Escondido, California facts for kids(Redirected from History of Escondido, California)
|City of Escondido|
Downtown Escondido's Grand Avenue in May 2006.
|Motto: "City of Choice!"|
Location of Escondido, California
|Country||United States of America|
|Incorporated||October 8, 1888|
|• Total||36.989 sq mi (95.801 km2)|
|• Land||36.813 sq mi (95.345 km2)|
|• Water||0.176 sq mi (0.456 km2) 0.48%|
|Elevation||646 ft (197 m)|
|Population (April 1, 2010)|
|• Estimate (2013)||148,738|
|• Rank||4th in San Diego County
38th in California
|• Density||3,890.64/sq mi (1,502.187/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific (UTC−8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC−7)|
|ZIP codes||92025–92027, 92029|
|GNIS feature IDs||1652706, 2410455|
Escondido (// ES-kən-DEE-doh) is a city located in San Diego County's North County region, 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Downtown San Diego, California. The city occupies a shallow valley ringed by rocky hills. Incorporated in 1888, it is one of the oldest cities in San Diego County. The city had a population of 143,911 in the 2010 census. Escondido's municipal government set itself an operating budget limit of $426,289,048 for the fiscal year 2010–2011. The city is known as Eskondiid in Diegueño.
"Escondido" is a Spanish word meaning "hidden". One source says the name originally referred to agua escondida or hidden water; another says it meant "hidden treasure".
The Escondido area was first settled by the Luiseño, who established campsites and villages along the creek running through the area. They named the place "Mehel-om-pom-pavo." The Kumeyaay migrated from areas near the Colorado River, settling both in the San Pasqual Valley and near the San Dieguito River in the southwestern and western portions of what is now Escondido. Most of the villages and campsites today have been destroyed by development and agriculture.
Spain and Mexico
Spain controlled the land from the late 18th century to the early 19th century, and established many missions in California to convert the indigenous people. When Mexico gained its independence from Spain, the local land was divided into large ranchos. Most of what is now Escondido occupies the former Rancho Rincon del Diablo ("Devil's Corner"), a Mexican land grant given to Juan Bautista Alvarado (not the governor of the same name) in 1843 by Governor Manuel Micheltorena. Alvarado was a Regidor of Los Angeles at the time, and the first Regidor of the pueblo of San Diego. The southern part of Escondido occupies the former Rancho San Bernardo, granted in 1842 and 1845.
In 1846, during the Mexican–American War, the Battle of San Pasqual was fought southeast of Escondido. This battle pitted Mexican forces under Andrés Pico (brother of then-California-governor Pío Pico) against Americans under Stephen W. Kearny, Archibald Gillespie, and Kit Carson. A park in Escondido is named for Carson.
The city was home to a largely Spanish-speaking population in the first census, taken in 1850 when California became a state. After statehood, non-Hispanic settlers came to Southern California in increasing numbers. The decade of the 1880s is known as the "Southern California Land Boom" because so many people moved to the state.
In 1853, pro-Southern Copperheads proposed dividing the state of California to create a new Territory of Colorado (at this time the territory that would become the state of Colorado was named "Jefferson"). San Diego Judge Oliver S. Witherby suggested placing the capitol of the new territory in Rancho Rincon del Diablo. He envisioned a railroad connecting San Diego to Fort Yuma through an area about two miles (3 km) south of the current Escondido site, heading east through San Pasqual. With a series of deeds in 1855 and 1856, the rancho was transferred from the heirs of Juan Bautista Alvarado to Witherby. He planned to profit from the town that he believed would be established from the dividing point on the railroad below the eastern hills. The proposal for splitting the state and creating the new territory passed in the California legislature, but died in Congress in the run-up to the Civil War. It was effectively killed in 1861 when Congress organized the Territory of Colorado in the area previously occupied by the Jefferson Territory. With Witherby's vision of owning a bustling state capitol unrealized, he set up a mining operation on the rancho instead.
In 1868, Witherby sold the rancho for $8000 to Edward McGeary and John, Josiah, and Matthew Wolfskill. McGeary owned half the rancho, while the three Wolfskill brothers each owned an equal share of the other half. John Wolfskill farmed sheep, horses, and cattle on the rancho for a number of years. Wolfskill had frequent conflicts with the Couts family, owners of the neighboring Guajome, Buena Vista, and San Marcos ranchos, over grazing lands and watering holes.
In October 1883, a group of Los Angeles investors purchased Rancho Rincon del Diablo. This group sold the land to the newly formed Escondido Company in 1884. On December 18, 1885, investors incorporated the Escondido Land and Town Company, and in 1886 this company purchased the 12,814-acre (52 km2) area for approximately $100,000. Two years later, in 1888, Escondido was incorporated as a city; the vote was 64 in favor of cityhood with 12 votes against. Railroads such as the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific were laid in the 1880s. The opening of U.S. Route 395 in 1930 boosted economic growth in Escondido.
Escondido was primarily an agricultural community, growing muscat grapes initially. After a dam was built in 1894-5 to form what is known today as Lake Wohlford, orange and lemon trees were planted in large numbers, as were olive and walnut trees. By the 1960s, avocados became the largest local crop. Since the 1970s, Escondido has lost most of its agricultural land to housing developments.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.0 square miles (96 km2). 36.8 square miles (95 km2) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) of it is water. The total area is 0.48% water.
The city is growing at a rapid rate with new communities like Hidden Trails appearing at the east end of East Valley Parkway. The city proper is surrounded by several sparsely populated unincorporated communities. These include Jesmond Dene and Hidden Meadows to the north; Felicita Park to the southwest; and Rincon Del Diablo to the southeast. Residents of these communities have Escondido mailing addresses and zip codes, and their children are sometimes assigned to Escondido schools, but residents of these communities cannot participate in city elections.
The city contains several neighborhoods including:
- Downtown Escondido centers around Grand Avenue between Centre City Parkway and Palomar Hospital. The city's general plan defines the Downtown Specific Plan Area as approximately 460 acres (1.9 km2) bounded by Centre City Parkway on the west, Hickory and Ivy Streets on the east, Washington Avenue on the north, and Fifth Avenue on the south, with an additional narrow section extending west along Valley Parkway to Interstate 15.
- Old Escondido is bounded by Escondido Boulevard on the west, Chestnut Street on the east, Fifth Avenue on the north, and Thirteenth Avenue on the south. This area is made up of mostly single-family residential housing.
The Escondido Creek bisects the city. It originates at the Lake Wohlford Dam in the northeast, passes through downtown and leaves the city through the Harmony Grove area in the southwest before eventually emptying into the San Elijo Lagoon. The creek path through the city was developed into a concrete flood control channel in the 1960s. A Class I bicycle path runs along most of the channel's length.
The community of Valley Center is located just north of Escondido. Valley View Casino, owned by the San Pasqual Band of Diegueno Mission Indians, is located in Valley Center.
Natural vegetation types in the Escondido area include chaparral brushland, oak woodland, riparian (stream) woodland, and grassland. The Daley Ranch Preserve north of the city provides a good location to view these natural vegetation types.
Escondido tends to have a typical Mediterranean climate with warm summers and cool wet winters. Owing to its inland proximity it is considerably warmer than coastal cities like San Diego, Carlsbad or Oceanside during the summertime, and cooler in the winter. Yearly precipitation averages around 15 inches (380 mm) and can vary considerably from year to year. Rainfall totals are higher in the hills to the north and east, with 20-24 inches falling in most areas above 2,000 feet elevation, and over 30 inches on Palomar Mountain, 15 miles east. More than 80% of all precipitation takes place from November through March. Snow is virtually unheard of, though occasionally winter and springtime thunderstorms will drop small hail. The climate is mild enough to allow widespread cultivation of avocados and oranges. Escondido is located in a plant hardiness zone 9. The hottest temperature recorded in Escondido was 112º on July 22, 2006.
|Climate data for Escondido No 2, California (1981–2010)|
|Record high °F (°C)||91
|Average high °F (°C)||68.8
|Average low °F (°C)||43.1
|Record low °F (°C)||22
|Precipitation inches (mm)||3.03
Three lakes are located in or near Escondido, all of which allow boating and fishing:
- Dixon Lake is located in the north, and is stocked with trout each year.
- Lake Wohlford is located on the north eastern fringe of the city limits. It is stocked yearly with trout, and sports good catfish, bass, and crappie fishing as well.
- Lake Hodges is located just south of the city. A part of Lake Hodges is crossed by Interstate 15 via the Lake Hodges Bridge. Often this part of the lake is dry.
In the 2010 United States Census, Escondido had a population of 143,911. The population density was 3,890.7 people per square mile (1,502.2/km²). The racial makeup was 60.4% White (Non-Hispanic White 40.4%), 2.5% African American (2.1% Non-Hispanic black), 1.0% Native American, 6.1% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 25.4% from other races, and 4.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 48.9% of the population. ,
The Census reported that 141,792 people (98.5% of the population) lived in households, 1,333 (0.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 786 (0.5%) were institutionalized.
There were 45,484 households, out of which 18,989 (41.7%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 23,535 (51.7%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,082 (13.4%) had a female householder with no husband present, 3,115 (6.8%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 3,121 (6.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 343 (0.8%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 9,528 households (20.9%) were made up of individuals and 4,235 (9.3%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.12. There were 32,732 families (72.0% of all households); the average family size was 3.57.
The age distribution of the population shows 39,778 people (27.6%) under the age of 18, 15,455 people (10.7%) aged 18 to 24, 41,043 people (28.5%) aged 25 to 44, 32,551 people (22.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 15,084 people (10.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.5 years. For every 100 females there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males.
There were 48,044 housing units at an average density of 1,298.9 per square mile (501.5/km²), of which 23,759 (52.2%) were owner-occupied, and 21,725 (47.8%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.2%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.0%. 70,936 people (49.3% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 70,856 people (49.2%) lived in rental housing units.
As of the census of 2000, there are 133,559 people, 43,817 households, and 31,153 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,421.4/km² (3,680.9/mi²). There are 45,050 housing units at an average density of 479.4/km² (1,241.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 67.82% White, 2.25% African American, 1.23% Native American, 4.46% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 19.19% from other races, and 4.81% from two or more races. 38.70% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 43,817 households out of which 39.1% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% are married couples living together, 11.7% have a female householder with no husband present, and 28.9% are non-families. 22.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.1% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.01 and the average family size is 3.50.
In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 29.7% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 17.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 31 years. For every 100 females there are 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 96.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $42,567, and the median income for a family is $48,456. Males have a median income of $32,627 versus $27,526 for females. The per capita income for the city is $18,241. 13.4% of the population and 9.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 17.9% of those under the age of 18 and 5.7% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
The city can be divided into two demographically distinct areas. Peripheral hilly areas to the north, southeast, and southwest are relatively wealthy and populated by non-Hispanic whites, and flat areas adjacent to the downtown are predominantly Hispanic. As of 2006-07 school year, non-Hispanic white children comprised 71.7% of all students in Bernardo Elementary School (southwest), 60.8% of all students in L.R. Green Elementary School (southeast), and 54.7% of all students in Reidy Creek Elementary School (north); In contrast, Farr Avenue, Pioneer and Lincoln Elementary schools (three large schools just north of the downtown) all have more than 85% of Hispanic and less than 6% non-Hispanic white students.
Arts and culture
Downtown has become more active in the past few years with the opening of restaurants, cafes, and galleries. A satellite location of the Mingei International Museum, a well-known museum of folk art from around the world, occupied the former J.C. Penney building on Grand Avenue from 2003 to 2010. One block off Grand Ave. is Grape Day Park with the civic center and the California Center for the Arts, which features two theaters, a visual arts museum, an educational complex, and a conference center. The Escondido Children's Museum and the Escondido History Center, two independent non-profit museums, are located in Grape Day Park. The Children's Museum features hands-on exhibits and programs for children up to 10 years of age, with an authentically regional perspective on natural and social science. The History Center features the city's original Santa Fe Depot, first library, Victorian house, barn, and blacksmith shop. The Pioneer Room of Escondido Public Library (located in the Mathes Center building next to the Main Library) offers photographs, maps, oral histories, genealogical collections, directories and yearbooks documenting Escondido's history. On Friday evenings a car rally called Cruisin' Grand takes place on seven blocks of Grand Avenue, featuring pre-1970 vintage cars.
The Escondido Arts Partnership, a non-profit art organization established in 1995, created and hosts the Second Saturday Art Walk, involving several galleries and museums in Escondido. It also has a Municipal Gallery including five galleries and five art study spaces. It operates the Betty Woodaman Memorial Art Library, a donated-based art library that offers art books local community, and publishes an annual collection of poetry and art called "Summation".
Parks and recreation
Escondido has fifteen parks.
- Daley Ranch is a 3,058-acre (12.38 km2) conservation area acquired in 1996 by the City of Escondido and is managed in perpetuity for the preservation of a biologically unique and diverse habitat area of regional importance. Daley Ranch has over 20 miles (32 km) of hiking, mountain biking, and equestrian trails. Six distinct trails cover most of the property. Most popular are the Boulder Loop Trail (2.4 miles) which affords views of Escondido, and the Ranch House Loop (2.5 miles), which passes two small ponds and the site of Daley's original log cabin. Several species of oak trees are common, as well as chaparral (brushland). Wildlife include deer, coyote, bobcats, rabbits and hawks. Cougars are sometimes present, but not frequently seen.
- El Norte Park is a small "green lung" park, off El Norte Parkway in northern Escondido. It features mature trees and a kids playground.
- Grape Day Park is located behind the Escondido City Hall and the performing arts complex. This park was named after the annual grape day harvest, an event held on the first Saturday after Labor Day from 1908 to 1950. Dogs are not allowed in Grape Day Park.
- Jesmond Dene
- Kit Carson: Queen Califia's Magical Circle, the last major international work by French artist Niki de Saint Phalle, is located in Kit Carson Park. De Saint Phalle, a colleague of Salvador Dalí and Jasper Johns, is best known for her Stravinsky Fountain, located in Paris, France. The artist chose Escondido as the site for her final work because it reminded her of Italy.
- Dixon Lake supplies Escondido with fresh water. Swimming is not allowed, but fishing is, and boats are available for hire. Dixon Lake has about 34 camp sites which look out over the lake, or over Escondido. While entrance to the park is free, the city charges $5.00 (in 2010) for taking a car into the park. However, ample free parking is available outside the gate.
- Lake Wohlford is in the north east corner of Escondido. The lake has some walking trails around the perimeter, and allows fishing. In addition, the northern shore is home to the Lake Wohlford Cafe, founded in 1949 and prominently featuring locally caught catfish in its menus.
- Mountain View
- Rod McLeod
- Washington Park is an urban park located on the eastern side of central Escondido. It features lighted facilities for baseball, softball, tennis and basketball, a 25-yard swimming pool and water slide, and a smaller children's pool. The park's numerous mature trees create plenty of shady areas and tables are provided for picnics.
- Frances Ryan Park is a 67 acres (270,000 m2) complex of soccer fields, supported by a concession stand and public restrooms. The park is adjacent to Valley High School in eastern Escondido at the corner of Valley Parkway and El Norte Parkway. As of October 2010, the park features 7 soccer fields, 5 of which have lights for night time practice and play. The park is named for a former teacher at Escondido High School. Dogs are not allowed in Ryan Park.
- Grove Park was so named to recognize the city's agricultural history. It was built about 2008 (approximate date). It is about 4.5 acres (18,000 m2) in size and is located in the Mission Park neighborhood.
- Felicita County Park
San Diego Zoo Safari Park
The San Diego Zoo Safari Park (also called by its former name, "Wild Animal Park") is located near Escondido, in the San Pasqual Valley. It is the sister park to the San Diego Zoo. The Safari Park shows animals in open habitats.
Deer Park Buddhist Monastery
Deer Park Monastery is a Buddhist sanctuary that occupies 400 acres (1.6 km2) in the hills north of Escondido and west of Daley Ranch. It is one of three monasteries in the United States under the direction of a well-known Zen teacher Thich Nhat Hanh.
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