kids encyclopedia robot

Abstract art facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
(Redirected from Abstract expressionism)
Robert Delaunay, 1913, Premier Disque, 134 cm, 52.7 inches, Private collection
Robert Delaunay, 1912–13, Le Premier Disque, 134 cm (52.7 in.), private collection

Abstract art is modern art which does not represent images of our everyday world. It has color, lines, and shapes (form), but they are not meant to represent objects or living things. Often the artists were influenced by ideas and philosophies of abstraction.

Fugue
Fugue, Kandinsky 1914

Abstract art is found in painting and in sculpture. There are also many works of art that are partly abstract, and partly representational (representing real things). Many artists work in abstract and other types of modern art.

Purely abstract art is a 20th-century invention. It grew out of the earlier forms of modern art, but it is perhaps the one movement that is modern. It has no roots in earlier art (as we use the term today).

Brooklyn Museum - Xdx - Manierre Dawson - overall
Xdx, by Manierre Dawson. Brooklyn Museum dates it as about 1910.
Stamp Josef Albers
Josef Albers art on a postage stamp.

Early years

One of the first to achieve complete abstract paintings was Kazimir Malevich, who presented a completely black square in 1913. He was a Suprematist, part of an art movement based on simple geometrical shapes. Art based on geometry is a kind of geometric abstraction. Wassily Kandinsky painted a famous work Composition VII in 1913, which was completely abstract and very complex.

The case of Manierre Dawson, an American from Chicago, is very interesting. During a tour of Europe in 1910, he started painting true abstract works. Back in the United States, he became convinced that he could not earn a living in art and became a farmer. He was forgotten until a rediscovery in 1963. He may have been the first person to paint a completely abstract work.

There are many hundreds of other artists who painted abstracts. Piet Mondrian and the sculptor Henry Moore deserve mention for their wide influence on other artists.

Abstract expressionism

After World War II, abstract art became a more common form of art in the United States, with some outstanding artists. Immigrants such as Mondrian, Max Ernst, and Mark Rothko, and native-born Americans such as Barnett Newman and Jackson Pollock became well-known names.

Abstract expressionism is the name given to the art movement after World War II. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve worldwide influence. It made New York City the new center of art in the western world. Paris was the center of art before World war II. The term was used in 1919 but is more widely used for American work of the 1940s to 1960s. Russian artist Kandinsky is an abstract expressionist.

Technically, an important predecessor was surrealism, with its Freudian emphasis on dreams, and on spontaneous, automatic, or unconscious creation. Jackson Pollock's dripping paint onto a canvas laid on the floor is a method of using spontaneity. It was new and brought into play several factors:

  • Action: movements, how the artist worked.
  • Automatism and the unconscious: the work was planned, but details were not.

"At a certain moment, the canvas began to appear to one American painter after another as an arena in which to act. What was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event." -Harold Rosenberg

Abstract expressionist paintings share certain characteristics. The artists use large canvases, sometimes very large. There is an "all-over" approach: the whole canvas is treated with equal importance, as opposed to the center being of more interest than the edges.

Five things to know

According to the Royal Academy, there are five things we should know about abstract expressionism:

  1. "It was the product of an extraordinary time:" a common experience of artists living in 1940s New York.
  2. "It took scale to new levels:" the artworks were very large.
  3. "It made the viewer part of the art." This one is not everyone's experience.
  4. "It resisted traditional confines." For example, the art had an all-over composition instead of a central focal point.
  5. "Its artists were close but independent." Each had his unique style.

Action painting

Paintings like Jackson Pollock's express the actions of the painter.

Color field painting

Color field paintings are mainly of colored shapes of a geometric kind. Examples: Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Josef Albers.

Interesting facts about abstract art

  • Abstract art began to be noticed in the 1900s, especially in New York.
  • Abstract art does not represent real things.
  • It uses colors, lines, and shapes to make images that express feelings.
  • The art is usually large in size.
  • Abstract art has lines and figures everywhere, so the eye doesn't focus on one particular point in the piece, like in traditional art.
  • Abstract artists could usually be identified by their style of painting or sculpture.

Images for kids

kids search engine
Abstract art Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.