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Sea of Marmara
Marmara Denizi
Sea of Marmara map.png
Map of the Sea of Marmara
Location Europe and Asia
Type Inland Sea
Primary inflows Simav River, Biga Çayı, Nilüfer River
Primary outflows Turkish Straits
Catchment area 11,500 km2 (4,400 sq mi)
Basin countries Turkey
Surface area 11,350 km2 (4,380 sq mi)
Average depth 494 m (1,621 ft)
Max. depth 1,370 m (4,490 ft)
Water volume 3,378 km3 (810 cu mi)
Islands Marmara Island, Avşa, İmralı, Prince Islands, Paşalimanı and Ekinlik Island
Settlements Istanbul, Bursa, İzmit, Tekirdağ, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, and Yalova

The Sea of Marmara, also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, is the inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea. It separates Turkey's Asian and European parts. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Black Sea and the Dardanelles strait to the Aegean. The Sea has an area of 11,350 km² (280 km x 80 km) with the greatest depth reaching 1,370 m.


The salinity of the sea averages about 22 parts per thousand. This is slightly greater than that of the Black Sea but only about two-thirds that of most oceans. The water is much more saline at the sea-bottom, averaging salinities of around 38 parts per thousand — similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea. Water from the Susurluk, Biga (Granicus) and Gonen Rivers reduces the salinity of the sea.

There are two major island groups known as the Princes' and Marmara islands.

The south coast of the sea includes the Gulf of Izmit, the Gulf of Gemlik and the Gulf of Erdek.

The North Anatolian fault, which has started many major earthquakes in recent years, such as the İzmit Earthquake of 1999, runs under the sea.

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