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Sunflower County, Mississippi facts for kids

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Sunflower County
Sunflower County Courthouse
Sunflower County Courthouse
Map of Mississippi highlighting Sunflower County
Location within the U.S. state of Mississippi
Map of the United States highlighting Mississippi
Mississippi's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Mississippi
Founded 1844
Named for Sunflower River
Seat Indianola
Largest city Indianola
Area
 • Total 707 sq mi (1,830 km2)
 • Land 698 sq mi (1,810 km2)
 • Water 9.2 sq mi (24 km2)  1.3%
Population
 (2010)
 • Total 29,450
 • Estimate 
(2018)
25,735
 • Density 41.65/sq mi (16.083/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district 2nd

Sunflower County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,450. Its largest city and county seat is Indianola.

Sunflower County comprises the Indianola, MS Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Cleveland-Indianola, MS Combined Statistical Area. It is located in the Mississippi Delta region.

Mississippi State Penitentiary (Parchman Farm) is located in Sunflower County.

History

Sunflower Country was created in 1844. The land mass encompassed most of Sunflower and Leflore Counties as we know them today. The first seat of government was Clayton, located near Fort Pemberton. Later the county seat was moved to McNutt, also in the Leflore County of today. When Sunflower and Leflore Counties were separated in 1871, the new county seat for Sunflower County was moved to Johnsonville. This village was located where the north end of Mound Bayou empties into the Sunflower River. In 1882 the county seat was moved to Eureka, which was later renamed Indianola.

The Boyer Cemetery, located in Boyer, goes back to the early days of Sunflower County.

After the U.S. Civil War, across several decades African Americans migrated to Sunflower County to work in the Mississippi Delta. In 1870, 3,243 black people lived in Sunflower County. This increased to 12,070 in 1900, making up 75% of the residents in Sunflower County. Between 1900 and 1920, the black population almost tripled.

Many African Americans who had migrated to the North from the 1940s to 1970 in the Great Migration struggled with the loss of jobs in their regions following industrial restructuring. In the 1980s and 1990s, they began to send their children to the Mississippi Delta to live with relatives, thinking social conditions were better than in the inner cities.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 707 square miles (1,830 km2), of which 698 square miles (1,810 km2) is land and 9.2 square miles (24 km2) (1.3%) is water. Sunflower County is the longest county in Mississippi. The traveling distance from the southern boundary at Caile to its northern boundary at Rome is approximately 71 miles.

The center of the county is about 30 miles (48 km) east of the Mississippi River, about 40 miles (64 km) west of the hill section of Mississippi, 100 miles (160 km) north of Jackson, and about 100 miles (160 km) south of Memphis, Tennessee.

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 1,102
1860 5,019 355.4%
1870 5,015 −0.1%
1880 4,661 −7.1%
1890 9,384 101.3%
1900 16,084 71.4%
1910 28,787 79.0%
1920 46,374 61.1%
1930 66,364 43.1%
1940 61,007 −8.1%
1950 56,031 −8.2%
1960 45,750 −18.3%
1970 37,047 −19.0%
1980 34,844 −5.9%
1990 32,867 −5.7%
2000 34,369 4.6%
2010 29,450 −14.3%
2018 (est.) 25,735 −12.6%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790-1960 1900-1990
1990-2000 2010-2013

The county reached its peak population in 1930. After that, population declined from 1940 to 1990. There was considerable migration out of the rural county, especially as mechanization reduced the need for farm labor. Both whites and blacks left the county. Many African Americans migrated north or west to industrial cities to escape the social oppression and violence of Jim Crow, especially moving in the Great Migration during and after World War II, when the defense industry on the West Coast attracted many.

2020 census

Sunflower County Racial Composition
Race Num. Perc.
White 6,729 25.91%
Black or African American 18,077 69.6%
Native American 19 0.07%
Asian 84 0.32%
Pacific Islander 3 0.01%
Other/Mixed 401 1.54%
Hispanic or Latino 661 2.55%

As of the 2020 United States Census, there were 25,971 people, 8,322 households, and 5,292 families residing in the county.

2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 29,450 people living in the county. 72.9% were black or African American, 25.4% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.6% of some other race and 0.5% of two or more races. 1.4% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).

1990 census

As of the census of 1990, there were 32,341 people. The racial makeup of the county was 71.89% Black or African American, 26.40% White or European American, 0.12% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.50% from other races, and 0.28% from two or more races. 1.31% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

1980 census

As of the census of 1980, there were 30,402 people. The racial makeup of the county was 73.88% Black or African American, 24.45% White or European American, 0.15% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.52% from other races, and 0.28% from two or more races. 1.32% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

As of the census of 2000, there were 9,637 households, out of which 38.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.30% were married couples living together, 28.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.10% were non-families. 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.50.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 27.90% under the age of 18, 14.00% from 18 to 24, 30.30% from 25 to 44, 18.10% from 45 to 64, and 9.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 115.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.00 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $24,970, and the median income for a family was $29,144. Males had a median income of $26,208 versus $19,145 for females. The per capita income for the county was $11,365. About 24.60% of families and 30.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.50% of those under age 18 and 24.10% of those age 65 or over.

Sunflower County has the ninth-lowest per capita income in Mississippi and the 72nd-lowest in the United States.

Transportation

Major highways

  • US 49W.svg U.S. Highway 49W
  • US 82.svg U.S. Highway 82
  • Circle sign 3.svg Mississippi Highway 3
  • Circle sign 8.svg Mississippi Highway 8
  • Circle sign 32.svg Mississippi Highway 32

Airports

Two airports are located in unincorporated Sunflower County. Indianola Municipal Airport, near Indianola, is operated by the city. Ruleville-Drew Airport, between Drew and Ruleville, is jointly operated by the two cities.

Communities

J. Todd Moye, author of Let the People Decide: Black Freedom and White Resistance Movements in Sunflower County, Mississippi, 1945-1986, said "Sunflower County has always been overwhelmingly rural." At the end of the 20th century, the county had just four "main towns of any size."

Cities

Towns

Unincorporated communities

Ghost towns

Economy

In December 2011, Sunflower County's unemployment rate was 16.2%. The Mississippi statewide rate was 9.9%, and the U.S. overall unemployment rate was 8.3%.

As of 2012 it was one of the poorest counties in the state, and one of the poorest in the United States.

Education

Colleges and universities

Mississippi Delta Community College has a main campus in Moorhead and other locations.

Primary and secondary schools

Public schools

  • Public School Districts
    • Sunflower County Consolidated School District
    • Former districts: Drew School District, Indianola School District, Sunflower County School District

Between 2010 and 2012, the State of Mississippi had taken over all three Sunflower County school districts and put them under the conservatorship of the Mississippi Department of Education, due to academic and financial reasons.

In February 2012 the Mississippi Senate voted 43–4 to pass Senate Bill 2330, to consolidate the three school districts into one school district. The bill went to the Mississippi House of Representatives.

The Greenwood Commonwealth said that the county was an "easy target" for school merging due to the difficulties in all three school districts, and that the scenario "doesn’t leave them with much leverage to argue in favor of the status quo. And because none of them does well, none of them can object to assuming someone else's headaches. All three are beset with them." Later that month, the State Board of Education approved the consolidation of the Drew School District and the Sunflower County School District, and if Senate Bill 2330 is approved, Indianola School District will be added.

In May 2012 Governor of Mississippi Phil Bryant signed the bill into law, requiring all three districts to consolidate. SB2330 stipulates that if a county has three school districts all under conservatorship by the Mississippi Department of Education will have them consolidated into one school district serving the entire county. As of July 1, 2012, the Drew School District was consolidated with the Sunflower County School District.

Private schools

Central Delta Academy, Inverness, MS
Central Delta Academy
  • Private School
    • Indianola Academy (Indianola)
    • North Sunflower Academy (Unincorporated area)
    • Restoration Ministries Christian Academy

The Central Delta Academy in Inverness closed on May 21, 2010.

All three of the private schools originated as segregation academies.

Pillow Academy in unincorporated Leflore County, near Greenwood, enrolls some students from Sunflower County. It originally was a segregation academy.

Public libraries

The Sunflower County Library provides library services. The administration is in Indianola, and the system operates libraries in Drew, Indianola, Inverness, Moorhead, and Ruleville.

Notable people

  • Jerry Butler (Soul singer, inductee Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, born 1939)
  • Willie Best (actor, 1916–1962)
  • Craig Claiborne (Food Editor, New York Times, 1920–2000)
  • James Eastland (U.S. Senator from Mississippi, 1904–1986)
  • C. L. Franklin, father of Aretha Franklin (minister, civil rights activist, 1915–1984)
  • Fannie Lou Hamer (Civil Rights Activist, Philanthropist, 1917–1977)
  • B.B. King (bluesman, 1925–2015)
  • Sam Lacey (retired NBA basketball player, 1948–present)
  • Archie Manning (NFL quarterback, 1971–1984); father of Peyton Manning, Cooper Manning and Eli Manning
  • Charlie Patton (bluesman, 1891–1934)
  • Johnny Russell, country singer
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