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Carl Jung
Jung 1910-rotated.jpg
Jung outside Burghölzli Clinic, Switzerland 1910
Karl Gustav Jung

(1875-07-26)26 July 1875
Died 6 June 1961(1961-06-06) (aged 85)
Küsnacht, Zürich, Switzerland
Alma mater University of Basel
Known for Analytical psychology, typology, collective unconscious, psychoanalytical complex, archetypes, anima and animus, synchronicity
Spouse(s) Emma Jung
Scientific career
Fields Psychiatry, psychology, psychotherapy, analytical psychology
Institutions Burghölzli, Swiss Army (commissioned officer in World War I)
Doctoral advisor Eugen Bleuler
Influences Bleuler, Freud, Kant, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer
Influenced Joseph Campbell, Hermann Hesse, Erich Neumann, Ross Nichols, Alan Watts, Jordan Peterson, Terence McKenna
Carl Jung signature.svg

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and writer. He created many theories and ideas that are still used in psychology today. Psychology is the science of how people think and feel. His kind of psychology was called analytical psychology or Jungian Analysis.

Jung worked for years with Sigmund Freud, but they stopped working together. This was because they had some arguments about what was more important in psychology.

Jung is famous for many things that he did for psychology. The work he did was important for measuring what kind of personality people have. The test called the Myers Briggs Type Indicator is based on his ideas. He is also famous because of his ideas about the ancients - people from many years ago.

Jung liked to study strange books and sciences. He thought he could learn important things about psychology from them. For example, he liked to study alchemy. Alchemy was an old kind of magic that tried to create gold.

He wrote in academic German, for doctors and psychologists, meaning he could be hard to understand. Most people who study Jung start with his book Man and His Symbols. Jung wrote this book so that people would be able understand him.

Jung died of an illness in Kuesnacht, Canton of Zurich.

Key concepts

The major concepts of analytical psychology as developed by Jung include:

Synchronicity - an acausal principle as a basis for the apparently random simultaneous occurrence of phenomena.

Archetype - a concept "borrowed" from anthropology to denote supposedly universal and recurring mental images or themes. Jung's definitions of archetypes varied over time and have been the subject of debate as to their usefulness.

Archetypal images - supposedly universal symbols that can mediate opposites in the psyche, often found in religious art, mythology and fairy tales across cultures

Complex - the repressed organisation of images and experiences that governs perception and behaviour

Extraversion and introversion - personality traits of degrees of openness or reserve contributing to psychological type.

Shadow - the repressed, therefore unknown, aspects of the personality including those often considered to be negative

Collective unconscious - aspects of unconsciousness experienced by all people in different cultures

Anima - the contrasexual aspect of a man's psyche, his inner personal feminine conceived both as a complex and an archetypal image

Animus - the contrasexual aspect of a woman's psyche, her inner personal masculine conceived both as a complex and an archetypal image

Self - the central overarching concept governing the individuation process, as symbolised by mandalas, the union of male and female, totality, unity. Jung viewed it as the psyche's central archetype

Individuation - the process of fulfilment of each individual "which negates neither the conscious or unconscious position but does justice to them both".

Video games

  • The Persona series of games is heavily based on his theories.
  • Jung, C. G. 1953. Psychiatric Studies. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung Vol. 1. 1953, ed. Michael Fordham, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, and Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. This was the first of 18 volumes plus separate bibliography and index. Not including revisions the set was completed in 1967.

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