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List of heads of state of Mexico facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts

The President of Mexico is the person who controls the executive power in the country. Under the current constitution, this responsibility lies with the President of the United Mexican States, who is head of the supreme executive power of the Mexican Union. Throughout its history, Mexico has had several forms of government. Under the federal constitutions, the title of President was the same as the current one. Under the Seven Laws (centralist), the chief executive was named President of the Republic. In addition, there have been two periods of monarchical rule, during which the executive was controlled by the Emperor of Mexico.

The chronology of the heads of state of Mexico is complicated due to the country's political instability during most of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth century. With few exceptions, most of the Mexican presidents elected during this period did not complete their terms. Until the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas, each president remained in office an average of fifteen months.

This list also includes the self-appointed presidents during civil wars and the collegiate bodies that performed the Mexican Executive duties during periods of transition.


First Mexican Empire (1821–1823)

First Regency

After the end of the Mexican War of Independence, a Provisional Board of Governing consisting of thirty-four persons was set up. The Board decreed and signed the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire and appointed a regency composed of six people.

Members Term of office
Portrait Name Took office Left office Time in office
Juan O'Donoju.jpg Juan O'Donojú 28 September 1821 8 October 1821
(died)
10 days
Agustin de Iturbide.png Agustín de Iturbide 28 September 1821 11 April 1822 195 days
Manuel de la Bárcena.jpg Manuel de la Barcéna 28 September 1821 11 April 1822
José Isidro Yañez.jpg José Isidro Yañez 28 September 1821 11 April 1822
Manuel Velázquez de León.jpg Manuel Velázquez de León 28 September 1821 11 April 1822
Antonio Pérez Martínez y Robles.jpg Antonio Pérez Martínez 9 October 1821 11 April 1822 184 days

Second Regency

Members Term of office
Portrait Name Took office Left office Time in office
Agustin de Iturbide.png Agustín de Iturbide 11 April 1822 18 May 1822 37 days
José Isidro Yañez.jpg José Isidro Yañez 11 April 1822 18 May 1822
Coat of arms of Mexico (1821–1823).svg Miguel Valentín 11 April 1822 18 May 1822
Manuel de Heras Soto.jpg Manuel de Heras 11 April 1822 18 May 1822
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo 11 April 1822 18 May 1822

Monarchy of Agustín I

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign Royal house Coat of arms
Reign start Reign end Duration
Portrait of Agustín de Iturbide, Emperor of Mexico.jpg Agustín I
(1783–1824)
19 May 1822 19 March 1823 304 days Iturbide Coat of arms of Mexico (1821–1823).svg

Provisional Government (1823–1824)

The Provisional Government of 1823–1824 was an organization that served as the Executive in the government of Mexico after the abdication of Agustín I, monarch of Mexican Empire in 1823. The provisional government was responsible for convening the body that created the Federal Republic and existed from 1 April 1823 to 10 October 1824.

Head of State Term of office
Portrait Name Took office Left office Time in office
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo 31 March 1823 10 October 1824 1 year, 193 days
Guadalupe Victoria Cruces y Campa.png Guadalupe Victoria 31 March 1823 10 October 1824
Pedro Celestino Negrete.jpg Pedro Celestino Negrete 31 March 1823 10 October 1824
Jose mariano michelena.jpg José Mariano Michelena 1 April 1823 10 October 1824 1 year, 192 days
Miguel dominguez.jpg Miguel Domínguez 1 April 1823 10 October 1824
Vicente Guerrero (1865).png Vicente Guerrero 1 April 1823 10 October 1824

First Federal Republic (1824–1835)

The president and vice president did not run jointly and could be from different parties.

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Guadalupe Victoria - 02.jpg Guadalupe Victoria
(1786–1843)
10 October 1824 31 March 1829 4 years, 172 days Independent Nicolás Bravo (1824-1827) First constitutionally elected President of Mexico, and the only President who completed his full term in almost 30 years of independent Mexico.
2 Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña.png Vicente Guerrero
(1782–1831)
1 April 1829 17 December 1829 260 days Liberal Party Anastasio Bustamante He was appointed by Congress after the "resignation" of president-elect Manuel Gómez Pedraza.
3 Jose Maria Bocanegra.PNG José María Bocanegra
(1787–1862)
17 December 1829 23 December 1829 6 days Popular York Rite Party
(part of the Liberal Party)
Vacant He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Guerrero left office to fight the rebellion of his conservative Vice President Bustamante.
Triunvirato 1830.png VélezQuintanarAlaman
(Triumvirate)
23 December 1829 31 December 1829 8 days Liberal Party
(Vélez)
Independent
(Quintanar and Alamán)
Vacant Pedro Vélez president of the Supreme Court, he was appointed by the Council of Government as head of the executive triumvirate along with Lucas Alamán and Luis Quintanar.
4 Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
1 January 1830 13 August 1832 2 years, 225 days Conservative Party Vacant As Vice President he assumed the presidency after the conservative coup against Guerrero.
5 Melchor Muzquiz.png Melchor Múzquiz
(1790–1844)
14 August 1832 24 December 1832 132 days Popular York Rite Party
(part of the Liberal Party)
Vacant He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Bustamante left office to fight the rebellion of Santa Anna.
6 Manuel Gómez Pedraza.png Manuel Gómez Pedraza
(1789–1851)
24 December 1832 31 March 1833 97 days Federalist York Rite Party
(part of the Liberal Party)
Vacant He assumed the presidency to conclude the term he would have begun in 1829, had he not "resigned" prior to inauguration, as the winner of the elections of 1828.
7 Valentín Gómez Farías, portrait.JPG Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
1 April 1833 16 May 1833 45 days Liberal Party Himself As Vice President he assumed the presidency in place of Santa Anna, along with whom he was elected in the elections of 1833.
8 Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
16 May 1833 3 June 1833 18 days Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías He assumed the presidency as the constitutionally-elected president. He alternated in the presidency with Vice President Gómez Farías four more times until 24 April 1834.
(7) Valentín Gómez Farías, portrait.JPG Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
3 June 1833 18 June 1833 15 days Liberal Party Himself
(8) Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
18 June 1833 5 July 1833 17 days Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías
(7) Valentín Gómez Farías, portrait.JPG Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
5 July 1833 27 October 1833 114 days Liberal Party Himself
(8) Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
27 October 1833 15 December 1833 49 days Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías
(7) Valentín Gómez Farías, portrait.JPG Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
16 December 1833 24 April 1834 129 days Liberal Party Himself He promoted several liberal reforms that led to the discontent of conservatives and the church. Santa Anna took office again aligned with conservatives; Gómez Farías went into exile.
(8) Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
24 April 1834 27 January 1835 278 days Conservative Party Valentín Gómez Farías He cancelled the liberal reforms. On 27 January, the Sixth Constituent Congress dismissed Gómez Farías as Vice President.
9 Miguel Barragan Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Barragán
(1789–1836)
28 January 1835 27 February 1836 1 year, 30 days Conservative Party Vacant He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Santa Anna left office to fight the rebellion of Zacatecas. On 23 October, Congress enacted the Constitutional Basis, which voided the Constitution of 1824 and the federal system. He served both as the last president of the First Federal Republic and the first of the Centralist Republic.

Centralist Republic (1835–1846)

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
9 Miguel Barragan Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Barragán
(1789–1836)
28 January 1835 27 February 1836 1 year, 30 days Conservative Party He left office because of a serious illness. He died three days later.
10 Jose Justo Corro.PNG José Justo Corro
(1794–1864)
27 February 1836 19 April 1837 1 year, 51 days Conservative Party He was appointed Interim President by Congress to conclude the presidential term.
During his term, he enacted the Seven Laws and
Spain recognized the Independence of Mexico.
(4) Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
19 April 1837 18 March 1839 1 year, 333 days Conservative Party He took office as constitutional elected president.
He was elected in the elections of 1837 for an eight years term.
(8) Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
18 March 1839 10 July 1839 114 days Conservative Party He was appointed interim president by the Supreme Conservative Power when Bustamante left office to fight federalist rebellions.
11 Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
11 July 1839 19 July 1839 8 days Conservative Party He was appointed substitute president when Santa Anna left office.
(4) Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
19 July 1839 22 September 1841 2 years, 65 days Conservative Party He reassumed the presidency.
12 Francisco Javier Echeverria.PNG Francisco Javier Echeverría
(1797–1852)
22 September 1841 10 October 1841 18 days Conservative Party He was appointed interim president when Bustamante left office to fight a rebellion headed by Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga, Santa Anna, and Gabriel Valencia.
He resigned after the triumph of the rebellion.
(8) Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
10 October 1841 26 October 1842 1 year, 16 days Liberal Party He was appointed provisional president by a Junta de Representantes de los Departamentos (Board of Representatives of the Departments).
(11) Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
26 October 1842 4 March 1843 129 days Conservative Party He was appointed substitute president by Santa Anna when he left office.
(8) Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
4 March 1843 4 October 1843 214 days Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency as provisional president.
13 Valentin Canalizo Oleo (480x600).png Valentín Canalizo
(1794–1850)
4 October 1843 4 June 1844 244 days Conservative Party He was appointed interim president by Santa Anna when he left office.
(8) Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
4 June 1844 12 September 1844 100 days Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency after being elected constitutional president by Congress on 2 January 1844.
14 Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
12 September 1844 21 September 1844 9 days Liberal Party He was appointed substitute president by Congress to replace the interim president Valentin Canalizo.
(13) Valentin Canalizo Oleo (480x600).png Valentín Canalizo
(1794–1850)
21 September 1844 6 December 1844 76 days Conservative Party He assumed the presidency as interim president.
(14) Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
6 December 1844 30 December 1845 1 year, 24 days Liberal Party He was appointed interim, and after, constitutional president by Senate
after Canalizo was arrested for trying to dissolve the Congress.
15 Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga (480x600).png Mariano Paredes
(1797–1849)
31 December 1845 28 July 1846 209 days Conservative Party He assumed office via a coup against De Herrera.
On 12 June, he was appointed interim president.
Vice President
Nicolás Bravo
(11) Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
28 July 1846 4 August 1846 7 days Conservative Party He took office when Paredes left the presidency to fight the Americans in the Mexican–American War.
He was deposed by a federalist rebellion led by Jose Mariano Salas and Valentin Gomez Farias.
16 Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png José Mariano Salas
(1797–1867)
5 August 1846 23 December 1846 140 days Conservative Party He assumed office as provisional president after the triumph of the federalist rebellion (Plan de la Ciudadela).
He put in force the Constitution of 1824 on 22 August.

He served both as last president of the Centralist Republic and first of the Second Federal Republic.

Second Federal Republic (1846–1863)

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
16 Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png José Mariano Salas
(1797–1867)
5 August 1846 23 December 1846 140 days Conservative Party After he restored federalism, he called elections.
Santa Anna won the election and was appointed interim president by Congress and Valentin Gomez Farias as vice president.
(7) Valentín Gómez Farías, portrait.JPG Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
23 December 1846 21 March 1847 88 days Liberal Party As vice president, he took office in place of Santa Anna, who was fighting the invading U.S. Army in the Mexican–American War.
(8) Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
21 March 1847 2 April 1847 12 days Liberal Party He took office as elected interim president.
Vice President
Valentín Gómez Farías
17 Pedro M. Anaya.PNG Pedro María de Anaya
(1795–1854)
2 April 1847 20 May 1847 48 days Liberal Party Santa Anna left office to fight in the Mexican–American War. Congress abolished the vice presidency and he was appointed as substitute president.
(8) Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
20 May 1847 15 September 1847 118 days Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency when De Anaya left office to fight in the Mexican–American War.
18 Manuel de la Peña y Peña.PNG Manuel de la Peña y Peña
(1789–1850)
16 September 1847 13 November 1847 58 days Conservative Party As president of the Supreme Court, he assumed the presidency after Santa Anna's resignation.
(17) Pedro M. Anaya.PNG Pedro María de Anaya
(1795–1854)
13 November 1847 8 January 1848 56 days Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by Congress when De la Peña y Peña left office in order to negotiate peace with the United States.
(18) Manuel de la Peña y Peña.PNG Manuel de la Peña y Peña
(1789–1850)
8 January 1848 3 June 1848 147 days Conservative Party He reassumed office as provisional president when De Anaya resigned
after refusing to give any land to the United States.

During his term, he signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
(14) Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
3 June 1848 15 January 1851 2 years, 226 days Liberal Party He was the second president to finish his term and peacefully turned over the presidency to the winner of the elections of 1850, General Mariano Arista.
19 Mariano Arista Oleo (480x600).png Mariano Arista
(1802–1855)
15 January 1851 5 January 1853 1 year, 356 days Liberal Party He resigned when Congress refused to give him extraordinary powers to fight the rebellion of Plan del Hospicio, the goal of which was to bring Santa Anna once again to the presidency.
20 Juan Bautista Ceballos Oleo (480x600).png Juan Bautista Ceballos
(1811–1859)
6 January 1853 7 February 1853 32 days Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he was proposed by President Arista as his successor and confirmed the same day as interim president by Congress.
21 Manuel María Lombardini.PNG Manuel María Lombardini
(1802–1853)
8 February 1853 20 April 1853 71 days Conservative Party He was appointed provisional president by Congress when Ceballos resigned because of the rebellion of Plan del Hospicio.
(8) Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
20 April 1853 5 August 1855 2 years, 107 days Conservative Party He swore as President but ruled as dictator.
He called himself "Su Alteza Serenisima" (Serene Highness).

The Mexican National Anthem was composed during his presidency.
22 Martín Carrera.PNG Martín Carrera
(1806–1871)
5 August 1855 12 September 1855 38 days Conservative Party He was appointed interim president after the triumph of the Plan of Ayutla
but he took office until 15 August.
23 Rómulo Díaz de la Vega.PNG Rómulo Díaz de la Vega
(1800–1877)
12 September 1855 3 October 1855 21 days Conservative Party He served as de facto president after Carrera's resignation.
24 Juan Alvarez.PNG Juan Álvarez
(1790–1867)
4 October 1855 11 December 1855 68 days Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by a council integrated with one representative of each state after the triumph of the Revolution of Ayutla.
25 Ignacio Comonfort.PNG Ignacio Comonfort
(1812–1863)
11 December 1855 17 December 1857 2 years, 6 days Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by Juan Alvarez when he resigned.
He became constitutional president on 1 December 1857.

Reform War 1858–1860

There were two rival governments during the civil war of the Reform, which the liberals won.

President recognized by the Liberals

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
26 Benito Juárez - José Escudero y Espronceda.jpg Benito Juárez
(1806–1872)
18 December 1857 18 July 1872
(died)
14 years, 213 days Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he became interim president after the self-coup of Ignacio Comonfort against the Constitution of 1857. He was arrested and freed by Comonfort. He established a liberal constitutional government on 18 January 1858.
The struggle between the Liberal and Conservative forces is known as Reform War.

Presidents recognized by the Conservatives

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
(25) Ignacio Comonfort.PNG Ignacio Comonfort
(1812–1863)
17 December 1857 21 January 1858 35 days Liberal Party After the declaration of Plan of Tacubaya, Congress declared that he was no longer president but he was recognized by conservatives as president with absolute powers.
27 Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
11 January 1858 24 December 1858 347 days Conservative Party After disowning Comonfort, Zuloaga was appointed president by the Conservative Party.
28 Manuel Robles Pezuela Oleo (480x600).png Manuel Robles Pezuela
(1817–1862)
24 December 1858 23 January 1859 30 days Conservative Party He assumed the conservative presidency with the support of the Plan de Navidad.
(27) Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
24 January 1859 1 February 1859 8 days Conservative Party He was restored to the presidency by counter-rebellion led by Miguel Miramón.
29 Miguel Miramón Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Miramón
(1831–1867)
2 February 1859 13 August 1860 1 year, 193 days Conservative Party He assumed the conservative presidency as substitute when Zuloaga left office.
30 José Ignacio Pavón.PNG José Ignacio Pavón
(1791–1866)
13 August 1860 15 August 1860 2 days Conservative Party As president of the Supreme Court of the conservative government,
he took office for two days when Miramón left office.
(29) Miguel Miramón Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Miramón
(1831–1867)
15 August 1860 24 December 1860 131 days Conservative Party He took office as interim president of the conservative government after he was elected
by a group of "Representatives of the States" who supported the conservatives.
He was defeated at the Battle of Calpulalpan, resigned the presidency and fled the country.
(27) Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
23 May 1861 28 December 1862 1 year, 219 days Conservative Party Despite having been defeated, the conservatives appointed Zuloaga as president until 28 December, when they recognized the Regency who was seeking to reestablish the Mexican Empire.

Second Mexican Empire (1863–1867)

Regency

On 22 June 1863, a "Superior Governing Board" was established. On 11 July, the Board became the Regency of the Empire.

Members Term of office Political party
Portrait Name Took office Left office Time in office
Juan Nepomuceno Almonte LT.jpg Juan Nepomuceno Almonte 11 July 1863 10 April 1864 274 days Conservative Party
José Mariano Salas.jpg José Mariano Salas 11 July 1863 10 April 1864
Pelagio Antonio de Labastida y Dávalos.jpg Pelagio Antonio de Labastida 11 July 1863 17 November 1863 129 days
José Ignacio María Pavón.jpg José Ignacio Pavón 11 July 1863 2 January 1864 175 days
Juan Bautista de Ormaechea.jpg Juan Bautista Ormaechea 17 November 1863 10 April 1864 145 days

Monarchy of Maximilian I

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign Royal house Coat of arms
Reign start Reign ended Duration
Emperador Maximiliano I de Mexico.jpg Maximilian I
(1832–1867)
10 April 1864 19 June 1867 3 years, 70 days Habsburg-Lorraine Coat of Arms Second Mexican Empire.svg

Restored Republic (1867–1876)

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
(26) Benito Juárez - José Escudero y Espronceda.jpg Benito Juárez
(1806–1872)
18 December 1857 11 June 1861 14 years, 213 days Liberal Party The first term he was interim president during the Reform War.
The second term resulted from his being appointed constitutional president by Congress after the elections of 1861. His constitutional period began on 1 December.
The third term was an extension of the second, a consequence of the invasion.
The fourth and fifth terms followed the triumph of the Republic.
1861 11 June 1861 30 November 1865
1 December 1865 30 November 1867
1867 1 December 1867 30 November 1871
1871 1 December 1871 18 July 1872
31 Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, oleo sobre tela (cropped 2).png Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada
(1823–1889)
18 July 1872 30 November 1872 4 years, 155 days Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he became interim president after the death of Juarez. He was the winner of the extraordinary election of 1872 and became constitutional president. He was overthrown by the Revolution of Tuxtepec and left office ten days before the end of his constitutional term.
1872 1 December 1872 20 November 1876
32 José María Iglesias Oleo (480x600).png José María Iglesias
(1823–1891)
26 October 1876 28 November 1876 33 days Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he voided, on grounds of fraud, the reelection of Lerdo de Tejada after Congress had declared this reelection valid, and then declared himself interim president. When Lerdo de Tejada went to exile on 20 November, he became constitutional interim president.

Porfiriato (1876–1911)

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
33 Porfirio Diaz en 1867.png Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
28 November 1876 6 December 1876 8 days Liberal Party He became provisional president when Iglesias went to exile.
34 Juan Nepomuceno Méndez Oleo (480x600).png Juan N. Méndez
(1820–1894)
6 December 1876 17 February 1877 73 days Liberal Party He was appointed substitute president by Díaz when he left office to fight the supporters of Lerdo de Tejada.
(33) Porfirio Diaz en 1867.png Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
1877 17 February 1877 30 November 1880 3 years, 287 days Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency. On 5 May, he was appointed constitutional president by Congress.
35 President Manuel Gonzalez.jpg Manuel González Flores
(1833–1893)
1880 1 December 1880 30 November 1884 4 years Liberal Party He was the winner of the 1880 general election.
(33) Porfirio Diaz in uniform.jpg Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
1884 1 December 1884 25 May 1911 26 years, 175 days National Porfirist Party
National Reelectionist Party
He was the winner of the general election in 1884, 1888, 1892, 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1910.
He resigned during his 7th term after the triumph of the Mexican Revolution.
1888
1892
1896
1900
1904 Vice President
Ramón Corral
(since 1904)
1910

Revolution (1911–1928)

Political parties

     Progressive Constitutionalist Party      Independent

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
36 Francisco León.jpg Francisco León de la Barra
(1863–1939)
25 May 1911 5 November 1911 164 days Independent According to the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, he assumed office as interim president. Immediately called for elections.
37 Francisco I. Madero, Retrato (Palacio Nacional).png Francisco I. Madero
(1873–1913)
1911 6 November 1911 19 February 1913 1 year, 95 days Progressive Constitutionalist Party He was the winner of the 1911 general election.
He was overthrown by a coup known as the Ten Tragic Days organized by Victoriano Huerta, Félix Díaz and the U.S. ambassador Henry L. Wilson. He was murdered three days later along with the vice president Pino Suárez.
Vice President
José María Pino Suárez
38 Pedro Lascurain.jpg Pedro Lascuráin
(1856–1952)
19 February 1913 About 45 minutes Independent As Secretary of Foreign Affairs, he assumed office as interim president according to the constitution. In about 45 minutes, he appointed Victoriano Huerta as Secretary of the Interior and then resigned the Presidency.
39 Victoriano Huerta.(cropped).jpg Victoriano Huerta
(1850–1916)
19 February 1913 15 July 1914 1 year, 146 days Independent He assumed office via a coup against Francisco I. Madero. He was defeated by the Constitutional Army led by Governor of Coahuila, Venustiano Carranza.
40 Francisco Sebastián Carvajal.jpg Francisco S. Carvajal
(1870–1932)
15 July 1914 13 August 1914 29 days Independent He assumed office as Interim President after the resignation of Huerta.
He resigned after the signing of the Teoloyucan Treaties.

Presidents recognized by the Convention of Aguascalientes

The Conventionists were followers of revolutionary generals Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. They fought a civil war with the followers of revolutionaries under Venustiano Carranza.

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
41 Eulalio Gutierrez sentado.png Eulalio Gutiérrez
(1881–1939)
6 November 1914 16 January 1915 71 days He was appointed provisional president.
42 Roque González Garza.PNG Roque González Garza
(1885–1962)
16 January 1915 10 June 1915 145 days He was appointed provisional president after Gutierrez left Mexico City.
43 Francisco Lagos Chazaro.png Francisco Lagos Cházaro
(1878–1932)
10 June 1915 10 October 1915 122 days He assumed office as provisional president when González Garza resigned.

Constitutionalist victory and restoration of democracy

The revolutionary Constitutionalist Army under the authority "First Chief" Venustiano Carranza defeated the Army of the Convention in 1915, with a new constitution drafted in 1916–17.

Political parties

     Liberal Constitutionalist Party      Laborist Party

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Elected Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
44 Venustiano Carranza en la silla presidencial.jpg Venustiano Carranza
(1859–1920)
1917 Head of the Executive Power
First Chief of the Constitutional Army
2 years, 260 days Liberal Constitutionalist Party He served as Head of the Executive Power after the resignation of Carvajal.
He did not immediately call for presidential elections, which he had promised under the Plan of Guadalupe but ruled as the "pre-constitutional" head of government. He convoked a Constituent Convention which enacted the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. He won the 1917 general election and took office as Constitutional President on 1 May 1917.
He died during the Rebellion of Agua Prieta, led by three revolutionary generals.
13 August 1914 30 April 1917
President of Mexico 3 years, 20 days
1 May 1917 21 May 1920
45 Adolfo de la Huerta.png Adolfo de la Huerta
(1881–1955)
1 June 1920 30 November 1920 182 days Liberal Constitutionalist Party He was one of the leaders of the coup against Carranza, who had attempted to impose a civilian successor in 1920. De la Huerta was appointed provisional president by Congress.
46 Portrait of Álvaro Obregón 4.jpg Álvaro Obregón
(1880–1928)
1920 1 December 1920 30 November 1924 4 years Laborist Party He was the most successful general of the Constitutionalist Army and joined the rebellion against Carranza. When elections were held in the aftermath of the coup, he was the winner of the 1920 general election. Obregón designated Plutarco Elías Calles as his successor; fellow Sonoran general Adolfo de la Huerta rebelled with considerable revolutionary army support, but Obregón crushed the rebellion.
47 Plutarco Elías Calles recorte.png Plutarco Elías Calles
(1877–1945)
1924 1 December 1924 30 November 1928 4 years Laborist Party He was the winner of the 1924 general election. He changed the constitution to allow non-consecutive election of a president, allowing Obregón to run again in 1928. Obregón was re-elected but was assassinated before being sworn in. Calles then founded the political party that managed presidential succession until 2000.

Maximato (1928–1934)

President-elect Obregón was assassinated before he was inaugurated for a six-year presidential term. Calles brought together revolutionaries to found a political party. Calles could not succeed himself as president, but he remained the power behind the presidency as the jefe máximo (maximum chief).

Political parties

     National Revolutionary Party

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
48 Emilio Portes Gil.PNG Emilio Portes Gil
(1890–1978)
1 December 1928 4 February 1930 1 year, 65 days National Revolutionary Party He was appointed interim president by Congress, after the assassination of the winner of the 1928 general election, president-elect Álvaro Obregón.
49 Pascual Rubio, portrait.jpg Pascual Ortiz Rubio
(1877–1963)
1929 5 February 1930 4 September 1932 2 years, 212 days National Revolutionary Party He was the winner of the 1929 general election.
He resigned due to the intervention of Calles in his government.
50 RodriguezAbelardo.png Abelardo L. Rodríguez
(1889–1967)
4 September 1932 30 November 1934 2 years, 87 days National Revolutionary Party He was appointed substitute president by Congress to conclude the 1928–1934 term.

Modern Mexico (1934–present)

After the constitutional reform of 1926, the presidential term in Mexico was extended to six years starting in 1928; with a formal ban on reelection. After the 1934 general election, all the presidents have completed their six-year terms.

Political parties

     Institutional Revolutionary Party      National Action Party      National Regeneration Movement

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
51 Lázaro Cárdenas, Retrato.png Lázaro Cárdenas
(1895–1970)
1934 1 December 1934 30 November 1940 6 years National Revolutionary Party
52 Manuel Ávila Camacho, Retrato.png Manuel Ávila Camacho
(1897–1955)
1940 1 December 1940 30 November 1946 6 years Party of the Mexican Revolution
53 Retrato de Miguel Alemán Valdés.png Miguel Alemán Valdés
(1900–1983)
1946 1 December 1946 30 November 1952 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
54 Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, Retrato.png Adolfo Ruiz Cortines
(1889–1973)
1952 1 December 1952 30 November 1958 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
55 Retrato de Adolfo López Mateos.png Adolfo López Mateos
(1909–1969)
1958 1 December 1958 30 November 1964 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
56 Gustavo Ordaz 1911.jpg Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
(1911–1979)
1964 1 December 1964 30 November 1970 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
57 Luis Echeverría Álvarez official portrait.jpg Luis Echeverría
(1922–2022)
1970 1 December 1970 30 November 1976 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
58 Lopez Portillo.jpg José López Portillo
(1920–2004)
1976 1 December 1976 30 November 1982 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
59 Miguel de la Madrid official portrait (cropped).jpg Miguel de la Madrid
(1934–2012)
1982 1 December 1982 30 November 1988 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
60 Carlos Salinas de Gortari official portrait.jpg Carlos Salinas de Gortari
(born 1948)
1988 1 December 1988 30 November 1994 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
61 Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon Official Photo 1999.jpg Ernesto Zedillo
(born 1951)
1994 1 December 1994 30 November 2000 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
62 Vicente Fox Official Photo 2000 (Cropped).jpg Vicente Fox
(born 1942)
2000 1 December 2000 30 November 2006 6 years National Action Party
63 Presidente Felipe Calderon (cropped).jpg Felipe Calderón
(born 1962)
2006 1 December 2006 30 November 2012 6 years National Action Party
64 Enrique Pena Nieto.jpg Enrique Peña Nieto
(born 1966)
2012 1 December 2012 30 November 2018 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
65 AMLO 2023.jpg Andrés Manuel López Obrador
(born 1953)
2018 1 December 2018 Incumbent
(Term ends 30 September 2024)
5 years, 140 days National Regeneration Movement

Presidents who died in office

President Term of office Date of death Notes
Benito Juárez 1857–1872 18 July 1872 (aged 66) Only President of Mexico who died of natural causes while in office.
Venustiano Carranza 1914–1920 21 May 1920 (aged 60) Only President of Mexico to be assassinated while in office.

Timeline

Andrés Manuel López Obrador Enrique Peña Nieto Felipe Calderón Vicente Fox Ernesto Zedillo Carlos Salinas de Gortari Miguel de la Madrid José López Portillo Luis Echeverría Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Adolfo López Mateos Adolfo Ruiz Cortines Miguel Alemán Valdés Manuel Ávila Camacho Lázaro Cárdenas Abelardo L. Rodríguez Pascual Ortiz Rubio Emilio Portes Gil Plutarco Elías Calles Álvaro Obregón Adolfo de la Huerta Venustiano Carranza Lagos Chazaro Gonzales Garza Eulalio Gutiérrez Francisco S. Carvajal Victoriano Huerta Pedro Lascuráin Francisco I. Madero Francisco León de la Barra Manuel González Flores Juan Nepomuceno Méndez Porfirio Díaz José María Iglesias Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada Maximilian I of Mexico Pelagio Antonio de Labastida Juan Nepomuceno Almonte José Ignacio Pavón Miguel Miramón Manuel Robles Pezuela Félix María Zuloaga Benito Juárez Ignacio Comonfort Juan Álvarez Rómulo Díaz de la Vega Martín Carrera Manuel María Lombardini Juan Bautista Ceballos Mariano Arista Manuel de la Peña y Peña Pedro María de Anaya José Mariano Salas Mariano Paredes José Joaquín de Herrera Valentín Canalizo Francisco Javier Echeverría José Justo Corro Miguel Barragán Antonio López de Santa Anna Valentín Gómez Farías Manuel Gómez Pedraza Melchor Múzquiz Anastasio Bustamante Pedro Vélez José Maria Bocanegra Vicente Guerrero Miguel Domínguez Mariano Michelena Pedro Celestino Negrete Guadalupe Victoria Nicolás Bravo Manuel de Heras Miguel Valentín Antonio Pérez Martínez José Isidro Yañez Manuel Velázquez de León Manuel de la Barcéna Juan O'Donojú Agustín de Iturbide

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Anexo:Gobernantes de México para niños

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