John A. Macdonald facts for kids
Quick facts for kids
The Right Honourable
Sir John Alexander Macdonald
Macdonald in 1868.
|1st Prime Minister of Canada|
July 1, 1867 – November 5, 1873
|Succeeded by||Alexander Mackenzie|
October 17, 1878 – June 6, 1891
|Preceded by||Alexander Mackenzie|
|Succeeded by||John Abbott|
|Born||January 11, 1815
|Spouse(s)||Isabella Clark (1st wife)
Agnes Bernard (2nd wife)
|Children||John Alexander (died in infancy) and Hugh John by Isabella;
Mary by Agnes.
|Alma mater||none (articled with a lawyer in Kingston)|
Sir John Alexander Macdonald (11 January 1815 – 6 June 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada (1867–1873, 1878–1891). The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century.
Macdonald was born in Glasgow, Scotland. He had four siblings. He was the third of five children.
When he was a boy his family immigrated to Kingston in the Province of Upper Canada (today in eastern Ontario). As a lawyer he was involved in several high-profile cases and quickly became prominent in Kingston, which elected him in 1844 to the legislature of the Province of Canada. By 1857, he had become premier under the colony's unstable political system.
In 1864, when no party proved capable of governing for long, Macdonald agreed to a proposal from his political rival, George Brown, that the parties unite in a Great Coalition to seek federation and political reform. Macdonald was the leading figure in the discussions, which resulted in the British North America Act and the birth of Canada as a nation on 1 July 1867. Macdonald was the first Prime Minister of the new nation, and served 19 years.
He was re-elected in 1878, continuing until he died in office in 1891.
Macdonald was in office from 1867 to 1873 and again from 1878 to 1891, making him the second longest-serving Prime Minister of Canada and the only one to win six majority governments.
One of the things Sir John A. Macdonald wanted to do was to build a transcontinental railway that would link Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. That railway, called the Canadian Pacific Railway, was completed in 1885.
Macdonald's greatest achievements were building and guiding a successful national government and completing the Canadian Pacific Railway. He died in 1891, still in office; he is respected today for his key role in the formation of Canada. Historical rankings have consistently placed Macdonald as one of the highest rated Prime Ministers in Canadian history.
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