Quick facts for kids
Prefecture building of the Landes department, in Mont-de-Marsan
Location of Landes in France
|Département||4 March 1790|
|• Total||9,242.6 km2 (3,568.6 sq mi)|
|• Density||43.32947/km2 (112.2228/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||FR-40|
Landes (Gascon: Lanas) is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of France. Landes is the plural of the French word lande (in English:heathland); it was named so because it was the most common habitat in the region.
It is well known for the Côte d'Argent beach that attracts many surfers to Mimizan and Hossegor each year.
The department was formed during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790 with parts of the old provinces of Guyenne and Gascony. It was divided into four districts: Dax, Mont-de-Marsan, Saint-Sever and Tartas. The capital was Mont-de-Marsan.
The arrondissement of Dax, Mont-de-Marsan and Saint-Sever were established on 17 February 1800. The arrondissement of Saint-Sever was dissolved on 10 September 1926 and integrated into the arrondissements of Dax and Mont-de-Marsan.
The department is bordered to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the north by the Gironde, to the northeast by Lot-et-Garonne and the south by the Pyrénées-Atlantiques; these three departments are, like Landes, of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region. To the east, it borders with the Gers department of the Occitanie region.
|Atlantic Ocean||Gers (Occitanie)|
The most important river is the Adour, which crosses the southern part of the department in an east-west direction; in Dax, the river turns to the southwest and is joined by the Gaves réunis before flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.
The forest of Landes is the largest forest in France. It covers about 67% of the department in its northern part, and also covers a large part of the Gironde and Lot-et-Garonne (arrondissement of Nérac). The main species of tree is the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).
The average temperature for the year in Mont-de-Marsan is 13.5 °C (56.3 °F). The warmest month, on average, is July with an average temperature of 21.4 °C (70.5 °F). The coolest month on average is January, with an average temperature of 6.2 °C (43.2 °F).
The average amount of precipitation for the year in Mont-de-Marsan is 693.4 mm (27.3 in). The month with the most precipitation on average is October with 71.1 mm (2.8 in) of precipitation. The month with the least precipitation on average is August with an average of 40.6 mm (1.6 in).
The department is managed by the Departmental Council of the Landes in Mont-de-Marsan.
- Adour Armagnac (4001)
- Chalosse Tursan (4002)
- Côte d'Argent (4003)
- Coteau de Chalosse (4004)
- Dax-1 (4005)
- Dax-2 (4006)
- Grands Lacs (4007)
- Haute Lande Armagnac (4008)
- Marensin Sud (4009)
- Mont-de-Marsan-1 (4010)
- Mont-de-Marsan-2 (4011)
- Orthe et Arrigans (4012)
- Pays morcenais tarusate (4013)
- Pays Tyrossais (4014)
- Seignanx (4015)
The inhabitants of Landes are known, in French, as Landais (women: Landaises).
The department of Landes has a population, in 2014, of 400,477, for a population density of 43.3 inhabitants/km2. The arrondissement of Dax has 220,656 inhabitants and the arrondissement of Mont-de-Marsan, where is the prefecture of the departement, has only 179,821 inhabitants.
Evolution of the population in Landes
The 10 main cities in the department are:
Landes Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.