- This page was last modified on 1 July 2019, at 18:31.
Space Shuttle Columbia facts for kids
The Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102)was a spacecraft used by NASA to fly into outer space. It was the first Space Shuttle to fly into space, on April 12, 1981. It broke apart while re-entering the Earth's atmosphere on February 1, 2003, killing all seven people who were on it at the time. The shuttle flew a total of 28 missions. The Columbia was named after a US Navy ship that circumnavigated the world in 1836. It was also the name of the Apollo 11 Lunar Excursion Module.
Cause of destruction
A piece of insulating foam from the external fuel tank peeled off during the launch 16 days earlier and struck the shuttle's left wing.
A hole was punctured in the leading edge of the wing. During the intense heat of re-entry, hot gases entered the interior of the wing, destroying the support structures and causing the rest of the shuttle to break apart.
- Commander: Rick D. Husband, a U.S. Air Force colonel and mechanical engineer, who piloted a previous shuttle during the first docking with the International Space Station (STS-96).
- Pilot: William C. McCool, a U.S. Navy commander
- Payload Commander: Michael P. Anderson, a U.S. Air Force lieutenant colonel and physicist who was in charge of the science mission.
- Payload Specialist: Ilan Ramon, a colonel in the Israeli Air Force and the first Israeli astronaut.
- Mission Specialist: Kalpana Chawla, an Indian-born aerospace engineer on her second space mission.
- Mission Specialist: David M. Brown, a U.S. Navy captain trained as an aviator and flight surgeon. Brown worked on a number of scientific experiments.
- Mission Specialist: Laurel Clark, a U.S. Navy captain and flight surgeon. Clark worked on a number of biological experiments.
|#||Date||Designation||Launch pad||Landing location||Notes|
|1||12 April 1981||STS-1||39-A||Edwards Air Force Base||First Shuttle mission|
|2||12 November 1981||STS-2||39-A||Edwards Air Force Base||First re-use of manned space vehicle|
|3||22 March 1982||STS-3||39-A||White Sands Space Harbor||First mission with an unpainted External tank.
Only time that a space shuttle has landed at the White Sands Space Harbor. This launch was dedicated by Ronald Reagan to "the people of Afghanistan".
|4||27 June 1982||STS-4||39-A||Edwards Air Force Base||Last shuttle R&D flight|
|5||11 November 1982||STS-5||39-A||Edwards Air Force Base||First four-person crew, first deployment of commercial satellite.|
|6||28 November 1983||STS-9||39-A||Edwards Air Force Base||First six-person crew, first Spacelab.|
|7||12 January 1986||STS-61-C||39-A||Edwards Air Force Base||Representative Bill Nelson (D-FL) on board/ final successful shuttle flight before Challenger disaster|
|8||8 August 1989||STS-28||39-B||Edwards Air Force Base||Launched KH-11 reconnaissance satellite|
|9||9 January 1990||STS-32||39-A||Edwards Air Force Base||Retrieved Long Duration Exposure Facility|
|10||2 December 1990||STS-35||39-B||Edwards Air Force Base||Carried multiple X-ray & UV telescopes|
|11||5 June 1991||STS-40||39-B||Edwards Air Force Base||5th Spacelab - Life Sciences-1|
|12||25 June 1992||STS-50||39-A||Kennedy Space Center||U.S. Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1)|
|13||22 October 1992||STS-52||39-B||Kennedy Space Center||Deployed Laser Geodynamic Satellite II|
|14||26 April 1993||STS-55||39-A||Edwards Air Force Base||German Spacelab D-2 Microgravity Research|
|15||18 October 1993||STS-58||39-B||Edwards Air Force Base||Spacelab Life Sciences|
|16||4 March 1994||STS-62||39-B||Kennedy Space Center||United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2)|
|17||8 July 1994||STS-65||39-A||Kennedy Space Center||International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2)|
|18||20 October 1995||STS-73||39-B||Kennedy Space Center||United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2)|
|19||22 February 1996||STS-75||39-B||Kennedy Space Center||Tethered Satellite System Reflight (TSS-1R)|
|20||20 June 1996||STS-78||39-B||Kennedy Space Center||Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)|
|21||19 November 1996||STS-80||39-B||Kennedy Space Center||3rd Wake Shield Facility flight/ longest Shuttle flight as of 2006|
|22||4 April 1997||STS-83||39-A||Kennedy Space Center||Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL)- cut short|
|23||1 July 1997||STS-94||39-A||Kennedy Space Center||Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL)- reflight|
|24||19 November 1997||STS-87||39-B||Kennedy Space Center||United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4)|
|25||13 April 1998||STS-90||39-B||Kennedy Space Center||Neurolab - Spacelab|
|26||23 July 1999||STS-93||39-B||Kennedy Space Center||Deployed Chandra X-ray Observatory|
|27||1 March 2002||STS-109||39-A||Kennedy Space Center||Hubble Space Telescope service mission (HSM-3B)|
|28||16 January 2003||STS-107||39-A||Did not land (Planned to land at Kennedy Space Center)||Earth science research mission. Shuttle destroyed during re-entry on 1 February 2003. All seven astronauts on board died.|
Images for kids
Columbia memorial in Arlington National Cemetery
Columbia launching during STS-1. Its distinctive black chines and "USA" painted on the starboard wing are visible. Columbia was the only orbiter launched with its external tank painted white, which was later discontinued to save weight.
Columbia landing at the Kennedy Space Center following STS-62.