperature recording for the below table were performed at the following location - 23.8553°S 151.2628°E 75m AMSL
|Climate data for Gladstone|
|Record high °C (°F)||38.3
|Average high °C (°F)||31.2
|Average low °C (°F)||22.5
|Record low °C (°F)||12.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||143.4
|Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology|
Boyne Island and Tannum Sands
Boyne Island and Tannum Sands have grown in popularity because of their beautiful beaches and relaxed lifestyle. The Millennium Esplanade is a big attraction where there are lots of shelters, barbecues and walking paths, and long stretches of beach. Boyne Island and Tannum Sands are not part of the Gladstone township but are part of the Gladstone region and formerly part of the Calliope Shire.
A little further afield (25 km south of Gladstone) is Lake Awoonga. The recreation area has free barbecues, swimming, landscaped walking trails, as well as a caravan park. The lake has been stocked with several fish species since 1996, and over 2 million barramundi have been released. In addition to the fishing, Lake Awoonga has many natural attractions, especially the wildlife, with more than 225 species of birds (or over 27% of Australia's bird species) found in the region. Lake Awoonga is also the primary source of Gladstone's water supply. Awoonga dam is not part of the Gladstone township but is part of the Gladstone region and formerly part of the Calliope Shire.
The Dawson Highway originates in Gladstone, and it runs westwards for approximately 400 km (250 mi) to Springsure.
Gladstone is a major stop on the North Coast railway line, with long-distance passenger trains operated by QR Traveltrain stopping in the area. Gladstone is also the transshipping point for export coal from the Moura and Blackwater coal basins, and is the largest coal export port in The Southern Hemisphere. Currently, coal trains of up to 1.7 kilometers in length and 10,600 tonnes gross weight are run by rail operators Aurizon and Pacific National to unload at coal terminals at Barney Point, Clinton and Yarwun. Domestic coal is also railed to the Gladstone Power Station and the Queensland Alumina Limited refinery. An extensive rail facility is located at Callemondah to support these operations.
Gladstone was also a major terminus for rail freight and bulk fuel, with extensive marshaling yards at Gladstone, South Gladstone and Auckland Point. As is the case in much of Queensland this traffic, declining from the 1990s, has now ceased with goods carried by road.
Gladstone Airport is located in the western suburbs of Gladstone about 6 km (3.7 mi) (8 minute drive) from the centre of the city.
The main provider of scheduled passenger air services has been Qantaslink, using mostly Boeing 717 aircraft though Flight West Airlines and Ansett also previously offered service. Strategic Airlines briefly offered services in 2011 and Virgin Australia commenced flights in October 2011 and now offers up to 6 return flights a day to Brisbane mostly on ATR 72 aircraft with Embraer 190 and Boeing 737 also a regular appearance in the schedule. New players JetGo started flying direct services from Sydney in December 2014. The service was offered twice daily, in 36 seat Embraer 135LR jets but ceased in February 2015.
In May 2009, a $65 million upgrade to the airport and nearby area was undertaken, which reached completion in 2011.
The Port of Gladstone is Queensland's largest multi-commodity port and the fifth largest multi-commodity port in Australia. It is the world's fourth largest coal exporting terminal.
Images for kids
Gladstone, Queensland Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.