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Jujuy Province facts for kids

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Jujuy
Province
Clockwise from top: Quebrada de Humahuaca, San Salvador de Jujuy, Pucará de Tilcara, and the Hill of Seven Colors
Clockwise from top: Quebrada de Humahuaca, San Salvador de Jujuy, Pucará de Tilcara, and the Hill of Seven Colors
Flag of Jujuy
Flag
Coat of arms of Jujuy
Coat of arms
Location of Jujuy within Argentina
Location of Jujuy within Argentina
Country Argentina
Capital San Salvador de Jujuy
Departments 16
Municipalities and municipal commissions 61
Area
Ranked 20th
 • Total 53,219 km2 (20,548 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 672,260 (Ranked 14th)
 • Density 12.6/km2 (33/sq mi)
Demonym(s) jujeño
Time zone ART (UTC−3)
ISO 3166 code AR-Y

Jujuy is a province of Argentina, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chile and Bolivia. The only neighboring Argentine province is Salta to the east and south.

History

Pre-Columbian inhabitants, that would later mix with the Incas during their expansion period, practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco. They had huts made of mud, and erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning "Fortress".

In 1593 a small settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Asgaranaz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the calchaquíes and omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew.

At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy. With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started diminishing.

Manuel Belgrano
General Manuel Belgrano

During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish forces concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano. Finally the Spanish surrendered, but the war seriously affected the economy of the area.

After a series of internal conflicts, the province, now separated from Tucumán and Salta, started a gradual economic and social improvement, and at the end of the 19th century sugarcane industry arose. By the beginning of the following century, the railway already connected the province with Buenos Aires, and La Paz, Bolivia.

Industry was moved forward first in the 1940s with the construction of the first metal-production furnace in the country, and then in 1969 with the discovering of petroleum by the state-owned YPF.

Geography and climate

Tilcara Pucará
Pucará de Tilcara, Jujuy Argentina. Quebrada de Humahuaca

There are 3 main areas in Jujuy; the Altiplano, 3,500 meters high plateau with peaks of 5,000 meters, covers most of the province. The Grande River of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca cannon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the Southeast, the sierras descent to the Gran Chaco region.

The vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, and subtropical Yungas jungle.

In spite of the different areas, the terrain of the province is mainly arid and semi-desertic, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. The Grande River and the San Francisco River are fed by the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca, Yavi and Sansana are fed by the Pilcomayo.

Economy

Tropic of Capricorn Jujuy
The Tropic of Capricorn marked as it passes through the Jujuy province of Argentina

The main agricultural activity is sugarcane, and its later industrialisation represents more than half of the province's gross production, and 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is tobacco, cultivated in the Southeaster valley, as a major national producer. Other crops include beans, citrus and tomatoes, and other vegetables for local consumption.

Jujuy is the second producer of iron, used by the Altos Hornos Zapala furnace to make steel. Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, and the paper production feed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province.

Cattle and goats for milk and wool are a minor activity, as well as llamas, vicuñas and guanacos.

Tourism

Vertical Layers of Rock near Tres Cruces in Jujuy Province in Argentina 1
Vertical Layers of Rock near Tres Cruces in Jujuy Province in Argentina

An important and still growing activity, tourism in the area brings a number of tourists. Most tourist head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province. The Horacio Guzmán international airport, 34 km form San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and some destinations in Bolivia.

Apart from the fantastic contrast of land colours and formations, tourists are attracted also by the strong aboriginal roots in the culture of Jujuy. Aymará and Quechua cultures coexist in the area, and ruins of the Incas are well conserved.

Tourists who come to Jujuy visits the area of the Quebrada de Humahuaca and its Cerro de los Siete Colores, Pucará de Tilcara, Salinas Grandes and many small town. Other less frequent destinations include the Calilegua National Park in the Yungas jungle, La Quiaca, Laguna de Pozuelos, and Laguna Guayatayoc.

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