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Spinosauridae
Temporal range: Late JurassicLate Cretaceous, 152–85Ma
Skeletal reconstruction of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, National Geographic Museum, Washington, D.C.
Scientific classification
Type species
Spinosaurus aegyptiacus
Stromer, 1915
Subgroups
Synonyms
  • Baryonychidae Charig & Milner, 1986
  • Irritatoridae Martill et al., 1996
  • Sigilmassasauridae Russel, 1996

Spinosauridae (meaning 'spined lizards') is a family of carnivorous theropod dinosaurs from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. They are unique among other meat-eating dinosaurs from their more water-based lifestyle, which involved a diet of mostly fish. Spinosaurid fossils have been found all over the world, including Asia, South America, Europe, Africa, and Australia.

Description

Spinosauridae Size Diagram by PaleoGeek - Version 2
Size comparison of various spinosaurids with a human

Spinosaurids had longer arms than most theropods, the claw on the first finger was usually the largest. They evolved jaws like those of crocodiles, and their teeth were long and cone-shaped, made to trap prey in their mouths instead of tearing them apart. Because of this, their teeth usually did not have the strong knife-like edges (called serrations) of a lot of other meat-eating dinosaurs.

The family contains Spinosaurus, the first spinosaurid discovered, and the largest carnivorous dinosaur we know of. Paleontologists suggest it might have reached up to 15 meters (49 ft.) in length.

Paleobiology

A study made in 2010 by Roman Amiot and his colleagues found that spinosaurids had very semiaquatic (living partly in water, and partly on land) lifestyles, this means they lived in habitats like those of hippopotamuses, crocodiles, and turtles, making them very unusual compared to other theropods. It also means they could exist at the same time and place as other large predators without competing for food. For example; Carcharodontosaurus, which lived at the same time as Sigilmassasaurus and Spinosaurus, did not need to fight with either of those animals for prey; those spinosaurids ate fish, while Carcharodontosaurus was on land most of the time, hunting smaller dinosaurs.

Classification

The family "Spinosauridae" was named by the German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915, he was the one that discovered the first genus in the group, Spinosaurus. And as scientists discovered more fossils of its close relatives, the family was eventually split into two subfamilies: Baryonychinae, and Spinosaurinae. This was done because of differences in the anatomy of their skulls and teeth.

Spinosaurus by Joschua Knüppe
Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, the largest meat-eating dinosaur
Suchomimus and Baryonyx
Skeletons of Suchomimus and Baryonyx

This is a cladogram made in 2017 showing the relationships between different spinosaurids inside of megalosauroidea.

Megalosauroidea


Condorraptor Condorraptor (Flipped).jpg



Marshosaurus Marshosaurus restoration.jpg



Piatnitzkysaurus Piatnitzkysaurus floresi by Paleocolour.jpg





Afrovenator Afrovenator Abakensis by PaleoGeek.jpg



Dubreuillosaurus Dubreuillosaurus NT Flipped.png



Duriavenator Duriavenator NT (Flipped).jpg



Eustreptospondylus Eustrept1DB1 (Flipped).jpg



Leshansaurus



Magnosaurus Magnosaurus (Flipped).jpg



Megalosaurus Megalosaurus silhouette by Paleogeek.svg



Piveteausaurus



Torvosaurus Torvosaurus tanneri Reconstruction (Flipped).png




Baryonyx Baryonyx BW.jpg



Cristatusaurus



SuchomimusSuchomimus2 (Flipped).jpg




Angaturama




Oxalaia



MSNM V4047 (referred to Spinosaurus) Spinosaurus by Joschua Knüppe.png







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