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Gillespie County, Texas facts for kids

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Gillespie County
The Gillespie County Courthouse in Fredericksburg
The Gillespie County Courthouse in Fredericksburg
Map of Texas highlighting Gillespie County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Texas
Founded 1848
Named for Robert Addison Gillespie
Seat Fredericksburg
Largest city Fredericksburg
 • Total 1,062 sq mi (2,750 km2)
 • Land 1,058 sq mi (2,740 km2)
 • Water 3.5 sq mi (9 km2)  0.3%
 • Total 26,725
 • Density 25.165/sq mi (9.716/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district 21st

Gillespie County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2020 census, its population was 26,725. The county seat is Fredericksburg. It is located in the heart of the rural Texas Hill Country in Central Texas. Gillespie is named for Robert Addison Gillespie, a soldier in the Mexican–American War.

On December 15, 1847, a petition was submitted to create Gillespie County. In 1848, the legislature formed Gillespie County from Bexar and Travis Counties. While the signers were overwhelmingly German immigrants, names also on the petition were Castillo, Pena, Munos, and a handful of non-German Anglo names.

Gillespie County comprises the Fredericksburg, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area.


Early native inhabitants were the Tonkawa, Comanche, Kiowa, and Lipan Apache peoples. In 1842, the Adelsverein organized in Germany to promote emigration to Texas. The Fisher-Miller Land Grant set aside three million acres (12,000 km²) to settle 600 families and single men of German, Dutch, Swiss, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian ancestry in Texas. Henry Francis Fisher sold his interest in the land grant to the Adelsverein in 1844. Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels secured the title to 1,265 acres (5.12 km2) of the Veramendi grant the next year, including the Comal Springs and River, for the Adelsverein. Thousands of German immigrants were stranded at port of disembarkation, Indianola, on Matagorda Bay. With no food or shelters, living in holes dug into the ground, an estimated 50% die from disease or starvation. The living began to walk to their destinations hundreds of miles away. About 200 German colonists, who walked from Indianola, founded the town of New Braunfels at the crossing of the San Antonio-Nacodoches Road on the Guadalupe River. John O. Meusebach arrived in Galveston. The first wagon train of 120 settlers arrived from New Braunfels. Surveyor Hermann Wilke laid out the town. Meusebach named it Fredericksburg, in honor of Prince Frederick of Prussia.

In 1847, the Meusebach–Comanche Treaty was made. About 150 settlers petitioned the Texas Legislature to establish a new county, suggested names "Pierdenales" or "Germania". The Vereins Kirche became the first public building in Fredericksburg. It served as a nondenominational church, school, town hall, and fort. Locals referred to it as “the Coffee Mill Church” for its shape. Wilhelm Victor Keidel was the county's first doctor. Mormon leader Lyman Wight founded the community of Zodiac.

The Legislature formed Gillespie County from Bexar and Travis Counties in 1848. They named it after Tennessee transplant Capt. Robert Addison Gillespie, a hero of the 1846 Battle of Monterrey in the Mexican-American War. Fredericksburg became the county seat.

Fort Martin Scott was established in 1848 at Barons Creek, a Pedernales tributary. An angry mob of soldiers burned down the store-courthouse in 1850, destroying all county records. The melee apparently started when County Clerk John M. Hunter, who also owned the store, refused to sell whiskey to a soldier. Words were exchanged, and Hunter stabbed the soldier; about 50 soldiers stormed and burned the store, destroying all contents. Soldiers prevented townspeople from saving the county records.

John O. Meusebach was elected to the Texas Senate in 1851 to represent Bexar, Comal, and Medina Counties, and in 1854, received a special appointment as commissioner from Governor Elisha M. Pease to issue land certificates to those immigrants of 1845 and 1846 who had been promised them by the Adelsverein. The Texas State Convention of Germans met in San Antonio and adopted a political, social, and religious platform, including: Equal pay for equal work, direct election of the President of the United States, abolition of capital punishment, “Slavery is an evil, the abolition of which is a requirement of democratic principles..”, free schools – including universities – supported by the state, without religious influence, and total separation of church and state.

In 1852, Bremen seaman Charles Henry Nimitz, grandfather of Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz, built the Nimitz Hotel in Frederickburg. In 1870, he added a steamboat-shaped façade.

Surveyor Jacob Kuechler was commissioned as a captain by Sam Houston to enroll state militia troops in Gillespie County. Texas seceded from the Union in 1861, and joined the Confederate States of America, and Houston was dismissed from office in March by the Confederacy. Gillespie County voted 400 -17 against secession from the Union. Unionists from Kerr, Gillespie, and Kendall Counties participated in the formation of the Union League, a secret organization to support President Abraham Lincoln’s policies. Kuechler signed up only German Unionists in his frontier company, and was dismissed by Governor Francis R. Lubbock.

In 1862, 54 Gillespie County men joined the Confederate Army. Eventually, 300 enlisted with the CSA to avoid conscription. The Union League formed companies to protect the frontier against Indians and their families against local Confederate forces. Conscientious objectors to the military draft were primarily among Tejanos and Germans. Confederate authorities imposed martial law on Central Texas. The Nueces massacre occurred in Kinney County. Jacob Kuechler served as a guide for 61 conscientious objectors attempting to flee to Mexico. Scottish-born Confederate irregular James Duff and his Duff’s Partisan Rangers pursued and overtook them at the Nueces River; 34 were killed, some executed after being taken prisoner. Jacob Kuechler survived the battle. The cruelty shocked the people of Gillespie County. About 2,000 took to the hills to escape Duff's reign of terror.

The Treue der Union Monument ("Loyalty to the Union") in Comfort was dedicated in 1866 to the Texans slain at the Nueces massacre. It is the only monument to the Union other than the National Cemeteries on Confederate territory. It is one of only six such sites allowed to fly the United States flag at half-mast in perpetuity. Spring Creek Cemetery near Harper in Gillespie County has a singular grave with the names Sebird Henderson, Hiram Nelson, Gus Tegener, and Frank Scott.

In 1870, Herman Lehmann and his brother Willie were captured by Apaches, but Willie escaped within days. Herman Lehmann, escorted by soldiers, was finally returned to his family in 1878.

In 1881, Gillespie County became the first county in Texas to hold a fair.

From 1874–75, Andreas Lindig built the county’s first lime kiln. The original Gillespie County Courthouse was constructed in 1882; it later became the Pioneer Memorial Library.

Chester W. Nimitz, future Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, was born in 1885 in Fredericksburg. His father, Chester B. Nimitz, died before his birth, leaving his seaman grandfather as role model. John O. Meusebach died at his farm at Loyal Valley in Mason County on May 27, 1897, and was buried in the Marschall Meusebach Cemetery at Cherry Spring.

In 1908, future President of the United States Lyndon B. Johnson was born in a small farmhouse on the Pedernales River. Johnson became the Vice President of the United States in 1961 and subsequently President of the United States. His ranch at Stonewall was known as the Texas Whitehouse. Tourism became an important industry. On January 22, 1973, President Johnson died at his Stonewall ranch. He, and later Lady Bird Johnson, were laid to rest at the family cemetery on the ranch.

The Gillespie County Historical Society was formed in 1934, and the Pedernales Electric Cooperative was formed to provide rural electrification four years later. In 1948, the County began its annual Easter Fire event to commemorate the Meusebach treaty signing.

Admiral Nimitz died February 20, 1966, and was laid to rest at the Golden Gate National Cemetery. The next February, the Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz Memorial Naval Museum opened in the old Nimitz Hotel on Main Street in Fredericksburg.

The Japanese Garden of Peace, a gift from the people of Japan, was dedicated on the 130th anniversary of the founding of Fredericksburg at the Nimitz Museum on May 8, 1976. In 1981. The state legislature placed the Nimitz Museum under Texas Parks and Wildlife Department as the National Museum of the Pacific War.

The State of Texas opened Enchanted Rock State Natural Area after adding facilities in 1984. That same year, it is also added to the National Register of Historic Places,

The Texas White House officially opened to the public August 27, 2008. In 2009, the George H. W. Bush Gallery opened at the Nimitz museum.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,062 square miles (2,750 km2), of which 1,058 square miles (2,740 km2) is land and 3.5 square miles (9.1 km2) (0.3%) is water.

Adjacent counties

Major highways

  • I-10.svg Interstate 10
  • US 87.svg U.S. Highway 87
  • US 290.svg U.S. Highway 290
  • Texas 16.svg State Highway 16
  • Texas RM 783.svg Ranch to Market Road 783

National protected area


Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 1,240
1860 2,736 120.6%
1870 3,566 30.3%
1880 5,228 46.6%
1890 7,056 35.0%
1900 8,229 16.6%
1910 9,447 14.8%
1920 10,015 6.0%
1930 11,020 10.0%
1940 10,670 −3.2%
1950 10,520 −1.4%
1960 10,048 −4.5%
1970 10,553 5.0%
1980 13,532 28.2%
1990 17,204 27.1%
2000 20,814 21.0%
2010 24,837 19.3%
2020 26,725 7.6%
U.S. Decennial Census
1850–2010 2010 2020

2020 census

Gillespie County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010 Pop 2020 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 19,472 19,884 78.40% 74.40%
Black or African American alone (NH) 47 84 0.19% 0.31%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 68 69 0.27% 0.26%
Asian alone (NH) 88 127 0.35% 0.48%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 11 1 0.04% 0.00%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 28 100 0.11% 0.37%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 154 694 0.62% 2.60%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 4,969 5,766 20.01% 21.58%
Total 24,837 26,725 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.



Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Ghost Towns

Notable residents

  • President Lyndon B. Johnson was born in Stonewall, in the eastern part of the county. The Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park, which includes much of the former president's LBJ Ranch, is located just outside Stonewall.
  • Admiral Chester W. Nimitz was born in a house that still stands on Main Street in Fredericksburg. Nimitz, who grew up in Fredericksburg and in nearby Kerrville, graduated from the United States Naval Academy, rose to the rank of Fleet Admiral and commanded the Pacific War during World War II.
  • Betty Holekamp, German colonist and pioneer, lived on a 320-acre (1.3 km2) parcel near Fredericksburg.
  • Susan Weddington, state chairman of the Republican Party of Texas from 1997 to 2003, retired to Fredericksburg.

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Condado de Gillespie para niños

National Hispanic Heritage Month on Kiddle
Influential Hispanic athletes
Jim Plunkett
Sammis Reyes
Carlos Arroyo
Trevor Ariza
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