Ferndale, California facts for kids
Main Street in Ferndale
Location in Humboldt County and the state of California
|Incorporated||August 28, 1893|
|• Total||1.027 sq mi (2.659 km2)|
|• Land||1.027 sq mi (2.659 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2) 0%|
|Elevation||56 ft (17 m)|
|Population (April 1, 2010)|
|• Density||1,335.0/sq mi (515.61/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|GNIS feature IDs||277513, 2410497|
Ferndale is a city in Humboldt County, California, United States. Its population was 1,371 at the 2010 census, down from 1,382 at the 2000 census. The city contains dozens of well-preserved Victorian storefronts and homes. Ferndale is the northern gateway to California's Lost Coast and the city, which is sited on the edge of a wide plain near the mouth of the Eel River, is also located near the extensive preserves of Coast Redwood forests.
- Arts and culture
- Parks and recreation
- In popular culture
- Images for kids
Before American settlement, Ferndale was a glade of giant ferns reaching more than six feet, surrounded by alder, willow, Sitka spruce, Douglas fir, coast redwood, swampy land and windswept prairies. The area was populated by the southern Wiyot people, centered along the Eel River where they caught lamprey eels, salmon and sturgeon in iris leaf fish nets, collected shellfish along the river and at its mouth, while cultivating only a California species of tobacco. The town was established in 1852 from settlement by Willard Allard, Seth Louis Shaw and his brother Stephen W. Shaw.
In August 1852, Allard and the Shaw brothers borrowed a canoe from the Wiyots in the Table Bluff area and rowed it across the Eel and up Francis Creek to arrive with their supplies to the approximate vicinity of Main and Shaw streets. In September 1852 they cleared a five-acre area of ferns and began building a cabin near the base of the Wildcat Road even though Allard was sick with the ague. By January 1853, twelve men were living in the Shaws' cabin including Seth Kinman, who provided the group with meat, and Joe Russ (1825-1886), whose later holdings included the Fern Cottage Historic District. About this time, Stephen Shaw painted the portrait of Wiyot elder Kiwelattah (or Ki-we-lah-tah) and kept a detailed journal of two years of trying to grow plants in cold coastal fog.
Seth Shaw settled in the area now marked by Main and Lewis streets where he began construction of the now-historic Shaw House on his property in 1854. The Shaw House served as the area's first polling place in 1854, post office in 1860 and courthouse in 1863. Seth Shaw was justice of the peace and postmaster, and his home served for many gatherings although it was not finished until 1866. After having been away from the area for two years, Stephen Shaw sold his holdings in 1856 to Welsh-born Francis Francis (1818-1877) who later established the city's water system through pipes laid initially in 1875.
Other small towns were established around Ferndale, including Centerville, Port Kenyon, Waddington, Grizzly Bluff and Arlynda Corners. Produce from Ferndale was shipped out via Centerville and transferred to ships at anchor offshore prior to the opening of docks at Port Kenyon in 1876. In 1865 the first shipment of coal oil from the Union Mattole Oil Company was shipped through Ferndale to San Francisco.
Danish settlers founded and built Our Savior's Lutheran Church in 1899 and dedicated Danish Hall, which had been built as a warehouse by Arnold Berding in the late 1880s, on October 10, 1929. The Swiss who settled in Ferndale from Italian- and German-speaking families included the Oeschgers who moved to Ferndale in time for Joe Oeschger to play baseball at Ferndale High School before going to a career in Major League Baseball. A later influx of Romansh Swiss included the ancestors of College Football Hall of Fame coach Len Casanova. Sausage, salami-making and wine-making can be traced to Italians who arrived later than the Danish and Swiss, beginning around 1897. The Germans arrived early, the first was businessman Arnold Berding in 1857. Most Germans worked on ranches or were dairymen, but at least one owned the Milwaukee Brewery Depot Saloon. Congressman Don Clausen is descended from German settlers of Ferndale. German settlers organized St. Mark's Lutheran Church in 1906. Except for three Portuguese brothers who arrived in the 1870s and a few from mainland Portugal, most came from the Azores islands between 1900 and 1915. Ferndale Portuguese have celebrated their traditional Festival of the Holy Ghost since 1924.
Chinese settlement and expulsions
Chinese arrived in California in the earliest gold-rush days, and were settled in all parts of Humboldt County almost as soon as English-speaking whites. They worked in gold mining on the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, before settling mostly in Eureka, with a few in outlying towns like Ferndale where two Chinese owned clothes washing businesses. Chinese laborers built parts of the Wildcat Road between Ferndale and Petrolia, dug out the water reservoirs for the Francis Water Company and worked at two fish canneries on the Eel River, although - as in the rest of California - they were not truly welcome. In 1885, after a city councilman of Eureka was shot dead in the crossfire from two warring Chinese tong gangs, 480 Chinese residents were rounded up in two days and forced to relocate to San Francisco. A year later, the Cutting Packing Company brought in a crew of Chinese for the season. Following a heated meeting at Roberts Hall in Ferndale between local residents and an upset delegation from Eureka, the company guaranteed the workers would come nowhere near town and they were allowed to stay until the fishing season was over in December. Chinese crews were used again at the same cannery in 1887 and 1889. In 1906 Eureka and Fortuna citizens were again up in arms at Ferndale's violation of the unwritten law of the county when the Starbuck-Talent Canning Company of Port Kenyon brought in 23 Chinese and four Japanese to work at the cannery. After threats of mass action, the Chinese were taken to an old cookhouse on Indian Island from which all whites were barred and where they were held until they left by sea. The Japanese were permitted to keep working for Starbuck-Talent.
Ferndale was incorporated in 1893.
Business and communications
Dairies were founded from the Bear River Ridge to the south side of the Eel River starting in the late 1860s. Filled kegs of butter were transported along the beach river by four-horse teams from the Mattole to Centerville or Port Kenyon and the teams returned supplies from Ferndale. The eighty-one dairies from the southern area faded as the land along the Eel River Valley was settled for dairying, first by the Danes and later by other settlers. In the 1880s multiple cooperative creameries in the Eel River valley began to process milk into butter; by 1904 the Central Creamery on Main Street Ferndale had combined the smaller operations into a more modern production facility. The use of paper wrapping on butter to reduce air oxidizing the product was pioneered here at the suggestion of Chester E. Gray (1881-1944) from the U.S. Department of Agriculture who studied the problem of unrefrigerated fine butter turning white within hours of production. Gray patented a new spray-drying process (U.S. Patent #858,868 - 1907 and #1,157,935 - 1915) and went into business with Central Creamery owner Aage Jensen in a new dry-milk manufacturing process to utilize non-fat milk solids which had formerly been waste of the process. Their new plant processed 75,000 pounds of milk a day, shipping to San Francisco and filling contracts for the U.S. Navy. In 1916 Grey and Jensen moved to San Francisco and changed the company name to Golden State Creamery.
Ferndale was a crossroads village and provided lodging, horses, blacksmithing and other services both to individual travelers and the Overland Stage and Express line which ran from Eureka to Cloverdale with connections to San Francisco over 80 hours of traveling for a cost of $20. The first stage line was founded in 1862 with daily trips from Eureka, Centerville and Petrolia. In 1868, twice weekly stages ran to San Francisco and by 1871 daily service was available. The first automobiles were used for the stage runs in 1911, the same year as Fernbridge (bridge) was built, eliminating the need for ferry boat service.
In 1878 regular service on steamships carried produce, cargo and passengers from Port Kenyon, where by 1897, 188,652 pounds of wool and 965,010 pounds of butter were shipped out along with grains, chickens, potatoes, lumber, eggs, hides, vegetables and salmon. The steamer trade declined as the Salt River silted up and the transport hub shifted to Eureka.
Main Street businesses supplied the needs of not only the Ferndale area, but for the inland Mattole Valley as well. They included banks, hotels, stables, variety and merchandise stores, hardware and grocery stores, farm and machine implements, butchers, blacksmiths shoemakers, barbers, tailors, miliners, saloons and gambling halls, billiard parlors, coopers, doctors, dentists, drug stores, lawyers, engineers, surveyors, real estate agents, several photographers, furniture makers, undertakers, a telegraph office and a Wells-Fargo office.
Telephone and telegraph wires were run into the valley by private companies in the 1890s; by 1899 it was said that the telephone was in "almost universal use in this valley." In 1900 the telephone line was extended to the Mattole Oil fields in Petrolia. In 1911, the Eel River and Southern Telephone company consolidated operations around Ferndale, and on February 6, 1960, dial telephones were introduced; the old switchboard and crank phones are on display at the Ferndale Museum.
The Ferndale Enterprise newspaper was founded on 11 May 1878 by three sons of the local Methodist minister and has published continuously since then, while moving offices and shifting from semi-weekly to weekly publication.
Incorporation and services
Ferndale incorporated with a vote of 89 in favor and 47 against on 17 August 1893 primarily to organize drainage and prevent dogs and other animals from running loose, according to the earliest ordinances enacted. In 1915 the current firehouse was built as combined firehouse and city hall.
After the 1875 fire which nearly destroyed south Main street was put out by volunteer bucket brigades, and other smaller conflagrations, the City purchased a used Hunneman hand pumper fire engine on April 14, 1883. The end-stroke torrent pumper had been built in the 1850s and been shipped west in the 1860s. The name on the side of this engine was "Franklin" because the city bought it from the Franklin Fire Company of San Jose, California. The engine was transferred to the newly formed Ferndale Fire Department when they organized in February 1897. In November 1923, after 41 years in service, the hand pumper was shipped to the American LaFrance Company, "as part payment on the fine new pumper recently purchased by this town." Other sources say the engine was sold to a Hollywood film company. Modern equipment arrived in 1905 with a motorized pumper engine, in 1917 with a Model T truck with chemical tanks and in 1948 the Hook and Ladder Company formed. In 1883, water supplies were consolidated in local cisterns under present-day State Route 211 which were later filled in and water from the hill reservoirs was used to supply the hydrants. In 1902 the fire alarm was placed in a wooden structure at the corner of Brown and Main which fell over entirely in the 1906 earthquake (see below) which led to the bell being hung at the firehouse, and a steam-whistle at the Creamery used for the fire alarm from 1906 until electric sirens came into use in 1931.
Electrical lighting was installed in May 1896, supplied by a wood burning steam electric generating plant that worked between dusk and midnight only; it was replaced in 1903 by a distillate burning steam electric generator a few blocks east of Main Street. In 1911, the earlier generation and distribution systems were merged into Western States Gas and Electric acquired in 1927 by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company.
The national landmark Ferndale Public Library was completed in 1910 with local funds and an $8,000 Carnegie grant. In 1876 the Ferndale Cemetery Association was established which manages the 5.03 acre burial ground.
Ferndale is located at Pacific Ocean. By car, Ferndale is 265 miles (426 km) north of San Francisco and just 12 miles (19 km) south of Eureka. California State Route 211 is the major road connecting the city with US 101. Directly to the south of Ferndale is the Lost Coast region, whose geology and terrain has made it very difficult to establish routes through the area. It has thus made that area only accessible by land via small county mountain roads, such as Mattole Road, running from Ferndale south to Petrolia.. Its location south of US 101, is very close to the mouth of the Eel River as it enters the
According to the United States Census Bureau, Ferndale has a total area of 1.0 square mile (2.6 km2), all of it land.
Ferndale experienced earthquakes in the 19th century, but the first shock to receive widespread news coverage was the 1906 San Francisco earthquake which damaged more than 40 structures in the downtown, with severe damages to the two brick buildings, and 98 percent of chimneys thrown down. The earthquake was estimated at a Mercalli intensity of VII (Very strong) at Ferndale.
Seventeen years later, on January 22, 1923, a 7.2 earthquake centered off Cape Mendocino was said to be nearly as great a shock in Ferndale as the 1906 earthquake. Chimneys fell, water mains and plate glass windows broke, and the recently repaired Odd Fellows building fell off its new foundation. It arrived with a ground rumble and a flash of light.
On August 20, 1927, an earthquake centered about 60 kilometres (37 mi) west of Arcata caused considerable damage around Humboldt Bay, and damage reports from Ferndale included broken chimneys, merchandise tossed from shelves and china and glassware broken.
Smaller earthquakes were recorded from the 1920s through the 1980s, but the next big earthquake to strike Ferndale was actually three big earthquakes. The first "Best of the West" festival parade was in progress on April 25 when the first of three shocks of the 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquakes arrived, shattering the glass windows of the stores out onto Main Street. The brick facade of Valley Grocery collapsed, and police estimated damage to 80 percent of the downtown buildings. Between 30 and 40 houses were knocked off their foundations from the first shock which was centered about 35 miles (56 km) south of Eureka and had a magnitude of 7.2. The other two large earthquakes that hit within 18 hours of the first shock, measured magnitude 6.5 and 6.7. Both a large landslide and several small landslides occurred on the Mattole Road which also cracked due to downhill slumping and soil compaction of the road shoulders. Damages in Ferndale were estimated at $10.4 million.
On January 9, 2010, the 6.5 Richter magnitude, 2010 Eureka earthquake's epicenter was about 25 miles (40 km) offshore of Ferndale. Occurring within a subduction fault associated with the interaction of three tectonic plates (Pacific, North American, and Juan de Fuca), it was the largest local earthquake since the 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquakes.
|Weather chart for Ferndale|
|temperatures in °F
precipitation totals in inches
Ferndale's climate is moderated by being close to the Pacific Ocean and in the lee of the Wildcat Hills. Winter temperatures rarely go below freezing and summer days are rarely over 80 °F (27 °C). Ferndale has a warm summer Mediterranean climate indicated by the code "Csb" on some weather maps. The average yearly temperature is 46.0 °F (7.8 °C): January is the coldest month, July is the warmest. The record high temperature was 92.6 °F (33.7 °C) set in August, and the lowest ever recorded was 19.0 °F (−7.2 °C) in December. Ferndale's average snowfall is zero, however rare dustings of snow have happened. Ferndale receives most of its nearly 50 inches (130 cm) of rain from November to May, with lesser amounts in the summer months. Local microclimates are varied and support tropical palm trees and Sitka spruce, including a mature Sitka forest in Russ Park, and the over 150 feet (46 m) tall spruce lighted every year for Christmas. Morning fogs are common year round.
|Climate data for Ferndale, California|
|Record high °F (°C)||43.9
|Average high °F (°C)||57
|Average low °F (°C)||40
|Record low °F (°C)||26
|Rainfall inches (mm)||8.45
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)||20||12||14||12||6||6||4||6||5||11||17||17||130|
The 2010 United States Census reported that Ferndale had a population of 1,371. The population density was 1,335.5 people per square mile (515.6/km²). The racial makeup of Ferndale was 1,281 (93.4%) White, 1 (0.1%) African American, 22 (1.6%) Native American, 20 (1.5%) Asian, 2 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 17 (1.2%) from other races, and 28 (2.0%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 77 persons (5.6%).
The Census reported that 1,371 people (100% of the population) lived in households, 0 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.
There were 611 households, out of which 149 (24.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 294 (48.1%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 55 (9.0%) had a female householder with no husband present, 27 (4.4%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 38 (6.2%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 6 (1.0%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. One hundred ninety-four households (31.8%) were made up of individuals and 91 (14.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24. There were 376 families (61.5% of all households); the average family size was 2.84.
The population was spread out with 283 people (20.6%) under the age of 18, 75 people (5.5%) aged 18 to 24, 283 people (20.6%) aged 25 to 44, 422 people (30.8%) aged 45 to 64, and 308 people (22.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47.2 years. For every 100 females there were 89.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males.
There were 717 housing units at an average density of 698.4 per square mile (269.7/km²), of which 388 (63.5%) were owner-occupied, and 223 (36.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 3.0%. 926 people (67.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 445 people (32.5%) lived in rental housing units.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,382 people, 611 households, and 392 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,343.2 people per square mile (518.1/km²). There were 663 housing units at an average density of 644.4 per square mile (248.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 93.34% White, 0.29% Black or African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.30% from other races, and 3.91% from two or more races. 4.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 611 households out of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.8% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.83.
In the city, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, and 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $37,955, and the median income for a family was $49,706. Males had a median income of $32,404 versus $29,808 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,727. About 4.5% of families and 7.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.9% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over.
Arts and culture
Ferndale, sometimes also referred to as "Cream City", is known for well-preserved Victorian store-fronts on main street and homes throughout the community, which are also known as "Butterfat Palaces," due to their construction wherein considerable wealth was generated in the dairy industry. Many of these buildings date from the 1880s. The entire town is registered as California Historical Landmark #883.
Six historic buildings as well as the Ferndale Main Street Historic District and the Fern Cottage Historic District are within or around Ferndale are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Other points of interest include the Ferndale City Hall, Ferndale Museum, Ferndale Cemetery, St. Mary's Cemetery, Our Savior's Lutheran Church, Saint Mark's Lutheran Church, Church of the Assumption, the Congregational Church, and the Humboldt County Fairgrounds.
The Humboldt County Fair has been held every August since 1896 at the county fairgrounds on the edge of Ferndale, and feature the only horse-racing events in the county along with the standard fare of agricultural, pastoral and artistic contests, carnival games, carnival amusement rides, and commercial or non-profit booths.
Every year since 1934 in early December, local volunteer fire fighters climb and light one of America's tallest living Christmas trees, an approximately 150 feet (46 m) spruce, during a celebration of song held at Fireman's Park.
Every February since 1997, Ferndale has hosted 'The Ferndale Fray,' a slot car race with the highest attendance of this type of event anywhere in the world. More than 100 racers on sixteen teams arrive to compete on eight-custom built tables.
Each March since 1977, runners have taken to the streets of Ferndale and surrounding Eel River Bottoms for the Foggy Bottom Milk Run. Races are held in 2 miles (3.2 km),4 miles (6.4 km), and 10 miles (16 km) distances.
Each May since 1969, Ferndale is the finish line of the annual Kinetic sculpture race. The race began in Ferndale when Hobart Brown was challenged to race his odd-looking five-wheeled bike down Main Street on Mother's Day, 1969 by local sculptor Jack Mays.
Parks and recreation
City Hall Park
City Hall Park was deeded to the city by the Village Club in 1918. The triangular park was filled with material graded from the southern end of Main Street, and a Clubhouse (now City Hall) was finished in 1931. The building was styled to look like an English cottage, although shingles were used in place of traditional thatch. The fireplace was sent from England as a gift from the daughter of a resident. Its granite comes from a Welsh quarry and was chiseled in San Francisco. The Gazebo which contains Ferndale's California Historical Landmark Plaque is at the north end of City Hall Park. In 2011 new benches and trees were added to the park which hosts annual events including the Fourth of July Picnic.
Firemen's Park at the southernmost end of town between Francis and Berding Streets is bordered on three sides by houses and to the south by restricted watershed property. It has ball fields, a playground, picnic area and three bocce courts. The Community Center in Fireman's Park was built in 1922. It includes a large dance and meeting pavilion with attached kitchen. The Ferndale Children's Center has occupied one end of the pavilion since 1991.
Russ Park, located three blocks east of Main Street on Bluff Street, is open sunrise to sunset. Four hiking trails cross the mature forest in the 105-acre park donated to the city by Zipporah Patrick Russ on 31 October 1920. The deed includes "That the property be used forever as a park and recreation grounds … as a refuge and breeding place for birds." Dominant trees include Sitka spruce and Douglas fir with a few redwoods which were planted in the 1930s. More than 100 kinds of birds are known from the park, which is the southern extent of the Pacific Northwest temperate rainforest.
In popular culture
Ferndale has been featured in movies including The Majestic with Jim Carrey, Outbreak starring Dustin Hoffman, and made-for-television movies Salem’s Lot starring David Soul and James Mason, and A Death in Canaan. and Joe Dirt
Legoland Model Replica
Many of Ferndale's buildings have been recreated at the Legoland California theme park - the only American small town represented alongside New York, San Francisco, Las Vegas and other nationally known locations. Ferndale was settled by many Danes, and Lego is a Danish company. In 1995, Legoland staff took hundreds of photos in Ferndale, and used over 1 million Lego bricks to recreate the town in the Miniland section of the park.
Images for kids
Ferndale, California Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.