Indo-European languages facts
|Before the 16th century, Europe, and South, Central and Southwest Asia; today worldwide.|
|Linguistic classification:||One of the world's major language families|
Italic (includes Romance)
|ISO 639-2 and 639-5:||ine|
Countries with a majority of speakers of IE languages
Countries with an IE minority language with official statusCountries where no Indo-European language is official, but a significant minority speak an Indo-European language
Indo-European languages are the world's largest family of languages.
The earliest Indo-European writing comes from the Bronze Age in the Anatolian and Mycenaean Greek languages. We can place the origin of Indo-European languages after the invention of farming, because some of the Proto-Indo-European words are farming words.
The languages of the Indo-European group have about three billion native speakers. Although it may not have the largest number of languages of any language family, it is the biggest language family in terms the amount of native speakers.
Of the 20 languages with the most speakers, 12 are Indo-European: English, Spanish, Hindi, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, German, Sindhi, Punjabi, Marathi, French, and Urdu. They account for over 2.7 billion native speakers.
Four of the six official languages of the United Nations are Indo-European: English, Spanish, French, and Russian.
Main language groups
These are the main Indo-European language groups:
- Anatolian: Luwian; Hittite
- Germanic including English
- Italic (Latin + the Romance languages)
History of Indo-European linguistics
Suggestions of similarities between Indian and European languages began to be made by European visitors to India in the 16th century. In 1583 Fr. Thomas Stephens S.J. an English Jesuit missionary in Goa, noticed similarities between Indian languages and Greek and Latin. These observations were included in a letter to his brother which was not published until the twentieth century.
The first account to mention Sanskrit came from Filippo Sassetti (born Florence, Italy 1540). He was a Florentine merchant who was among the first Europeans to study the ancient Indian language Sanskrit. Writing in 1585, he noted some word similarities between Sanskrit and Italian (these included devaḥ/dio "God", sarpaḥ/serpe "serpent", sapta/sette "seven", aṣṭa/otto "eight", nava/nove "nine"). However, neither Stephens' nor Sassetti's observations led to further scholarly inquiry.
In 1647 Dutch linguist and scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn noted the similarity among Indo-European languages, and supposed that they derived from a primitive common language. He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic and Baltic languages. However, van Boxhorn's suggestions did not become widely known and did not stimulate further research.
Gaston Coeurdoux and others had made observations of the same type. Coeurdoux made a thorough comparison of Sanskrit, Latin and Greek conjugations in the late 1760s to suggest a relationship between them, about 20 years before William Jones. Similarly, Mikhail Lomonosov compared different languages groups of the world including Slavic, Baltic, Iranian, Finnish, Chinese, Hottentot and others.
The hypothesis reappeared in 1786 when Sir William Jones first lectured on the striking similarities between three of the oldest languages known in his time: Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, to which he tentatively added Gothic, Celtic, and Old Persian, though also committing some inaccuracies and omissions in his classification.
It was Thomas Young who first used the term Indo-European in 1813, which became the standard scientific term (except in Germany) through the work of Franz Bopp. Bopp's Comparative Grammar, appearing between 1833 and 1852, is the starting point of Indo-European studies as an academic discipline.
Scheme of Indo-European migrations from ca. 4000 to 1000 BC according to the Kurgan hypothesis.
Indo-European languages Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.