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Clockwise from top: Quebrada de Humahuaca, San Salvador de Jujuy, Pucará de Tilcara, and the Hill of Seven Colors
Location of Jujuy within Argentina
|Capital||San Salvador de Jujuy|
|Municipalities and municipal commissions||61|
|• Total||53,219 km2 (20,548 sq mi)|
|• Total||672,260 (Ranked 14th)|
|• Density||12.6/km2 (33/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−3 (ART)|
|ISO 3166 code||AR-Y|
Pre-Columbian inhabitants, that would later mix with the Incas during their expansion period, practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco. They had huts made of mud, and erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning "Fortress".
In 1593 a small settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Asgaranaz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the calchaquíes and omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew.
At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy. With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started diminishing.
During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish forces concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano. Finally the Spanish surrendered, but the war seriously affected the economy of the area.
After a series of internal conflicts, the province, now separated from Tucumán and Salta, started a gradual economic and social improvement, and at the end of the 19th century sugarcane industry arose. By the beginning of the following century, the railway already connected the province with Buenos Aires, and La Paz, Bolivia.
Geography and climate
There are 3 main areas in Jujuy; the Altiplano, 3,500 meters high plateau with peaks of 5,000 meters, covers most of the province. The Grande River of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca cannon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the Southeast, the sierras descent to the Gran Chaco region.
The vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, and subtropical Yungas jungle.
In spite of the different areas, the terrain of the province is mainly arid and semi-desertic, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. The Grande River and the San Francisco River are fed by the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca, Yavi and Sansana are fed by the Pilcomayo.
The main agricultural activity is sugarcane, and its later industrialisation represents more than half of the province's gross production, and 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is tobacco, cultivated in the Southeaster valley, as a major national producer. Other crops include beans, citrus and tomatoes, and other vegetables for local consumption.
Jujuy is the second producer of iron, used by the Altos Hornos Zapala furnace to make steel. Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, and the paper production feed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province.
An important and still growing activity, tourism in the area brings a number of tourists. Most tourist head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province. The Horacio Guzmán international airport, 34 km form San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and some destinations in Bolivia.
Apart from the fantastic contrast of land colours and formations, tourists are attracted also by the strong aboriginal roots in the culture of Jujuy. Aymará and Quechua cultures coexist in the area, and ruins of the Incas are well conserved.
Tourists who come to Jujuy visits the area of the Quebrada de Humahuaca and its Cerro de los Siete Colores, Pucará de Tilcara, Salinas Grandes and many small town. Other less frequent destinations include the Calilegua National Park in the Yungas jungle, La Quiaca, Laguna de Pozuelos, and Laguna Guayatayoc.
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Jujuy Province Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.