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French Civil Aviation University
Motto La référence aéronautique
Motto in English
The aeronautical reference
Type Public aerospace university
Established 1949 (1949)
Director-General Marc Houalla
Administrative staff
Students 2,000
Location ,
43°33′55″N 1°28′52″E / 43.56528°N 1.48111°E / 43.56528; 1.48111Coordinates: 43°33′55″N 1°28′52″E / 43.56528°N 1.48111°E / 43.56528; 1.48111
Campus Biscarrosse - Parentis Airport, Carcassonne Airport, Castelnaudary - Villeneuve Airport, Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban Airport, Grenoble-Isère Airport, Melun Villaroche Aerodrome, Montpellier – Méditerranée Airport, Muret - Lherm Aerodrome, Saint-Yan Airport and Toulouse
Colours Blue & Grey         
Nickname ENAC
Affiliations 3AF, Aerospace Valley, CDEFI, CGE, CESAER, CTI, Elles Bougent, Erasmus, EUR-ACE, France AEROTECH, GEA, IAAPS, ICAO, ISSAT, PEGASUS, Toulouse Tech, University of Toulouse

The French Civil Aviation University (French: École nationale de l'aviation civile), also known as ENAC, is a French public aeronautical grande école created the 28th of August 1949 and located at Biscarosse, Carcassonne, Castelnaudary, Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban, Grenoble, Melun, Montpellier, Muret, Saint-Yan and Toulouse, in France. It is member of the Conférence des Grandes Écoles, University of Toulouse, Aerospace Valley and is one the fifth founder of France AEROTECH.

ENAC provides training in civil aeronautics. The university has around 25 courses, including aerospace engineers, technicians, Masters, Mastères Spécialisés, airline pilots, air traffic controllers, managers and flight instructors.


1945 - 1949

Max Hymans was secretary general of civil and commercial aviation between 1945 and 1948

Air travel grew rapidly in France after World War II. Safe air transport required staff trained specifically for this activity. It also required people in different sectors of the aviation world to work together and understand each other. That is why ENAC was started. Max Hymans, the secretary general of civil and commercial aviation was the chief organizer.

1949 - 1955

Jules Moch - Жюль Мок (1957)
Jules Moch in 1957.

ENAC is created the 28th of August 1949 (Decree 49-1205) in Paris. The university was located at Orly, south of Paris. René Lemaire considers ENAC as "a university of aviation safety". This priority given to safety is natural for ENAC, being the first reason for the training of future technicians and future airmen in a single university.

A report of the Inspection générale de l'aviation civile said "It was in the minds of the creators of the univerisity, to develop between the crew and the ground staff a community of ideas, reciprocal knowledge, and esteem, that are essential for the teamwork required by air transport." Training courses were longer or shorter depending on specialty.

1955 - 1959

The decree of the 13th of October 1959 announces the first partner of the university: Air France. It results in a sharing of tasks and establishes a recruitment for airline pilots students with no previous flight experience. Previously, on an experimental basis, the university welcomed in 1958 the first airline pilots students. The university trained them for the preparation of the Airline Transport Pilot Licence theory exam. As for the practical training in flight, it is done at the SEFA center of Saint-Yan, created in 1949, until the commercial pilot licence, and at the Air France school for the advanced training. ENAC, in addition to his official task related to the preparation of the Airline Transport Pilot Licence theory, has some tasks of theoretical training for pilots of various airlines. There is also the question of the financial aspect of the training for airline pilots in private airlines. This training, which the cost is not paid by the French state, is too expensive for airlines and students, particularly because of the flight training part. Private airlines decided to pay the cost, which makes possible the free education for student pilots.

ENAC buildings and aircraft at the Saint-Yan Airport.

Meanwhile, ENAC developed cooperation with the École nationale de la météorologie and promoted the training of this subject for air traffic controllers. After World War II, when civil aviation is developing, soldiers can help its expansion. A lot of pilots, but also radios, navigators and mechanics are coming from the army to airlines. ENAC starts to be part of this movement, and help the conversion of military aircrew. It is in this spirit that is signed the 9th of June 1951 a memorandum specifying its duties in the training of military pilots for civil aviation. The university is the general contractor of the operations and provides the theoretical training. The Service de l'aviation légère et sportive (SALS), under the decree of the 31th of March 1951, is providing for free the flight training for airline pilots candidates coming from the army.

From 1949 to 1959, the number of courses held increase from 6 to 64 and the number of students from 49 to 800. The causes of rapid development are multiple. There is no doubt that ENAC has benefited from the spectacular development of air transport in the postwar years. But it would not have taken such an advantage if its teachings were not good. Finally, one can not ignore the presence of a significant contingent of students from either foreign countries or - in even larger numbers - which territories would gain independence in the near future. In the early 1960s, the university is beginning to welcome its first students and trainees from foreign civil aviation authorities. Along with development, new courses are created regularly. This creation is often a direct result of an administrative decision, as it is the case when a new rating is introduced. Thus, in 1956 was created the navigation instructor rating, with the opening of the corresponding training. Sometimes a course is simply set to meet a need. The same year 1956, for example, is introduced a speaking techniques course for instructors. Still in 1956, appears the first engineering students called "civilians", that is to say, not officials. The openings of new training graduate courses, of course, is much less frequent than those of new continuous training, which occurs fairly regularly. In 1958, the airline pilots theoretical training course is starting.

Life at ENAC Orly is then punctuated by the yearly trip for all the students, undoubtedly one of the highlights of the studies. It has its share of unexpected, but its rites, as the reception in full uniform of the university officials and the students by local authorities, on arrival at a new location.

1959 - 1968

The years 1960 - 1975 are those of a transition during which two major events happens: the move to Toulouse in 1968 where is now located the main campus and the change in status of the university, from external department of the French civil aviation administration to a public Administration institution in 1970.

When it is created, the French Civil Aviation University is located on the close to Paris-Orly Airport. This location near the largest French airport offers many advantages :easy use of the airplanes for a lot of activities - navigation flights, promotional trips, ... and the proximity with many airlines and aircraft manufacturers or related to the aviation industry, whose managers are likely to be called for lectures, conferences, ...

ICNA Tower
Students and air traffic controllers in the Nantes Atlantique Airport control tower

However, the very rapid growth of traffic at Paris-Orly Airport brought disadvantages. The aircraft used by ENAC, to have to be used in heavy air traffic. In the mid-1950s the first projects to implement ENAC on a new location starts to born. All involve are close cities of Parisian airports. Decentralization was among the motives. The plans for ENAC in the very close to Paris are irremediably condemned, studies are moving towards farther locations. The potential locations are all part of a 150 km radius around Paris, among other Melun, Pontoise, Coulommiers, Étampes, Reims, Évreux, Chartres, Orleans, etc.. Meanwhile, a report dated the 20th of May 1959, lists the disadvantages of a location too far from Paris: difficulties of transporting personnel, the possible increase of duration of the courses, increased operating costs,... It is in this context that René Lemaire analysis, in its report dated the 14th of June 1960, the possibility of a transfer to Toulouse. It is its aeronautical and university aspects that have made the choice for this city as a new location (Toulouse 1 University Capitole, created in 1229, is one of the oldest university in the world, the École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de constructions aéronautiques had settled in Toulouse since 1961 and the École nationale supérieure de l'aéronautique et de l'espace was going to move from Paris to the city). It is the 15th of June 1961 that the transfer of the university in Toulouse is validated by an official decision of Prime Minister Michel Debré. It is confirmed by his successor Georges Pompidou in a letter dated the 23th of July 1963.

It was in April 1966 that began the construction of new buildings on the campus of Rangueil. The project ends the 19th of August 1968 when the staff is invited to be at the university. The academic year starts the 16th of September 1968. 500 students are expected, including 325 who start their training. These are as follows: 15 air navigation engineering students, drawn largely from École Polytechnique, 70 engineering students in air navigation from two-years studies after French Baccalaureate, 60 airline pilot students, 100 air traffic controllers students, 40 electronics students, 20 commercial pilot students and 20 flight dispatcher students.

1968 - 1975

Although it thought it is better not to decide about the status of ENAC before the university opened its doors to its new campus, the Commission permanente has taken into consideration the problem of an inadequate legal status . This problem is old : identified shortly after the creation of the university, he has resurfaced many times, as the inspection reports that relate to the management of the institution shown. ENAC is closely followed by its supervisory authority. Inspection reports are occurring at a rapid cadence, in average one every two years, sometimes more. The judgment focused on the management of the institution is sometimes severe. These same reports, in the mid-1950s, contest the existence of the university, which was not the case in the previous years. As an example, the report (confidential) of Brancourt Controller the 12th of March 1952, based on the organization and operation of ENAC. We learn that the university has "a lack of doctrine", that "there is a certain tension with the training center of Air France", and even that "ENAC is madness".

In reality, the weaknesses can be largely explained by the difficulties caused by the inadequacy between the status of ENAC and the nature of its business, which requires it to provide courses for students and trainees who are not all officials from its supervisory authority, or to use teaching staff from very different origin. The heavy process for allocating university budget is in trouble as soon as other types of income are reduced, such as non-public resources. This happens more in the years 1958-1964. In 1962, the management of ENAC is thinking about increasing tuition fees, courses prices and fees for customers outside from the French civil aviation authority. However, the status of the institution submits the necessary prices adjustments to an approval process so difficult that finally is blocked. That's why, another type of status, "public administrative institution", appears much more appropriate. The final decision is taken by Decree No. 70-347 of the 13th of April 1970, with application the 1st of January 1971. Become a public administrative institution, ENAC is endowed with a board of directors. René Lemaire is the first president.

1975 - 1990

From 1975 a new thing is starting. It consists of an increase of the proportion of engineering students called "civilians" in opposition to the "officials" (civil servants) engineering students. ENAC is becoming a major player in the training for aerospace industry (civilian personnel), while its primary goal was only the training of officials for direction générale de l'aviation civile. It is true that the existence of students for the private sector is not new at the university : it was in 1956 that are trained the first of them. At the end of 1950s, however, this recruitment affects only a minority of students. It is primarily done to compensate the disadvantage which consists of the highly different number of students to work in the administration and to prevent the size of successive promotions with a too great difference. However, this second source tends to become more and more important, to finally become the first one. This results in an revision of the teachings. ENAC engineering education, particularly that of the specialty called "facilities" - it focuses on electronics - seduce the industrial sectors of electronics and information technology. Without having particularly desired, the university has progressively the role of a National University of Engineers.

Industry oriented university, research appeared in 1984, following the law on Higher education which provides that "engineering education [...] has a research activity, basic or applied," and is organized around four areas: electronics, automation, computer and air transport economy. The university then feels interest for future engineers to learn research methods: while the method of deductive reasoning, for a long time favored by teachers in the two-years studies after French high school diploma and universities, shows its limitations, the method of inductive reasoning, characteristic of research, appears progressively better adapted to the nature of functions performed by today's engineers. The most recent manifestation of the growing interest in research at ENAC is the creation of the air transport economics laboratory, which designation reflects the desire to study, in addition to air transport itself, certain related activities such as air navigation.

The mid 1980s saw the emergence of mastères spécialisés programs. They are born for most of them from an industrial demand, including the groupement des industries françaises aéronautiques et spatiales, in order to support the export contracts by training. Indeed, while filling the needs of many French students or professionals, they can train in a relatively short period some foreign executives. The same period saw the diversification of continuing education at the university. The continuing education courses are organized in five main areas: air traffic systems, electronics, computer, aeronautics and languages/humanities.

1990 - today

The international dimension of the university is growing significantly over the 1990s. Its development, however, faces an internal obstacle. It is the constraint imposed in the early 1990s : the design and implementation of the new cycle for air traffic controllers. The effort required by the university enables it to develop its international dimension. A novelty in the international activities of ENAC holds in the emergence of a specifically European component. It consists first in the participation in European projects such as EATCHIP (European Air Traffic control Harmonization and Integration Program), then in joining mobility programs for students such as Erasmus or Socrates. Under these programs, the university welcomes a growing number of foreign students. In doing so, it forges close relations with foreign universities, including those of Berlin and Darmstadt in Germany, as well as the one of Tampere in Finland. Since 1990, the university has new missions. Thus, ENAC negotiates new contracts for studies and research abroad. The 2000s are the years of the creation of courses entirely taught in English language and the development of activities focused on air navigation. In 2009, the university and its alumni association organize the first edition of the salon du livre aéronautique (aeronautical literary festival) in Toulouse. In December 2010, ENAC becomes an ICAO center for training in aviation security.

Meanwhile, the university develops new teaching facilities: the air traffic control simulator "CAUTRA", the aerodrome control simulator "AERSIM", an Airbus A320 flight management system simulator, a static model of the Airbus A321' s engine and the laboratory of telecom networks.

Since the 1st January 2011 and the merging of ENAC with the SEFA, the university is the biggest European aviation university.

Heads history

See also: Category:Heads of the French Civil Aviation University

The current head of the university is Marc Houalla, who was SEFA director from 2006 till the 1th of January 2011. It is the seventh person to be director since 1949. He was elected in 2008 after the departure of Gérard Rozenknop, his predecessor. The directors since 1949 are given in the following table.

List of ENAC heads
Name Years
Guy du Merle 1948 to 1951
Gilbert Manuel 1951 to 1967
Louis Pailhas 1967 to 1982
André Sarreméjean 1982 to 1990
Alain Soucheleau 1990 to 1999
Gérard Rozenknop 1999 to 2008
Marc Houalla since 2008



As all the equivalent universities in France, ENAC is managed by a President elected by a board of directors. He is member of the three councils of the university :

  • Training and research council, managed by Gilles Perbost at the 1st of September 2011 ;
  • Flight training council, coming from the merger with SEFA ;
  • International relations and development council.

In addition to these three councils, the university has a director's office which includes communication and cultural affairs, a division of information systems and a general secretariat dedicated to legal management, logistics, financial and human resources.


The university has spent for its operation 126 million euros in 2011. The budget is up 61.12% compared to 2010 as a result of its merger with the SEFA and consists of:

ENAC fondation

In consideration for several months, a corporate foundation has been established in September 2011. It aims to guide the training and research council on the changes to be made to the training Ingénieur ENAC (ENAC engineer) and to the corporate partnerships. It consists of technical and human resources managers from aerospace companies such as Air France, Airbus, Aéroport de Paris, Rockwell Collins, Thalès, Aéroconseil,....


ENAC Hélène Boucher
Building Hélène Boucher at ENAC Toulouse

ENAC has eight campuses and can provide accommodation. It also has a canteen, cafeteria, library, computer rooms, sports halls including a fitness room, a sports field, a rugby field, five tennis courts, a beach volleyball and a golf driving range. Its main campus is located at Rangueil (Toulouse).

Since its merger with the SEFA, ENAC has eight locations :


ENAC has a fleet of 130 aircraft of different types: CAP-10, Socata TB-10, Socata TB-20, Beechcraft Baron 58, Beechcraft 200, ATR 42, Diamond DA40 (to replace the Socata TB-20) and Diamond DA42 (to replace the Beechcraft Baron 58).

On its Toulouse campus, the university has flight simulator Robin DR400 and Socata TB-20, and also some static simulators of Airbus A320 and Airbus A340.

In the air navigation department, it has control tower simulators (at 120 or 360 degrees).

Teaching and research

Initial training

ENAC has four Bachelor's degree courses to train pilots and aerospace technicians.

ENAC provide theoretical training for pilot students in eight months in its campus of Toulouse, and the practical training of 16 months, is given in the other campuses of the university in Montpellier, Carcassonne, Saint-Yan or Muret. Since 1992, graduates of this training are represented by an alumni association called AGEPAC. In parallel, the university propose a preparation for the Airline Transport Pilot Licence theory different by its purpose, allow high school students from low income families to become airline pilot, and its level of recruitment (End of high school). After that, students can prepare the Commercial pilot licence or going to he course technicien aéronautique d'exploitation (in English, aeronautical operations technician), training also accessible from two other recruitment. With a similar name but preparing for a different job, the curriculum technicien supérieur de l'aviation (in English, higher aviation Technician) allows the integration of the techniciens supérieurs des études et de l'exploitation de l'aviation civile (in English higher civil aviation operations Technicians) civil servant department or the one of the techniciens supérieurs de l'aviation civils (English: civil higher aviation technician).

In addition, the university has seven Master's degree programs to train people for both aerospace industry and French civil aviation authority.

Going only to the civil aviation authority, the courses of Air traffic controller and Air Traffic Safety Electronics Personnel are done by the university. the Ingénieur ENAC course trains aerospace engineer in three sectors : electronics and aeronautical telecommunications (L), computer systems and air traffic (S) and aeronautical engineering (T). A small part (10 %), are civil servant engineering students. They become ingénieurs des études et de l'exploitation de l'aviation civile (civil aviation operations engineer) after the university. Since 1949, ENAC is a specialization university for École Polytechnique students. Thus, since the 16th of April 2002 and the merger of the corps des ingénieurs de l'aviation civile (civil aviation engineer department) and thus of géographie et de la météorologie (geography and meteorology) into the Corps of Bridges and Roads, the training of managers of the French civil aviation authority has changed. The Corps of Bridges and Roads are trained at the École des Ponts ParisTech and part of the course (about 300 hours) is organized in cooperation with ENAC for students who wants to join the French civil aviation authority. Furthermore, the university has created in 2007 a Master's degree in International Air Transport Opération Management, in 2011 the course Master's degree in Global Navigation Satellite System supported by the European Commission and in 2012 the training Master's degree in Air Traffic Management in partnership with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Master's degree in Human–computer interaction (IHM) is realized in cooperation with the Paul Sabatier University.

Finally, the French Civil Aviation University provides seven Mastères Spécialisés courses in the fields : airport management, air transport management (in partnership with Toulouse Business School), communication - navigation - surveillance and satellite applications for aviation, aviation safety aircraft airworthiness (in partnership with other grandes écoles), air-ground collaborative systems engineering, aviation and air traffic management and aerospace project management (APM) (in partnership with other grandes écoles).

The former students of the three Master programs, the Ingénieur ENAC course, as well as those of the Corps of Bridges and Roads and those of the Mastères Spécialisés courses was represented by an association, INGENAC, created in 1988, member of the CNISF (French scientific and engineer council) and in Toulouse. The 16th of March 2012, INGENAC decided to represent all the former students of the university and changes its name to « ENAC Alumni ».

Each course of the university has its own recruitment process.

Continuing education

By hosting each year more than 7,500 students who participate to more than 600 courses annually organized by the university, with a turnover of 15 million of euros, ENAC is now the largest organization in Europe for aeronautical continuing education. The continuing education of ENAC has been developed in areas which ENAC is well recognized : air traffic, electronics, computer science, aeronautical engineering, aircraft control, ...

International partners

An ENAC aircraft at Airexpo on Muret - Lherm Aerodrome the 28th of May 2011.

Students of the aerospace engineer course can study at the two other grandes écoles members of the groupement des écoles d'aéronautique, and also at the National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse and at Nantes business school. Moreover, as part of France AEROTECH, an exchange of third year engineering students is under elaboration with the grandes écoles of this network.

In another country, students have access to the Erasmus programme and to Pegasus. In the aerospace engineer course, the university welcomes 8% of foreign students in 2011. Considering all the courses, this number is 46% in 2010.

The university has also agreements with  : Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Florida Institute of Technology, University of California, University of Washington, École africaine de la météorologie et de l'aviation civile. It also educates people of the Agence pour la sécurité de la navigation aérienne en Afrique et à Madagascar.

Also, ENAC is a founder of the Institut sino-européen d'ingénierie de l'aviation of Tianjin. On this city, the university has four Mastères Spécialisés courses at the Civil Aviation University of China only for Chinese students : airport management, aviation safety management - airworthiness, aviation safety management - flight operations and aviation safety management - aeronautical maintenance.

Finally, in December 2011, the university has signed a partnership with the École des Ponts ParisTech and the Académie internationale Mohammed VI de l'aviation civile to start an Executive MBA in aviation management for aerospace people in March 2012 at Casablanca.

Research activities

Research is a growing business at ENAC. Industry oriented university, it appears in 1984, following the law on higher education which provides that « engineer training...contains a research activity, pure or applied ». It was originally organized around four areas : electronics, automation, computer and air transport economy. Mid-2009, the research teams was in the following laboratories : automation - operational research (LARA), economy - air econometrics (LEEA), study - optimization of telecommunications networks architectures (LEOPART), electromagnetism for aeronautical telecommunications (LETA), interactive computer (LII), applied mathematics (LMA), air traffic optimization (LOTA) and signal processing for the aeronautical telecommunications (LTST).

ENAC also has, since 2005, a team specializing in UAVs that maintains and develops Paparazzi, a free system for automatic control of UAVs, unmanned aerial vehicle laboratory. The infrastructure includes also a planetarium and an air traffic control simulator. ENAC is a founding member of the European academy for aviation safety (EAFAS), network of the key training organizations in the field of air safety. During the Paris Air Show of 2005, the university announces a partnership with Office National d'Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales in the fields of air traffic management, air safety, satellite navigation, sustainable development and air transport economy.

End of 2011, the university has established a new research organization that are six transverse programs : UAVs and air traffic management, airports, aircraft and air operations, human-computer interaction, air/ground communications and sustainable development, everything is now based on four laboratories : applied mathematics - optimization - optimal control - control engineering operations research (MAIAA), signal processing - satellite positioning system - electromagnetism - networks (TELECOM), architecture - modeling - engineering of interactive systems (LII) and economics - air transport econometrics (LEEA).

Famous people


See also: Category:Alumni of the École nationale de l'aviation civile

Several famous pilots have studied at the French Civil Aviation University like Émile Allegret, soldier and member of the French Resistance during the World War II, Xavier Barral (Promotion 1966), former President of the association des professionnels navigants de l'aviation (Professional aircrew association), Noël Chevrier (Promotion 1970), antistress center manager at Air France, Gérard Feldzer (Promotion 1971), former President of the Aéro-Club de France, Bernard Pestel (Promotion 1972), vice president of the société française de droit aérien (French Air Law company), Béatrice Vialle (Promotion 1981), one of the two female Concorde pilot and the first French female pilot on a supersonic airliner.

Particularly because of its status of a French civil servant university, some civil servant has been student at ENAC like Jean-Marc de Raffin Dourny (Promotion 1966), President of the organisme pour la sécurité de l'aviation civile (organization for the safety of civil aviation), Michel Bernard (Promotion 1967), former head of the Agence nationale pour l'emploi and former President of Air Inter, Paul-Louis Arslanian (Promotion 1968), former head of the French Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile, Jean-Paul Troadec (Promotion 1970), head of the Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile, Michel Wachenheim (Promotion 1975), French ambassador.

Some alumni of the university became managers like Yves Lambert (Promotion 1959), former head of Eurocontrol, Gérard Mestrallet (Promotion 1971), CEO of GDF Suez., Jean-Michel Vernhes (Promotion 1971), head of the Toulouse-Blagnac Airport, Jean-Charles Corbet (Promotion 1974), former head of Air Lib, Olivier Colaïtis (Promotion 1977), President of Galileo, Lionel Guérin, founding President of Airlinair, Franck Goldnadel (Promotion 1990), head of the Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, Méziane Idjerouidène (Promotion 2003), general manager of Aigle Azur.

Few intellectuals graduate from the university like Jacques Villiers (Promotion 1948), founder of the Centre d'études de la navigation aérienne (French air navigation center), Jean Peyrelevade (Promotion 1961), politician and business leader, Hamza Ben Driss Ottmani (Promotion 1963), Moroccan economist and writer, Alain Lefebvre (Promotion 1970), Journalist, Solenn Colléter (Promotion 1993), novelist.

In science, personalities like Gabriel Weishaupt (Promotion 1948), founding member of the Académie de l'air et de l'espace, Jean Robieux, Physicist, Georges Maignan (Promotion 1955), former director of the experimental center of Eurocontrol, Gérard Desbois (Promotion 1979), younger flight engineer graduate and crew member during the first flight of the Airbus A380, have studied at the university.

Teachers and former teachers

Some aerospace personalities teach at the university such as Hervé Hallot, meteorology teacher and co-author of Météorologie aéronautique, Joel Laitselart (TAE 87), air operations teacher and former operations manager of Aeris airline, Patrick Lepourry, head of the engine department and co-author of Propulseurs aéronautiques, Instruments de bord and Initiation à l'aéronautique, Félix Mora-Camino, head of the control engineering department and co-author of Avionique - Tome 2, Système de conduite automatique et gestion du vol or Yves Plays (IENAC S71), head of the specialized master in air transport and co-author of Initiation à l'aéronautique.

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