Whitworth, Lancashire facts for kids
A view over Whitworth, to Brown Wardle Hill
|Population||7,500 (2011 Census)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||North West England|
Whitworth is a small town and civil parish in Lancashire, England, amongst the foothills of the Pennines between Bacup, to the north, and Rochdale, to the south. It had a population of 7,500 at the 2011 Census.
Whitworth spans the Whitworth Valley, a 7 square miles (18.1 km2) area consisting of Healey, Broadley, Whitworth, Facit and Shawforth, linked by the A671 road. Several smaller hamlets are now part of Whitworth, such as Cowm Top, which was removed to make way for Cowm Reservoir.
Whitworth is twinned with Kandel, Germany.
The early history of Whitworth is unclear; exact dates are difficult to pin down. At the very earliest period, Whitworth was at the edge of the famed and extensive Forest of Rossendale, which covered 22,000 acres (89 km²) and reached a point somewhere near Bacup. Flint arrows, stone hammers and spearheads found in the area point to the existence of Mesolithic man who roamed the bleak open moors. Whitworth has a substantial history, notably the Whitworth Doctors who occupied Whitworth House, a property still in existence in Whitworth Square.
In those early years, Whitworth came within the ancient parish of Rochdale which, although vast, was itself a part of the hundred of Salford, one of the main divisions into which the historic county boundaries of Lancashire were divided during Norman times. The Abbot of Whalley Abbey held much of the land in this area. Saxton’s Map of Lancashire of 1577 does mark Whitworth, setting it between neat pyramid-like hills on either hand.
The 16th century saw the beginnings of sheep farming, the growth of weaving and eventually the first industry in the area, with coal mining being recorded in the 17th century Industrialisation, however, remained a "household" affair through the 18th century and the settlements of Whitworth, Facit and Shawforth remained villages. Impetus was given to the development of the area through the construction, during the middle of the century, of a turnpike road through the valley. It ran from Manchester via Rochdale and Whitworth to Bacup and then on to Burnley, Colne and Skipton. It was one of the few such roads in East Lancashire and provided a ready means of conveying local goods to Manchester and Yorkshire. The road was of vital importance in Whitworth’s industrial expansion and with it, the settlements in the township thus began to grow. By the 19th century, quarrying and coal mining were the chief industries although the manufacture of yarn remained important.
Towards the end of the 19th century a great deal of development was visible including the opening in 1881 of a rail link between Bacup and Rochdale. Passenger services on the railway stopped in 1947. Two reservoirs, at Cowm and Spring Mill, were completed in 1877 and 1887 to augment Rochdale’s water supplies. In 1910, a tram service was introduced by Rochdale Corporation, first to Whitworth and later extended to Bacup. Buses replaced these in 1932. The population of Whitworth reached its peak of 9,574 in 1901 following which the recession in industry in the 1930s and the effects of World War II saw it decline. The first post war census in 1951 declared a population of 7,442 which declined further to 7,031 by 1961. Since then, however, the figure has risen to its present total of around 7,500.
In April 1976, an area in and surrounding Healey Dell, at the south end of the valley became legally designated as a statutory local nature reserve. A prominent feature of Healey Dell is the railway viaduct which stands 150 feet above the River Spodden, which rises in the Lancashire Pennine hills above Whitworth and proceeds south through Healey Dell and on to Rochdale, where it merges with the River Roch.
Brown Wardle is a hill between Whitworth and the village of Wardle, Greater Manchester The summit is on the border of Greater Manchester and Lancashire and stands 400m (1,312 ft) above sea level. The hill is part of the South Pennines, lying within the historic county boundaries of Lancashire.
Whitworth experiences a temperate maritime climate, like much of the British Isles, with relatively cool summers and mild winters. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year.
The facilities available in Whitworth for the pursuit of sports, although limited, are varied, and in some instances unique. Chief among these is water sports. The Whitworth Waterski and Recreation Centre based at Cowm Reservoir provides integrated facilities for both the able bodied and the disabled.
It specialises in providing for the latter but facilities for all include water skiing, inflatables and banana rides. The Whitworth Leisure Centre in John Street was opened in June 2003 thanks largely to the efforts of the Community Leisure Association of Whitworth (CLAW). The centre, which replaced the defunct Whitworth Swimming Pool, caters for a variety of activities including swimming in the refurbished pool. The location of Whitworth close to high moorland, and Brown Wardle Hill in particular, makes it an ideal venue for hang gliding while the rugged quarry areas make for interesting motor sports.
More usual sporting activities are also catered for including golf at Lobden Golf Club, crown green bowls at the Festival Park Bowling Club and fishing care of the Whitworth Angling Club.
Construction of a new civic hall on Market Street in Whitworth began in early 2006 after the previous hall was destroyed by an electrical fire on 6 December 2003. The new hall is called "The Riverside" and is run by the Community Leisure Association of Whitworth (CLAW). It was officially opened at 2pm on Saturday, 28 October 2006.
A number of football clubs exist in the area, the most senior of which is the Whitworth Valley Football Club.
Whitworth, Lancashire Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.