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Baldwin County, Georgia facts for kids

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Baldwin County
Baldwin County Courthouse
Baldwin County Courthouse
Map of Georgia highlighting Baldwin County
Location within the U.S. state of Georgia
Map of the United States highlighting Georgia
Georgia's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Georgia
Founded 1803; 220 years ago (1803)
Named for Abraham Baldwin
Seat Milledgeville
Largest city Milledgeville
 • Total 267 sq mi (690 km2)
 • Land 258 sq mi (670 km2)
 • Water 9.6 sq mi (25 km2)  3.6%%
 • Estimate 
 • Density 177/sq mi (68/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district 10th

Baldwin County is a county located in the central portion of the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,337. The county seat is Milledgeville, which was developed along the Oconee River.

Baldwin County is part of the Milledgeville, GA Micropolitan Statistical Area.


For centuries the land was occupied by the Creek Nation, and for thousands of years before them, varying cultures of indigenous peoples.

Part of the land ceded by the Creek Nation in the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson in 1802 was used to create Baldwin County on May 11, 1803, by the Georgia General Assembly, the state's legislative body.

The land west of the Oconee River was organized as Baldwin and Wilkinson counties. The Treaty of Washington with the Creek in 1805 extended the state's western boundary to the Ocmulgee River. A legislative act on June 26, 1806, added some of this additional land to both counties.

The state legislature subsequently passed an act on December 10, 1807 that created four new counties from Baldwin County's 1806 borders. It expanded Baldwin to the east with land from Hancock and Washington counties. The new counties were Morgan, Jones, Putnam, and present-day Jasper (originally named Randolph County at the time of the act).

The county is named for Abraham Baldwin, a signer of the United States Constitution, U.S. congressman representing Georgia, and the founder of the University of Georgia. Euroepan-American settlers moved rapidly into the area and developed large cotton plantations, made possible by the labor of slaves. Since the invention of the cotton gin, short-staple cotton could be profitably processed, and it was well-suited to the uplands of Georgia. What became known as the Black Belt of Georgia, an arc of fertile soil, was one of the destinations for slaves being sold from the Upper South, as well as from the Low Country.

The county seat of Milledgeville is the former state capital of Georgia (1804–1868). Other than Washington, DC, it is the only planned capital city in the United States.

Because of its central location within the state and its abundant supply of water from the Oconee River, Milledgeville grew rapidly into a bustling frontier settlement. On November 2, 1807, the state legislature held its first session in the newly completed statehouse in Milledgeville. Georgia's first state penitentiary was also built within the historic city limits of Milledgeville in 1817. This site is now used as part of the campus of Georgia College and State University. In 1837 the General Assembly provided for the establishment of the state's first mental asylum, today known as Central State Hospital.

When the state of Georgia seceded from the Union in January 1861 during a legislative session held in Milledgeville, Baldwin County became a target for Union forces. When Union general William T. Sherman's made his devastating March to the Sea through Georgia, his troops occupied the capital city in November 1864. Sherman and his Union armies burned the state penitentiary, vandalized the city, and held a mock session of the legislature in the statehouse to repeal the state's ordinance of secession.

In 1868, after the Civil War (1861–65), Georgia's capital was moved from Milledgeville to its present location in Atlanta. Today Milledgeville is home to two institutions of higher education: Georgia College and State University and Georgia Military College. Founded in 1889 as the Georgia Normal and Industrial College for Women, Georgia College and State University has since grown to become the state's premier public liberal arts university. Georgia Military College, founded in 1879, now occupies the Old Capitol Building.

In addition to the Old Capitol and Governor's Mansion, visitors to Baldwin County can explore Andalusia, writer Flannery O'Connor's family farm; Milledgeville's historic district; and the Lockerly Arboretum, a botanical garden and nature education center that hosts the Lockerly Heritage Festival each September.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 267 square miles (690 km2), of which 258 square miles (670 km2) is land and 9.6 square miles (25 km2) (3.6%) is water.

The majority of Baldwin County, south of Lake Sinclair, is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northern portion of the county is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin.

Major highways

  • US 441.svg U.S. Route 441
    • U.S. Route 441 Business
  • Georgia 22.svg State Route 22
  • Georgia 24.svg State Route 24
  • Georgia 29.svg State Route 29
  • Georgia 49.svg State Route 49
  • Georgia 112.svg State Route 112
  • Georgia 212.svg State Route 212
  • Georgia 243.svg State Route 243
  • Georgia 540.svg State Route 540 (Fall Line Freeway) (coming soon)

Adjacent Counties


Historical population
Census Pop.
1810 6,356
1820 7,734 21.7%
1830 7,295 −5.7%
1840 7,250 −0.6%
1850 8,148 12.4%
1860 9,078 11.4%
1870 10,618 17.0%
1880 13,806 30.0%
1890 14,608 5.8%
1900 17,768 21.6%
1910 18,354 3.3%
1920 19,791 7.8%
1930 22,878 15.6%
1940 24,190 5.7%
1950 29,706 22.8%
1960 34,064 14.7%
1970 34,240 0.5%
1980 34,686 1.3%
1990 39,530 14.0%
2000 44,700 13.1%
2010 45,720 2.3%
2019 (est.) 44,890 −1.8%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790-1960 1900-1990
1990-2000 2010-2019

2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 45,720 people, 16,788 households, and 10,373 families living in the county. The population density was 177.3 inhabitants per square mile (68.5/km2). There were 20,159 housing units at an average density of 78.2 per square mile (30.2/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 54.9% white, 41.5% black or African American, 1.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 41.5% were African, 24.0% were American, 7.9% were English, and 6.8% were Irish.

Of the 16,788 households, 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% were married couples living together, 19.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.2% were non-families, and 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age was 34.1 years.

The median income for a household in the county was $37,237 and the median income for a family was $47,714. Males had a median income of $36,158 versus $26,576 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,488. About 16.8% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.6% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.

2020 census

Baldwin County racial composition
Race Num. Perc.
White (non-Hispanic) 22,432 51.22%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 18,318 41.82%
Native American 64 0.15%
Asian 599 1.37%
Pacific Islander 27 0.06%
Other/Mixed 1,220 2.79%
Hispanic or Latino 1,139 2.6%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 43,799 people, 16,191 households, and 9,568 families residing in the county.



Census-designated place

Unincorporated community



Major highways

  • US 441.svg U.S. Route 441
    • U.S. Route 441 Business
  • Georgia 22.svg State Route 22
  • Georgia 24.svg State Route 24
  • Georgia 29.svg State Route 29
  • Georgia 49.svg State Route 49
  • Georgia 112.svg State Route 112
  • Georgia 212.svg State Route 212
  • Georgia 243.svg State Route 243
  • Georgia 540.svg State Route 540 (Fall Line Freeway)

Pedestrians and cycling

  • Oconee River Greenway

Notable people

  • Carl Vinson, who served for fifty years in the U.S. Congress, was born in Baldwin County.
  • Oliver Hardy, comedian and film director, began his career in the Milledgeville Opera House.
  • Flannery O'Connor, novelist and short-story writer, lived in Milledgeville. She is buried in her family plot in the city's historic Memory Hill Cemetery.

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Condado de Baldwin (Georgia) para niños

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