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City of Fairfax, Virginia
City of Fairfax
Old Town of Fairfax City
Old Town of Fairfax City
Official seal of City of Fairfax, Virginia
Seal
Nicknames: 
Downtown Fairfax, Fairfax City, Historic Fairfax
Location of Fairfax in Virginia
Location of Fairfax in Virginia
City of Fairfax, Virginia is located in Northern Virginia
City of Fairfax, Virginia
City of Fairfax, Virginia
Location in Northern Virginia
City of Fairfax, Virginia is located in Virginia
City of Fairfax, Virginia
City of Fairfax, Virginia
Location in Virginia
City of Fairfax, Virginia is located in the United States
City of Fairfax, Virginia
City of Fairfax, Virginia
Location in the United States
Country  United States
State  Virginia
Pre-incorporation County Flag of Fairfax County, Virginia.svg Fairfax County (none after incorporation – Independent city)
Founded 1869
Government
 • Type Council–manager government
Area
 • Total 6.27 sq mi (16.25 km2)
 • Land 6.24 sq mi (16.16 km2)
 • Water 0.03 sq mi (0.08 km2)
Elevation
312 ft (95 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total 24,146
 • Density 3,851.0/sq mi (1,485.9/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
22030–22033
Area codes 703, 571
FIPS code 51-26496
GNIS feature ID 1498476

The City of Fairfax ( FAIR-faks), colloquially known as Fairfax City, Downtown Fairfax, Old Town Fairfax, Fairfax Courthouse, or simply Fairfax, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 22,565, which had risen to 24,146 at the 2020 Census.

The City of Fairfax is an enclave surrounded by the separate political entity Fairfax County. Fairfax City also contains an exclave of Fairfax County, the Fairfax County Court Complex.

The City of Fairfax and the area immediately surrounding the historical border of the City of Fairfax, collectively designated by Fairfax County as "Fairfax", comprise the county seat of Fairfax County. The city is part of the Washington metropolitan area as well as a part of Northern Virginia. The city is 17 miles (27 km) west of Washington, D.C. The Washington Metro's Orange Line serves Fairfax through its Vienna station, which is a mile northeast of the city limits. CUE Bus and Metrobus operate in Fairfax. Virginia Railway Express's Burke Centre station is situated three miles southeast of the city's boundaries. Virginia's largest public educational institution with 35,189 students in 2017 is George Mason University, which is located in unincorporated Fairfax County, along the city's southern border while still having a City of Fairfax address and sharing the same public transportation system.

History

Fairfax court house during the Civil War
Fairfax Court House, Virginia, with Union soldiers in front and on the roof, June 1863

The city derives its name from Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, who was awarded five million acres (20,000 km²) of land in northern Virginia by King Charles. The area that the city now encompasses was settled in the early 18th century by farmers from Virginia's Tidewater region. The town of "Providence" was established on the site by an act of the state legislature in 1805.

The town (then described as a village) was the scene of the first land battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Fairfax Court House. On June 1, 1861, a Union scouting party clashed with the local militia, though neither side gained an advantage. A second battle was waged two years later on June 27, 1863. At the Battle of Fairfax Court House (June 1863), Union troops were defeated. However, the battle delayed the movements of Confederate cavalry chief Jeb Stuart, with disastrous consequences for Lee at Gettysburg a few days later.

Fairfax was officially renamed the "Town of Fairfax" in 1874. It was incorporated as a city in 1961, and under Virginia law was separated from Fairfax County (though it remains the county seat).

In 1904, a trolley line was built connecting Fairfax with Washington, D.C.

Important buildings

The former Fairfax County Courthouse is the oldest and most historic building in Fairfax. The first Fairfax courthouse was established in 1742 near present-day Tyson's Corner, and is the namesake for Old Courthouse Road. It intersects with Gallows Road, which today is a major commuter route, but at the time was the road where condemned prisoners were led to the gallows at the old courthouse. In 1752, the courthouse was moved to Alexandria, which offered to build the new courthouse at their own expense. (The reason the courthouse was moved from the Tyson's Corner location was because of "Indian hostilities", as noted on the stone marker at the northwest corner of Gallows Road and Route 123.) The courthouse operated there until 1790, when Virginia ceded the land where the courthouse was located for the creation of Washington, DC. The General Assembly specified that the new courthouse should be located in the center of the county, and was established at the corner of Old Little River Turnpike (now Main Street) and Ox Road (now Chain Bridge Road) on land donated by town founder Richard Ratcliffe. The courthouse changed hands repeatedly during the Civil War, and the first officer casualty, John Quincy Marr, occurred on the grounds. Its design was used as a prototype for many Virginia courthouses built between 1800 and 1850. The first meeting of the Fairfax Court was held April 21, 1800. During the Civil War the courthouse was used by Union forces as a military headquarters, which resulted in the damage or loss of several records. The original Fairfax County Courthouse was used as the Fairfax County Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court until 2009, when that court moved to the expanded main courthouse.

The oldest two-story building in the city, built in 1873, the Fairfax Public School or Old Fairfax Elementary School Annex for $2,750. In addition to elementary school use the building has also housed special education, adult education, and police academy training. On July 4, 1992 the building became the Fairfax Museum and Visitor Center. Joseph Edward Willard built the town hall building in 1900 then gifted it to the then town in 1902. The Old Town Hall now houses the Huddleston Library and the Fairfax Art League.

Sites on the National Register of Historic Places

Site Year built Address Listed
29 Diner (Tastee 29 Diner) 1947 10536 Fairfax Boulevard 1992
Blenheim 1855 3610 Old Lee Highway 2001
City of Fairfax Historic District Junction of VA 236 and VA 123 1987
Old Fairfax County Courthouse* (now the Juvenile Court) 1800 4000 Chain Bridge Road 1974
Old Fairfax County Jail 1891 10475 Main Street 1981
Fairfax Public School (Old Fairfax Elementary School Annex) 1873 10209 Main Street 1992
Ratcliffe-Allison House 1812 10386 Main Street 1973
*The Old Courthouse and the Old Jail lie within the county exclave within the city.

Geography

The city of Fairfax is located close to the geographic center of Fairfax County, at 38°51′9″N 77°18′15″W / 38.85250°N 77.30417°W / 38.85250; -77.30417 (38.852612, −77.304377). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.3 square miles (16.3 km2), of which all but 0.04 square miles (0.1 km2) is land.

While the city is the county seat, a small portion of the county comprising the courthouse complex, the jail and a small area nearby is itself an exclave of the county within the city. Fairfax County's Government Center is west of the City of Fairfax.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 376
1890 376 0.0%
1900 373 −0.8%
1910 413 10.7%
1920 516 24.9%
1930 640 24.0%
1940 979 53.0%
1950 1,946 98.8%
1960 13,585 598.1%
1970 21,970 61.7%
1980 20,537 −6.5%
1990 19,622 −4.5%
2000 21,498 9.6%
2010 22,565 5.0%
2020 24,146 7.0%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790–1960 1900–1990
1990–2000 2010 2020

2020 census

Fairfax city, Virginia - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010 Pop 2020 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 13,849 12,911 61.37% 53.47%
Black or African American alone (NH) 1,030 1,052 4.56% 4.36%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 62 44 0.27% 0.18%
Asian alone (NH) 3,403 4,519 15.08% 18.72%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 11 9 0.05% 0.04%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 48 204 0.21% 0.84%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 606 1,129 2.69% 4.68%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 3,556 4,278 15.76% 17.72%
Total 22,565 24,146 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

2010 Census

Fairfax City Parade - 2014-07-04 - Tinkus Wapurys dancers - 3
2014 4th of July parade dance group Fraternidad Tinkus Wapurys

As of the census of 2010, there were 22,565 people, 8,347 households, and 5,545 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,581.7 people per square mile (1382.9/km2). There were 8,680 housing units at an average density of 1,377.8 per square mile (532.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 69.6% White, 15.2% Asian, 4.7% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.9% from other races, and 4.0% from two or more races. 15.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

In 2000 there were 8,347 households, out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.6% were non-families. 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 20.4% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 36.2% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, and 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $67,642, and the median income for a family was $78,921 (these figures had risen to $93,441 and $105,046 respectively as of a 2007 estimate). Males had a median income of $50,348 versus $38,351 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,247. About 2.4% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 2.1% of those age 65 or over.

Annual events

  • Chocolate Lovers Festival
The annual Chocolate Lover's Festival is held in the heart of Old Town Fairfax in early March. Events have included craft shows, historic building open houses, children's activities, collections of vendors selling various edible chocolate products, and even chocolate sculpture contests.
  • Fairfax Civil War Day
Every year, during the Spring, a Civil War re-enactment camp is held at the Blenheim estate, a city-owned historical property. The encampment features military muster, drill, and a firing demonstration.
  • Fairfax Spotlight on the Arts
Each April, the City of Fairfax, in cooperation with George Mason University, Northern Virginia Community College and City of Fairfax schools, sponsors the Fairfax Spotlight on the Arts Festival. The festival runs for three weeks and features music, dance, theater, art and choral concerts. Events take place at venues throughout the city and the colleges.
  • National Trails Day
In June, a National Trails Day is held to celebrate the trails, open spaces and parks in the City of Fairfax.
  • Independence Day Celebration Parade and Evening Show
The largest hometown parade and fireworks celebration in the Washington metropolitan region is held in the City of Fairfax. The day's events include a parade through Old Town Fairfax, tours of historic buildings and local museums, an Old Fashioned Fireman's Day at the Fire Station #3, and a live concert and fireworks display at Fairfax High School.
  • Irish Festival
In September, a festival of Irish and Celtic song, dance and music is held in and around Old Town Fairfax.
  • Fall for the Book Festival
Each fall, the Fall for the Book Festival features readings, discussions, lectures and exhibits from nationally-recognized writers and professionals. Festival events are held in the City of Fairfax, at George Mason University, and throughout the metropolitan Washington region. Two community reading programs coordinate with Fall for the Book: "All Fairfax Reads," coordinated by the Fairfax County Public Library, and "Mason Reads" at George Mason University.
  • Fall Festival
A Fall Festival is held in historic downtown Fairfax on the second Saturday in October. This event includes more than 500 arts, crafts, and food vendors, and is usually held outdoors on the streets of the city. Attendance is about 35,000 to 45,000.
  • The Holiday Craft Show
An annual Holiday Craft Show is held at Fairfax High School on the third Saturday and Sunday of November. The event features hundreds of craft vendors. Attendance is about 8,000 to 10,000.
  • Festival of Lights & Carols
On the first Saturday in December, the city holds a Festival of Lights and Carols. Activities include photos with Santa, caroling, a yule log, hot mulled cider, illumination of Old Town Fairfax, and the lighting of the city Christmas tree.

Economy

Old Town Fairfax has undergone an extensive redevelopment, which began in 2005. The redevelopment added a new City of Fairfax Regional Library, more than 45,000 square feet (4,200 m2) of retail and restaurant space, more than 70,000 square feet (6,500 m2) of office condominiums, and 85 upscale residential condominium units.

In May 2009, Fairfax was rated as No. 3 in the "Top 25 Places to Live Well" by Forbes Magazine. Forbes commended Fairfax for its strong public school system, high median salary, and a rate of sole proprietors per capita that ranks it in the top 1 percent nationwide. According to the magazine, "These factors are increasingly important in a recession. When businesses and jobs retract, as they have nationwide, municipalities with strong environments for start-ups, and those that offer attractive amenities, are better suited to recover from economic downtimes, as there are more business activity filling the void."

Top employers

According to the city's 2021 Annual Comprehensive Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 City of Fairfax 250-499
2 Zeta Associates 250-499
3 Ted Britt Ford 250-499
4 Inova Health System 250-499
5 Home Depot 100-249
6 Farrish of Fairfax 100-249
7 Fairfax Volkswagen, Honda 100-249
8 Lowe's 100-249
9 Ourisman Fairfax Toyota 100-249
10 Tradesource Specialty Services, Inc. 100-249

Sports

Rugby League

The Fairfax Eagles rugby league team plays in the American National Rugby League.

Education

Primary and secondary schools

Fairfax High School
Fairfax High School

The public schools in the City of Fairfax are owned by the city, but administered by the Fairfax County Public Schools system under contractual agreement with Fairfax County. U.S. News & World Report often ranks Fairfax County schools among the best in the country. City of Fairfax schools are Fairfax High School, Lanier Middle School, Daniels Run Elementary School, Providence Elementary School, and Fairfax Academy.

Schools within the city that are not owned by the government include the Boyd School, Gesher Jewish Day School, Kellar School of Inova Kellar Center, Lee Highway KinderCare, Little Flock Christian School, Northern Virginia Christian Academy, Oak Valley Center, Paul VI Catholic High School (moved in 2020-2021), The Salvation Army University View Child Care Center, Saint Leo The Great School, Trinity Christian School, and Truro Preschool & Kindergarten.

Colleges and universities

George Mason University, the largest university in the Commonwealth of Virginia, is located just to the south of the Fairfax city limits. Mason began as an extension of the University of Virginia in 1949 named the Northern Virginia University Center of the University of Virginia. The Town of Fairfax purchased 150 acres (0.61 km2) for the university in 1958, though the property remained within the county when the town became a city. After several name changes in 1972 the institution became George Mason University. Mason is most known for its programs in economics, law, creative writing, computer science, and business. In recent years, George Mason faculty have twice won the Nobel Prize in Economics. The university enrolls 33,917 students, making it the largest university by head count in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Public libraries

Fairfax County Public Library operates the City of Fairfax Regional Library in Fairfax. The library includes the Virginia Room, a collection of books, photographs, and manuscripts related to Fairfax County history, government, and genealogy.

Infrastructure

Roads

2016-10-26 13 03 36 View west along U.S. Route 50 and north along Virginia State Route 237 (Fairfax Boulevard) between Pickett Road and U.S. Route 29 (Lee Highway) in Fairfax, Virginia
The junction of US 29, US 50 and SR 237 in Fairfax

The intersection of U.S. Route 50 and U.S. Route 29 is located in the northeast corner of the city. The two major highways join to form Fairfax Boulevard for approximately 2.8 miles (4.5 km) through the city before separating. State Route 123, State Route 236 and State Route 237 pass through the city. SR 236 is named Main Street in the city and then becomes Little River Turnpike once the city line is crossed. Interstate 66 passes just outside the city limits and is the major highway serving the Fairfax region. Connections to I-66 from the city can be made via U.S. Route 50 and State Route 123.

Public transportation

Northeast Regional at Burke Centre station, August 2010
A Northeast Regional train at Burke Centre station in August 2010

Rail

Although these stations are located outside city limits, trips to and from Fairfax are served by:

Bus

  • The City of Fairfax operates the CUE Bus, an independent bus network.
  • Multiple routes of the Washington Metrobus serve Fairfax.

E-Scooters and Dockless Mobility

  • In February 2019, the city has launched a one-year pilot program for e-scooters and other dockless transportation. Three micro-mobility companies have been chosen to run the pilot, Bird company alongside Lime and Spin.

Notable people

  • Adam Birch, former WWE professional wrestler known as Joey Mercury; born in Fairfax
  • Bobby (Kim Ji-Won), rapper in popular South Korean pop group iKon
  • Sam Champion (raised in Fairfax and a graduate of Fairfax High School), weather anchor of ABC's Good Morning America and weather editor of ABC News
  • Serena Deeb, former WWE professional wrestler; born in Fairfax
  • Lewis J. Fields, United States Marine Corps Lieutenant general, lived in Fairfax following his retirement from military.
  • Victor Gold, journalist and political consultant who resided in Fairfax.
  • Will "Meteos" Hartman, League of Legends player for Cloud9 and Phoenix1, born in Massachusetts and raised in Fairfax
  • Christina Hendricks, actress, went to high school in Fairfax
  • Joseph R. Jelinek, United States Army brigadier general, lived in Fairfax while serving as Deputy Director of the Army National Guard
  • Courtney Jines, actress
  • Lamar Johnstone (1886–1919), silent film actor
  • Brian Kendrick, WWE wrestler, born in Fairfax
  • Sabrina Lloyd, actress on the TV series Sliders and Sports Night, born in Fairfax
  • Jay Matternes, paleoartist
  • TobyMac, award-winning Christian singer/songwriter
  • Lorenzo Odone, subject of the 1992 film Lorenzo's Oil
  • Jeremy Olander, Swedish DJ and electronic music producer, born in Fairfax
  • Park Yu-hwan, South Korean-born actor, and brother of Yoochun; raised in Fairfax.
  • Aldric Saucier, scientist and whistleblower.
  • Mike Schleibaum, band Darkest Hour founding member and guitarist, born in Fairfax
  • Michael Schwimer, Major League Baseball player
  • Nathan Sonenshein, rear admiral
  • Frank Stephens, disability advocate, actor and athlete
  • Victoria Stiles, makeup artist
  • Jason Sudeikis, actor and comedian, formerly a cast member of Saturday Night Live
  • Pierre Thuot, Space Shuttle astronaut aboard Atlantis, Endeavour, and Columbia, raised in Fairfax and graduated from Fairfax High School
  • Matt Tifft, NASCAR driver
  • Jarvis Varnado, former NBA player
  • Yoochun, South Korean-born actor, member of pop band JYJ, and former member of TVXQ; raised in Fairfax

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