Carmarthen facts for kids
Quick facts for kidsCarmarthen
|Population||14,185 (2011 Census)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Fire||Mid and West Wales|
Carmarthen ( RP: Welsh: Caerfyrddin "Merlin's fort" or "Sea-town fort") is the county town of Carmarthenshire and a community in Wales, lying on the River Towy. 8 miles (13 km) north of its estuary in Carmarthen Bay. The population was 14,185 in 2011, down from 15,854 in 2001, but gauged at 16,285 in 2019. It has a claim to be the oldest town in Wales – Old Carmarthen and New Carmarthen became one borough in 1546. It was the most populous borough in Wales in the 16th–18th centuries, described by William Camden as "chief citie of the country". Growth stagnated by the mid-19th century as new settlements developed in the South Wales Coalfield.
- Twin towns
- Listed buildings
- Town regeneration and redevelopment
- Notable people
- Images for kids
- See also
When Britannia was a Roman province, Carmarthen was the civitas capital of the Demetae tribe, known as Moridunum ("Sea Fort"). Carmarthen is possibly the oldest town in Wales and was recorded by Ptolemy and the Antonine Itinerary. The Roman fort is believed to date from around AD 75. A Roman coin hoard was found nearby in 2006. Near the fort is one of seven surviving Roman amphitheatres in the United Kingdom and one of only two in Roman Wales (the other being at Isca Augusta, Roman Caerleon). It was excavated in 1968. The arena itself is 50 x 30 yards (about 46 by 27 metres); the cavea (seating area) is 100 x 73 yards (92 by 67 metres). Veprauskas has argued for its identification as the Cair Guorthigirn ("Fort Vortigern") listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain in his History of the Britains.
In the Middle Ages, the settlement was known as Llanteulyddog ('St Teulyddog's) and accounted one of the seven principal sees in Dyfed. The strategic importance of Carmarthen was such that the Norman William fitz Baldwin built a castle there, probably around 1094. The current castle site is known to have been used since 1105. The castle was destroyed by Llywelyn the Great in 1215. In 1223, the castle was rebuilt and permission was received to wall and crenellate the town. Carmarthen was among the first medieval walled towns in Wales. In 1405, the town was taken and the castle was sacked by Owain Glyndŵr. The Black Book of Carmarthen, written around 1250, is associated with the town's Priory of SS John the Evangelist and Teulyddog.
During the Black Death of 1347–49, the plague was brought to Carmarthen by the thriving river trade. The Black Death "destroy'd and devastated" villages such as Llanllwch. Local historians place the plague pit, the site for mass burial of the dead, in the graveyard that adjoins the Maes-yr-Ysgol and Llys Model housing at the rear of St Catherine Street.
The ancient Clas church of Llandeulyddog was the pre-Norman independent religious community which became, in 1110, the Benedictine Priory of St Peter, only to be replaced 15 years later with the Augustianian Priory of St John the Evangelist and St Teulyddog. This was sited near the river, at what is now Priory Street ( , SN418204). The site is now a scheduled monument.
During the 13th century, Franciscan Friars (also known as Grey Friars, or Friars minor) became established in the town, and by 1284 had their own Friary buildings on Lammas Street ( ), on a site now occupied by a shopping centre. The Franciscan emphasis on poverty and simplicity meant that the Church was smaller (reportedly '70 to 80 feet long and 30 feet broad') and more austere than the older foundations, but this did not prevent the accumulation of treasures, and it became a much sought after location for burial. In 1456 Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond died of plague in Carmarthen, three months before the birth of his son, the future King Henry VII. Edmund was buried in a prominent tomb in the centre of the choir of the Grey Friars Church. Other notable burials were Rhys ap Thomas and Tudur Aled. The Friary was dissolved in 1538, and many unsuccessful plans were made for the building. Even before the friars had left, in 1536, William Barlow campaigned to have the cathedral moved into it, from St David's. After its deconsecration Edmund Tudor's tomb and remains were moved to St David's Cathedral. There were repeated attempts to turn the buildings into a grammar school, which all came to nought Gradually the buildings became ruins, but the church walls were still recognisable in the mid-eighteenth century. However, by 1900 all the stonework had been stripped away, and there were no traces above ground. The site remained un-built on until development works in the 1980s and 1990s. This required extensive archaeological excavations of first the monastic buildings and then the nave and chancel of the church. It confirmed that the original buildings had been a church, chapter-house and a large cloister. A smaller cloister and infirmary had been added subsequently. Over 200 burials were found in the churchyard, and 60 around the friars' choir.
According to some
Legend also had it that, when a particular tree called Merlin's Oak fell, it would be the downfall of the town as well. Translated from Welsh, it reads: "When Merlin's Oak comes tumbling down, down shall fall Carmarthen Town". In order to stop this, the tree was dug up when it died and pieces are now in the museum.
The Black Book of Carmarthen includes poems with references to Myrddin (Ymddiddan Myrddin a Thaliesin, "Conversation of Merlin and Taliesin") and possibly to Arthur (Pa ŵr yw'r Porthor?, "What man is the porter?"). The interpretation of these is difficult because the Arthurian legend was already known by this time and many details of the modern form of the legend had been described by Geoffrey of Monmouth before the book was written.
The 'Book of Ordinances', 1569-1606 is one of the earliest surviving minute books of a town in Wales. It gives a unique picture of an Elizabethan Welsh town.
Following the Acts of Union, Carmarthen became the judicial headquarters of the Court of Great Sessions for south-west Wales. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the town's dominant business was still agriculture and related trades, including woollen manufacture. Carmarthen was made a county corporate by charter of James I in 1604. The charter decreed that Carmarthen should be known as the 'Town of the County of Carmarthen' and should have two sheriffs. This was reduced to one sheriff in 1835 and the (now largely ceremonial) post continues to this day.
Both the Priory and the Friary were abandoned during the dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII, the land being returned to the monarchy. Likewise, the chapels of St Catherine and St Barbara were lost, the church of St Peter's being the main religious establishment to survive this era.
During the Marian persecutions of the 1550s, Bishop Ferrar of St David's was burnt at the stake in the market square – now Nott Square. A Protestant martyr, his life and death are recorded in John Foxe's famous book of martyrs.
18th century to present
In the mid-18th century the Morgan family founded an ironworks at the east end of the town, though it was on a small scale. And in 1786 a lead smeltery was established to process the lead ore carried from Lord Cawdor's lead mines at Nantyrmwyn, in the north east of the county. Neither of these enterprises were long lived - the lead smeltery was relocated to Llanelli in c.1811. The iron works evolved into a tinplate works, but had failed by around 1900.
Carmarthen gaol, designed by John Nash, was in use from c.1789 until its demolition in c.1922. County Hall, designed by Sir Percy Thomas, stands on the same site. The 'Felon's Register' of the gaol, 1843-71 contains some of the earliest 'mugshots' in Britain.
The revival of the eisteddfod took place in Carmarthen in 1819 and the town hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1867, 1911 and 1974 although, at least in 1974, the Maes was at Abergwili.
In 1843 the workhouse in Carmarthen was attacked by the Rebecca Rioters.
The origins of Chartism in Wales can be traced to the foundation in the autumn of 1836 of Carmarthen Working Men's Association.
The Boys' Grammar School was founded in 1587 on the site now occupied by the old hospital in Priory Street. This school moved in the 1840s to Priory Row before relocating to Richmond Terrace. At the turn of the twentieth century a local travelling circus buried one of their elephants after it fell sick and died. The grave is under what was the school rugby pitch.
During World War II, prisoner-of-war camps were situated in Johnstown (where the Davies Estate now stands) and at Glangwilli — the POW huts being used as part of the hospital at its inception. To the west of the town was the 'Carmarthen Stop Line', one of a network of defensive lines created in 1940–41 in case of invasion, with a series of ditches and pillboxes running north-south. Most of these structures have since been removed or filled in, but two remain.
The community is bordered by the communities of: Bronwydd; Abergwili; Llangunnor; Llandyfaelog; Llangain; Llangynog; and Newchurch and Merthyr, all being in Carmarthenshire.
Carmarthen was named one of the best places to live in Wales in 2017.
Little remains of the original medieval castle at Carmarthen, but the old Gatehouse still dominates Nott Square. The motte is also accessible to the public. Castle House, within the old walls, is a museum and Tourist Information Centre.
St. Peter's Church
St Peter's Church is the largest parish church in the Diocese of St David's and also has the longest nave being 60 metres from west porch to east window and 15 metres wide across nave and south aisle. It consists of a west tower, nave, chancel, south aisle and a Consistory Court. It is built of local red sandstone and grey shale. The tower contains eight bells with the heaviest, tuned to the note E, weighing 15 cwt 1 qr 18 lbs (783 kg).
Designed by well-known Welsh architect Clough Williams-Ellis, the A484 road bridge across the River Towy was completed in 1937, replacing a medieval bridge. The loss of the original bridge caused considerable controversy.
In 1828 a monument was erected at the west end of the town to honour Lieutenant General Sir Thomas Picton, from Haverfordwest, who had died at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The pillar, which was about 75 ft (23 m), was designed to echo Trajan's column in Rome. A statue of Picton, wrapped in a cloak and supported by a baluster above emblems of spears surmounted the column. The entire structure stood on a square pedestal, access was ascended by a flight of steps to a small door on the east side facing the town.
A series of bas-reliefs sculpted by Edward Hodges Baily adorned the structure. Above the entrance door was the name, 'PICTON' and over this a relief showed the Lieutenant General falling mortally wounded from his horse part on the Waterloo battlefield. The name 'WATERLOO' was then written across the top. The west side had a relief beneath the title 'BADAJOS' showing Picton scaling the walls with his men during the Battle of Badajoz in 1812. On the south side of the pedestal was a description of Picton's life in English. A Welsh version of his exploits was inscribed on the North side. Each side of the square pedestal were adorned with trophies. The top of the square column was adorned with imitative cannons on each side.
However within a few years, the monument had fallen into a dilapidated state. The bas-reliefs which had been sculpted were 'unable to withstand Carmarthen's inclement weather' according to local antiquarians. Although Baily made replacements, they were never put up. The entire pillar was taken down in 1846. In the 1970s, the replacement sculptures were rediscovered in Johnstown. They are now on display at Carmarthenshire County Museum.
After the demolition of the first monument, a new structure honouring Picton was commissioned. It was designed by architect Frances Fowler. The foundation stone was laid on Monument Hill in 1847. In 1984, the top section was declared to be unsafe and was taken down. Four years later, the whole monument was rebuilt stone-by-stone on new stronger foundations.
General Nott statue and memorial plaque to Bishop Ferrar
A statue of General Nott was erected in Nott Square in 1851. According to the PMSA, "the bronze statue was cast from cannon captured at the battle of Maharajpur. Queen Victoria gave 200 guineas to the memorial fund. The statue occupies the site of the market cross which was dismantled when the market was resited and Nott Square created in 1846."
The Market Square was the location of the execution of Bishop Robert Ferrar of St Davids in March 1555. A small plaque below the statue of General Nott commemorates the site where the bishop was burned at the stake during the Marian Persecutions.
There are many listed buildings in the town. These include The Guildhall, Capel Heol Awst, Capel Heol Dŵr, Carmarthen, Carmarthen Cemetery Chapel, Elim Independent Chapel, English Baptist Church, English Congregational Church, Penuel Baptist Chapel, Christ Church, Eglwys Dewi Sant, Church of St Mary and Eglwys Sant Ioan.
Pont King Morgan
To create a more direct pedestrian access across the Towy from the railway station to Carmarthen town centre (access was previously across the main road bridge some 200m to the east), a cable-stayed bridge was constructed in 2005 linking to the foot of Blue Street. The cost was £2.8 million. The bridge was commended in 2007 by the Structural steel Design Awards for its high quality detailing.
The A40, A48, A484 and A485 converge on Carmarthen. The M4 motorway, which links South Wales with London, terminates at junction 49, the Pont Abraham services, to continue north-west as the dual carriageway A48 and finish at its junction with the A40 in Carmarthen.
Carmarthen railway station is on the West Wales Line. It opened in 1852. The town has rail links to Cardiff via Swansea to the east and Fishguard Harbour, Milford Haven, Tenby, Pembroke and Pembroke Dock to the west. There are daily direct intercity trains to London. The area suffered a number of rail closures in the 1960s under the Beeching Axe: one to Llandeilo closed in 1963 and one to Lampeter and Aberystwyth in 1965.
Carmarthen is a stop on the Eurolines bus route 890, linking London with a number of cities and towns in Munster and South Leinster in Ireland. The service may be used to destinations in Ireland, but may not be used to other stops in Britain. There is a Park and Ride service running daily from Monday to Saturday from 7.00 to 19.00 between Nantyci, to the west of Carmarthen town, and the town centre.
Town regeneration and redevelopment
The former cattle market in the heart of the town has undergone regeneration. The new shopping centre opened on 30 April 2010. The development now includes a new Apollo Cinemas multi-screen cinema, Debenhams department store, market hall, restaurants and a multi-storey car park. The new market hall opened on 8 April 2009. There is an expanding range of restaurants in the new shopping centre, mainly national chains.
The town has two rugby union teams: Carmarthen Quins and Carmarthen Athletic. Quins currently plays in the Welsh Premier Division league after promotion to the Premiership in the 2008/2009 season. CPC Bears, a rugby league club based in Carmarthen and the regional side for Carmarthenshire, Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion, plays in the Welsh Premier Division of the Rugby League Conference.
The town's semi-professional football team, Carmarthen Town F.C., plays in the Cymru South. Founded in 1948, it plays its home games at Richmond Park. The club colours, reflected in its crest and kit, are gold and black.
The town has two golf courses, a leisure centre with an eight-lane, 25-metre swimming pool, where the Carmarthen district swimming club is based, a synthetic athletics track, and an outdoor velodrome. It also has an athletics team, Carmarthen Harriers. A cycle track opened in about 1900 and remains in use. Motorcycle speedway racing was staged in the early 2000s at a track built on the western outskirts of the town. The team raced in the Conference League.
- See Category:People from Carmarthen
- See Category:People from Carmarthenshire
- Joe Allen (born 1990), Wales and Stoke City FC midfielder
- Dorothea Bate (1878–1951), archaeo-zoologist
- Charles Brigstocke CB (1876–1951), civil servant
- Dale Buggins (1961–1981), motorcycle stunt rider
- Fflur Dafydd (born 1978), writer and musician
- Barry Davies (born 1981), Ospreys full-back
- Gareth Davies (born 1990), Scarlets scrum-half
- Mark Delaney (born 1976), Wales and Aston Villa football defender
- Wynne Evans (born 1972), opera singer, broadcaster and actor
- Rhod Gilbert (born 1968), television host and comedian
- Rhodri Gomer-Davies (born 1983) rugby union Scarlets centre
- Gorky's Zygotic Mynci (formed 1991), folk/rock band
- Geraint Griffiths (born 1949), singer, songwriter and actor
- Elis James (born 1980), comedian
- Stephen Jones (born 1977), Wales rugby captain
- Manon Lloyd (born 1996), cyclist, Global Cycling Network (GCN) presenter
- Kate McGill (born 1990), singer/songwriter
- Daniel Mulloy (born 1977), screenwriter and director
- John Nash (1752–1835), architect living in Carmarthen from 1784
- Daniel Newton (born 1989), Scarlets Centre full back
- William Norton (1862–1898), Wales international rugby union player
- Ken Owens (born 1987), rugby union Scarlets Centre hooker
- Rhys Priestland (born 1987), rugby union Scarlets full-back
- Iwan Rheon (born 1985), actor (famous for role in Game of Thrones) and singer/songwriter
- Byron Rogers (born 1942), journalist, historian and biographer
- Matthew Stevens (born 1977), snooker pro
- Nicky Stevens (born 1949), member of pop group Brotherhood of Man, European Song Contest winner
- Terence Thomas, Baron Thomas of Macclesfield (1937–2018), Labour Party (UK) politician and banker
- Nik Turner (born 1940), jazz musician
- Tudur Aled (c. 1465–1525), poet buried in Carmarthen's Franciscan graveyard
- Philip Vaughan (died 1824), ironmaster and inventor of the ball bearing
- Mary Wynne Warner (1932–1998), mathematician
- John Weathers (born 1947), rock drummer
- Barry Williams (born 1974), British and Irish Lions rugby union hooker
- Scott Williams, Scarlets Centre and Wales rugby union player
- David Glyndwr Tudor Williams (1930–2009), first full-time Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
Images for kids
In Spanish: Carmarthen para niños
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