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Jackson County, Florida facts for kids

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Jackson County
Jackson County
Jackson County Courthouse
Jackson County Courthouse
Official seal of Jackson County
Map of Florida highlighting Jackson County
Location within the U.S. state of Florida
Map of the United States highlighting Florida
Florida's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Florida
Founded August 12, 1822
Named for Andrew Jackson
Seat Marianna
Largest city Marianna
 • Total 955 sq mi (2,470 km2)
 • Land 918 sq mi (2,380 km2)
 • Water 37 sq mi (100 km2)  3.9%%
 • Total 47,319
 • Density 52.6/sq mi (20.3/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district 2nd

Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida, on its northwestern border with Alabama. As of the 2020 census, the population was 47,319. Its county seat is Marianna.


Jackson County was created by the Florida Territorial Council in 1822 out of Escambia County, along with Duval County out of St. Johns County, making them the third and fourth counties in the Territory. The county was named for Andrew Jackson, who had served as Florida's first military governor for six months in 1821. Jackson County originally extended from the Choctawhatchee River on the west to the Suwannee River on the east. The county had been reduced close to its present boundaries by 1840 through the creation of new counties from its original territory. Minor adjustments to the county boundaries continued through most of the 19th century, however.

There were no towns in Jackson County when it was formed. The first county court met at what was called "Robinson's Big Spring" (later called Blue Springs) in 1822 and then at the "Big Spring of the Choctawhatchee" in 1823. The following year the county court met at "Chipola Settlement" which is also known as Waddell's Mill Pond.

Marianna became the county seat, but not without controversy. It was founded by Robert Beveridge, a native of Scotland, in September 1821. The first town established in Jackson County was Webbville in January 1821. Webbville, a community of land squatters, was located 9 miles (14 km) northwest of present-day Marianna and was designated as the county seat. Webbville thrived until 1828 when Beveridge and other Marianna settlers went to Tallahassee and enticed the Florida Legislature with free land, construction of a courthouse, a public square and $500 to purchase a quarter section of land to be sold at public auction as a way to finance the new government, if the county seat was moved to Marianna.

Beveridge and his supporters succeeded and Marianna became the county seat of the county justice and civil authority, even though it was never officially proclaimed the county seat. Marianna began to grow and prosper when the county government moved into the new courthouse in 1829. Webbville's prominent citizens moved to Marianna and the L&N Railroad decided to bypass the town. Webbville does not exist today.

From 1869-71, Jackson County was the center of a low-level guerrilla war known as the Jackson County War. Members of the Ku Klux Klan consisting of Confederate Army veterans assassinated over 150 Republican Party officials and prominent African-Americans as part of a successful campaign to retain white Democratic power.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 955 square miles (2,470 km2), of which 918 square miles (2,380 km2) is land and 37 square miles (96 km2) (3.9%) is water. Jackson County is the only county in Florida that borders both Georgia and Alabama. Jackson County is in the Central Standard Time Zone. Its eastern border with Gadsden County forms the boundary in this area between the Central Standard and Eastern Standard Time Zones.

Adjacent Counties


Historical population
Census Pop.
1830 3,907
1840 4,681 19.8%
1850 6,639 41.8%
1860 10,209 53.8%
1870 9,528 −6.7%
1880 14,372 50.8%
1890 17,544 22.1%
1900 23,377 33.2%
1910 29,821 27.6%
1920 31,224 4.7%
1930 31,969 2.4%
1940 34,428 7.7%
1950 34,645 0.6%
1960 36,208 4.5%
1970 34,434 −4.9%
1980 39,154 13.7%
1990 41,375 5.7%
2000 46,755 13.0%
2010 49,746 6.4%
2020 47,319 −4.9%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790-1960 1900-1990
1990-2000 2020

2020 census

Jackson County racial composition
(Hispanics excluded from racial categories)
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race Pop 2010 Pop 2020 % 2010 % 2020
White (NH) 33,111 30,629 66.56% 64.73%
Black or African American (NH) 13,106 12,042 26.35% 25.45%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 305 196 0.61% 0.41%
Asian (NH) 227 292 0.46% 0.62%
Pacific Islander (NH) 25 18 0.05% 0.04%
Some Other Race (NH) 50 144 0.1% 0.3%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 779 1,783 1.57% 3.77%
Hispanic or Latino 2,143 2,215 4.31% 4.68%
Total 49,746 47,319

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 47,319 people, 17,149 households, and 11,152 families residing in the county.


The Jackson County Public Library System has two branches. Jackson County is also a part of the Panhandle Public Library Cooperative System. The PPLC also includes Holmes, Calhoun, and Washington counties.

  • Marianna
  • Graceville



Jackson County's main airport is Marianna Municipal Airport, originally known as the Graham Air Base. Local and private airports also exist throughout the county.

Major highways

Jackson County FL sign US90
The sign for Jackson County on U.S. Route 90
  • I-10.svg Interstate 10 is the main west-to-east interstate highway in the county, and runs along southern Jackson County for a length of 33 miles. It contains five interchanges within the county; US 231 (Exit 130), SR 276 (Exit 136), SR 71 (Exit 142), SR 69 (Exit 152), and CR 268 (Exit 158).
  • US 90.svg US 90 was the main west-to-east highway in the county, until it was surpassed by I-10.
  • US 231.svg US 231 is the sole south-to-north U.S. highway running through the western part of the county.
  • Florida 2.svg State Road 2 is the west to east route that's closest to the Alabama border.
  • Florida 69.svg State Road 69
  • Florida 71.svg State Road 71
  • Florida 73.svg State Road 73
  • Florida 77.svg State Road 77
  • Florida 166.svg State Road 166 is a short south to north state highway running through Marianna and a portion of rural Jackson County northeast of the city limits.
  • Florida 273.svg State Road 273 is a south to north state highway running through northwestern Jackson County.
  • Florida 276.svg State Road 276 exists primarily in Marianna, but has county extensions in both Washington and Jackson Counties.


Jackson County has two railroad lines. The primary one is the CSX P&A Subdivision, a line formerly owned by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad that served Amtrak's Sunset Limited. This service formerly went to New Orleans, but in 2005 service was truncated by the extensive damage in the Gulf area due to Hurricane Katrina. Another is the Bay Line Railroad: originally the Atlanta and St. Andrews Bay Railway main line, this railway runs from Panama City through Campbellton. US 231 was constructed parallel to the railroad. The lines have a junction in Cottondale. Other lines within the county were abandoned after restructuring of the railroad industry in the mid to late 20th century. Passenger traffic declined after affordable automobiles became widely available.




Unincorporated communities


The Jackson County School Board operates public schools in the county. Jackson County is also home to Baptist College of Florida, an institution of higher education in Graceville affiliated with the Florida Baptist Convention, and Chipola College, a state college in Marianna.

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Condado de Jackson (Florida) para niños

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