3rd millennium BC facts for kids
|Millennia:||4th millennium BC · 3rd millennium BC · 2nd millennium BC|
|Centuries:||30th century BC · 29th century BC · 28th century BC · 27th century BC · 26th century BC · 25th century BC · 24th century BC · 23rd century BC · 22nd century BC · 21st century BC|
The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age.
This was a period of time in which the desire to conquer was common. Expansion occurred throughout the Middle East and throughout Eurasia, with Indo-European expansion to Anatolia, Europe and Central Asia. The civilization of Ancient Egypt rose to a peak with the Old Kingdom. World population is estimated to have doubled in the course of the millennium to 30 million people.
- Near East
- c. 2900–2350 BC: Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)
- c. 2334–2154 BC: Akkadian Empire
- 3100–2686 BC: Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)
- c. 2700 BC–1600 BC: Old Elamite period.
- 2686–2181 BC Old Kingdom of Egypt
- 2181–2055 BC First Intermediate Period of Egypt
- c. 3000 BC: Nubian A-Group Culture comes to an end.
- c. 2300 BC: Nubian C-Group culture.
- Further information: Neolithic Europe
- c. 3200 BC: Cycladic culture in Aegean islands of Greece.
- c. 3200 BC–3100 BC: Helladic culture in mainland Greece.
- c. 3200 BC–2800 BC: Ozieri culture.
- Founding of Europe's oldest civilization, the Minoan Civilization in 3000 BC.
- Corded Ware culture (also Battle-axe culture, or Single Grave culture).
- Late Maikop culture.
- Late Vinca culture.
- Globular Amphora culture.
- Early Beaker culture.
- Yamnaya culture, Catacomb culture, likely loci of Indo-European Satemization.
- The Sintashta-Petrovka-Arkaim culture emerges from the Catacomb culture from about 2200 BC, likely locus of Proto-Indo-Iranian.
- Butmir culture.
- Late Funnelbeaker culture.
- Baden culture.
- Gaudo culture.
- South Asia
- East and Southeast Asia
- Longshan culture
- Baodun culture
- Shijiahe culture
- Liangzhu culture
- Majiayao culture
- Lower Xiajiadian culture
- c. 2500 BC: Austronesian peoples from Formosa colonize Luzon in northern Philippines.
- Mesoamerican Archaic period
- Old Copper Complex
- Caral/Norte Chico civilization.
- Sub-Saharan Africa
- Savanna Pastoral Neolithic
Certain 4th millennium BC events were precursors to the 3rd millennium BC:
- c. 3700 BC: Lothal: Indus Valley trade-port city in India.
- c. 3650 BC–3000 BC: Minoan culture appeared on Crete.
- c. 3200 BC/3100 BC: Helladic culture and Cycladic culture both emerge in Greece.
The 3rd millennium BC included the following key events:
- c. 3000 BC: Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt.
- c. 3000 BC: First evidence of gold being used in the Middle East.
- c. 3000 BC: Nubian A-Group, Ta-Seeti "kingdom" came to an end, possibly due to raids by Egypt.
- c. 3000 BC–2000 BC: Vessels from Denmark are made; they are now at National Museum, Copenhagen.
- c. 2890 BC: Second Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Hotepsekhemwy.
- Syria: Foundation of the city of Mari (29th century BC).
- Semitic tribes occupy Assyria in northern part of the plain of Shinar and Akkad.
- Phoenicians settle on Syrian coast, with centers at Tyre and Sidon.
- Beginning of the period of the mythical Sage Kings in China, also known as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
- c. 2879 BC: Rise of the mythical Văn Lang Kingdom and the Hồng Bàng Dynasty in northern Viet Nam.
- c. 2800 BC–2700 BC: Harp Player, from Keros, Cyclades, was made. It is now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
- Iran: Creation of the Kingdom of Elam.
- Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree "Methuselah" about 2700 BC, one of the oldest known trees still living now.
- c. 2686 BC: Third Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Sanakhte.
- c. 2613 BC: Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Sneferu.
- c. 2600 BC: Founding of the Chalcolithic Iberian civilizations of Los Millares and Zambujal.
- 2600 BC: Unified Indus Valley Civilisation.
- c. 2500 BC: The state of Assyria is established.
- c. 2500 BC: Excavation and development of the Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni at Paola, Malta, a subterranean temple complex subsequently used as a necropolis.
- c. 2500 BC–2200 BC: Incised panel "Frying pan", from Syros, Cyclades is made; it is now at the National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
- c. 2500 BC–2200 BC: Two figures of women, from the Cyclades, are made; they are now at Museum of Cycladic Art, Athens.
- Dynasty of Lagash in Sumer.
- 2474 BC–2398 BC: Golden age of Ur in Mesopotamia.
- c. 2498 BC: Fifth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Userkaf.
- c. 2492 BC: The Armenian patriarch Hayk defeats the Babylonian king Bel (legendary account).
- c. 2345 BC: Sixth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Teti.
- 2334 BC: Sargon of Akkad conquers Mesopotamia, establishing the Akkadian Empire.
- c. 2300 BC: C-Group pastoralists arrive in Nubia.
- c. 2181 BC: Seventh and Eighth Dynasty of Egypt (2181–2160).
- c. 2160 BC: Ninth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Akhtoy Meryibtowe.
- c. 2130 BC: Tenth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Meryhathor.
- c. 2134 BC: Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Mentuhotep I.
- Megalithic, Corded Ware culture and the Beaker flourish in Europe.
- Sumerian poetry, lamenting the death of Tammuz, the shepherd god.
- Sumerian cuneiform writing (reduces pictographs still in use to about 550 BC).
- Major religious festival in Sumeria celebrates victory of god of spring over goddess of chaos.
- Earliest Trojan culture.
- Glass beads in Egypt.
- Beginning of the Pengtoushan culture in China.
- The world's last surviving mammoth population, on Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean, goes extinct, sometime between 2500 and 2000 BC.
- c. 2070 BC–1600 BC: The legendary Xia Dynasty in China.
- Imhotep, first known architect, physician and engineer in Ancient history.
- The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors of China.
- Djoser, king of Egypt, commissions the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.
- Gilgamesh, fifth king of the First Dynasty of Uruk, immortalized in the world's first literary work the Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 26th century BC).
- Khufu, king of Egypt, builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
- Urukagina, king of Lagash, creates the first known judicial code (24th century BC).
- Lugalsaggizi, king of Uruk and Umma conquers Lagash (2371 BC–2347 BC).
- Sargon the Great, founder of the empire of Akkad and Sumer (2371 BC–2316 BC middle chronology).
- Ur-Nammu founder of the 3rd dynasty of Ur (2112 BC–2095 BC middle chronology).
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- c. 3500 BC: Indus script develops in Indus Valley Civilization.
- Pottery develops in Americas (30th century BC).
- c. 3000 BC: Potter's wheel appears in Mesopotamia.
- 2900 BC–2400 BC: Sumerians invent phonogram (linguistics).
- 2650 BC: Reservoirs, script, metals and pottery used in the city of Dholavira in Indus Valley Civilization.
- c. 2300 BC: Metals are used in Northern Europe.
- Chinese record a comet.
- Building of the Great Pyramid of Giza (26th century BC).
- Sails used on ships (20th century BC).
- First ziggurats built in Sumer.
- Near East civilizations enter Bronze Age around 3000 BC.
- Oldest known medicine wheel constructed in the Americas.
- First Copper (~2500 BC) and then Bronze (~2000 BC) and other types of metallurgy are introduced to Ireland.
- Domestication of the horse with the coming of Indo-Europeans in central Eurasia.
- The chariot emerges in Eurasian Steppe just before 2000 BC.
- The camel (dromedary) domesticated (though widespread use took until mid-to-late 2nd millennium BC).
- Indoor plumbing and sewage in the Indus Valley Civilization.
- Sumerian medicine discovers the healing qualities of mineral springs.
- Weaving loom known in Europe.
- Sumerian numerical system based on multiples of 6 and 12.
- Egyptians begin use of papyrus.
- Austronesian peoples have developed lateen sail, and the out-rigger as well as extensive development of celestial navigation systems.
- c. 3000 BC–2500 BC: Tomb, Newgrange, Ireland, was built.
- c. 2750 BC–1500 BC: Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England, is built.
- Completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
- Completion of first phase of Stonehenge monument in England.
- Era of Buena Vista pyramid/observatory in Peru.
- The Sydney rock engravings in Sydney, Australia, which are examples of Aboriginal rock art, date from around 3000 BC.
3rd millennium BC Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.