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Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens - Brady-Handy-crop.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 9th district
In office
March 4, 1859 – August 11, 1868
Preceded by Anthony Roberts
Succeeded by Oliver Dickey
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 8th district
In office
March 4, 1849 – March 4, 1853
Preceded by John Strohm
Succeeded by Henry A. Muhlenberg
Personal details
Born (1792-04-04)April 4, 1792
Danville, Vermont, U.S.
Died August 11, 1868(1868-08-11) (aged 76)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Federalist, Anti-Masonic, Whig, Republican
Profession Politician

Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868) was an American Republican leader. He was one of the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives from 1849 until his death in 1868.

He was chairman of the powerful House Ways and Means Committee. Stevens was a witty, sarcastic speaker and confident party leader. He dominated the House from 1861 until his death. Stevens helped create the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. He also helped with the act that helped the Reconstruction of the United States.

Early life

Stevens was born in Danville, Vermont on April 4, 1792. He went to Dartmouth College and the University of Vermont. Stevens was never married and had no children. He was in a relationship with his black housekeeper even when slavery was legal. He wore a wig because he was bald.

Political career

He wrote much of the financial legislation that paid for the American Civil War. Stevens and Senator Charles Sumner were the prime leaders of the Radical Republicans during the war and Reconstruction era. He worked and supported Abraham Lincoln's plan to end slavery and the U.S. reconstruction plan. He was part of Andrew Johnson's impeachment.


Stevens died on August 11, 1868 in Washington, D.C. from a stomach infection, aged 76. He was buried in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

Personal life

Stevens never married. However, there were rumors about his 20-year relationship (1848–1868) with his widowed housekeeper, Lydia Hamilton Smith (1813–1884). She was a light-skinned African-American; her husband Jacob and at least one of her sons were much darker than she was.


He was played by actor Tommy Lee Jones in Steven Spielberg's 2012 biography movie Lincoln.

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