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Jeff Bezos
Jeff Bezos at Amazon Spheres Grand Opening in Seattle - 2018 (39074799225) (cropped).jpg
Bezos at the opening of Amazon Spheres in Seattle, January 2018
Jeffrey Preston Jorgensen

January 12, 1964 (1964-01-12) (age 57)
Education Princeton University (BSE)
  • Businessman
  • Media proprietor
  • Investor
  • Computer engineer
Years active 1986–present
Known for Founding Amazon and Blue Origin
Net worth Increase US$185.7 billion (January 2021)
Title CEO and President of Amazon
MacKenzie Scott
(m. 1993; div. 2019)
Children 4
Naturalization Ceremony (27590970132)
During the naturalization of citizens, Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security awarded Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of the James Smithson Bicentennial medal

Jeffrey Preston Bezos (born Jeffrey Preston Jorgensen; January 12, 1964) is an American technology entrepreneur, investor, and philanthropist.

Bezos was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and raised in Houston, Texas. He graduated from Princeton University in 1986 with degrees in electrical engineering and computer science. He worked on Wall Street in a variety of related fields from 1986 to early 1994. He founded Amazon in late 1994 on a cross-country road trip from New York City to Seattle. The company began as an online bookstore and has expanded to a variety of products and services, including video and audio streaming. It is currently the world's largest online sales company, as well as the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services via its Amazon Web Services arm.

Bezos added to his business interests when he founded aerospace company Blue Origin in 2000. A Blue Origin test flight successfully first reached space in 2015, and Blue has plans to begin commercial suborbital human spaceflight as early as late 2018. He purchased The Washington Post in 2013 for US$250 million in cash. Bezos manages other business investments through his venture capital fund, Bezos Expeditions.

The first centi-billionaire on the Forbes wealth index, Bezos was the world's richest person from 2017 until Elon Musk surpassed him on January 7, 2021. Bezos was named the "richest man in modern history" after his net worth increased to $150 billion in July 2018. According to Forbes, he is the first person in history to have a net worth exceeding $200 billion.

On July 20, 2021 He launched on The NS-16 Mission with His Brother Mark Bezos, Wally Funk, and Oliver Daemen

Early life

Jeff Bezos (153327607)
Jeff Bezos 2004

Bezos was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the son of Jacklyn Gise Jorgensen and Chicago, Illinois native Ted Jorgensen. After his parents divorced she married Cuban immigrant Miguel "Mike" Bezos in April 1968. Shortly after the wedding, Mike adopted four-year-old Jorgensen, whose surname was then changed to Bezos. The family moved to Houston, Texas, where Mike worked as an engineer for Exxon after he received a degree from the University of New Mexico. Bezos attended River Oaks Elementary School in Houston from fourth to sixth grade.

Bezos is the maternal grandson of Lawrence Preston Gise, a regional director of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Albuquerque. Gise retired early to his family's ranch near Cotulla, Texas, where Bezos would spend many summers in his youth. Bezos would later purchase this ranch, and grow it from 25,000 acres (10,117 ha) to 300,000 acres (121,406 ha). Bezos often displayed scientific interests and technological proficiency; he once rigged an electric alarm to keep his younger siblings out of his room.

The family moved to Miami, Florida, where Bezos attended Miami Palmetto High School. While Bezos was in high school, he worked at McDonald's as a short-order line cook during the breakfast shift. He attended the Student Science Training Program at the University of Florida. He was high school valedictorian, a National Merit Scholar, and a Silver Knight Award winner in 1982. In 1986, he graduated from Princeton University with a 4.2 grade point average and Bachelor of Science degrees in electrical engineering and computer science and was a member of Phi Beta Kappa. While at Princeton, he was also elected to Tau Beta Pi and was the president of the Princeton chapter of the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space.

Business career

Early career

Secretary of Defense Ash Carter meets with Jeff Bezos, May 5, 2016 (1)
Secretary of Defense Ash Carter meets with Jeff Bezos 2016

After Bezos graduated from Princeton in 1986, he was offered jobs at Intel, Bell Labs, and Andersen Consulting, among others. He first worked at Fitel, a financial telecommunications start-up, where he was tasked with building a network for international trade. Bezos was promoted to head of development and director of customer service thereafter. He transitioned into the banking industry when he became a product manager at Bankers Trust; he worked there from 1988 to 1990. He then joined D. E. Shaw & Co, a newly founded hedge fund, in 1990 and worked there until 1994. Bezos became D. E. Shaw's fourth senior vice-president at the age of 30.


Amazon summer party 2000
Amazon Toys Team summer party with Jeff Bezos 2000

In late 1993, Bezos decided to start an online bookstore. He left his job at D. E. Shaw and founded Amazon in his garage on July 5, 1994, after writing its business plan on a trip from New York to Seattle. Bezos named his new company "Amazon" after the Amazon River in South America, in part because the name begins with the letter "A," which is at the beginning of the alphabet. He accepted an estimated $300,000 from his parents and invested in Amazon. He warned many early investors that there was a 70% chance that Amazon would fail or go bankrupt.

Although Amazon was originally an online bookstore, Bezos had always planned to expand to other products. Three years after Bezos founded Amazon, he took it public with an initial public offering (IPO). In response to critical reports from Fortune and Barron's, Bezos maintained that the growth of the internet would overtake competition from larger book retailers such as Borders and Barnes & Noble.

True Colors Bookstore (formerly Amazon Bookstore) cropped
True Colors Bookstore (formerly Amazon Bookstore) at its 4755 Chicago Avenue South location shows both its earlier name of Amazon Books and its later name of True Colors Bookstore 2011

In 1998, Bezos moved into the online sale of music and video; by the end of the year, he had also expanded the company's products to include a variety of consumer goods. Bezos used the $54 million raised during the company's 1997 equity offering to finance aggressive acquisition of smaller competitors. In 2002, Bezos led Amazon to launch Amazon Web Services, which compiled data from weather channels and website traffic. In late 2002, rapid spending from Amazon caused it financial distress when revenues stagnated. In 2000, Bezos borrowed $2 billion from banks, as its cash balances dipped to only $350 million. After the company nearly went bankrupt, he closed distribution centers and laid off 14% of the Amazon workforce. In 2003, Amazon rebounded from financial instability and turned a profit of $400 million.

Amazon Kindle 3 cover with light
Amazon Kindle 3 cover with light

In November 2007, Bezos launched the Amazon Kindle. According to a 2008 Time profile, Bezos wished to create the same flow state found in video game simulations in books; he wished readers would fully engage with books. In 2013, Bezos secured a $600 million contract with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) on behalf of Amazon Web Services. In October that year, Amazon was recognized as the largest online shopping retailer in the world.

In May 2016, Bezos sold slightly more than one million shares of his holdings in the company for $671 million, the largest sum he had ever raised from selling some of his Amazon stock. On August 4, 2016, Bezos sold another million of his shares for $756.7 million. A year later, Bezos took on 130,000 new employees when he ramped up hiring at company distribution centers. By January 19, 2018, his Amazon stock holdings had appreciated to slightly over $109 billion; months later he began to sell stock to raise cash for other enterprises, in particular, Blue Origin.

Blue origin overview by NASA CCP
Blue origin overview by NASA

On January 29, 2018, he was featured in Amazon's Super Bowl commercial. On February 1, 2018, Amazon reported its highest ever profit with quarterly earnings of $2 billion. Due to the growth of Alibaba in China, Bezos has often expressed interest in expanding Amazon into India.

In March 2018, Bezos dispatched Amit Agarwal, Amazon's global senior vice president, to India with $5.5 billion to localize operations throughout the company's supply chain routes. Later in the month, U.S. President Donald Trump accused Amazon–and Bezos, specifically–of sales tax avoidance, misusing postal routes, and anti-competitive business practices. Amazon's share price fell by 9% in response to the President's negative comments; this reduced Bezos's personal wealth by $10.7 billion.

Alibaba group Headquarters (cropped)
Alibaba group Headquarters, company in which Bezos has often expressed interest in expanding Amazon into

Weeks later, Bezos recouped his losses when academic reports out of Stanford University indicated that Trump could do little to regulate Amazon in any meaningful way. During July 2018, a number of members of the U.S. Congress called on Bezos to detail the applications of Amazon's face recognition software, Rekognition. Additionally, statements by the Trump administration, in favor of overturning the antitrust law known as the Paramount Decree, have been predicted to help Amazon acquire the Landmark Theaters chain.

Mike Pence touring Blue Origin 06
Mike Pence touring Blue Origin 2006

Criticism of Amazon's business practices continued in September 2018 when Senator Bernie Sanders introduced the Stop Bad Employers by Zeroing Out Subsidies (Stop BEZOS) Act and accused Amazon of receiving corporate welfare. This followed revelations by the non-profit group New Food Economy which found that one third of Amazon workers in Arizona, and one tenth of Amazon workers in Pennsylvania and Ohio, relied on food stamps.

While preparing to introduce the bill, Sanders stated: "Instead of attempting to explore Mars or go to the moon, how about Jeff Bezos pays his workers a living wage?" He later said "Bezos could play a profound role. If he said today, nobody who is employed at Amazon will receive less than a living wage, it would send a message to every corporation in America." Sanders's efforts elicited a response from Amazon which pointed to the 130,000 jobs it created in 2017, on October 2, Bezos announced a company-wide wage increase which Sanders applauded.

Blue Origin

Blue Origin Space (35303761424)
Blue Origin Space

In September 2000, Bezos founded Blue Origin, a human spaceflight startup company. Bezos has long expressed an interest in space travel and the development of human life in the solar system. He was the valedictorian when he graduated from high school in 1982. His speech was followed up with a Miami Herald interview in which he expressed an interest to build and develop hotels, amusement parks, and colonies for human beings who were in orbit. The 18-year-old Bezos stated that he wanted to preserve Earth from overuse through resource depletion.

After its founding, Blue Origin maintained a low profile until 2006, when it purchased a large tract of land in West Texas for a launch and test facility. After the company gained the public's attention during the late 2000s, Bezos additionally indicated his interest in reducing the cost of space travel for humans while also increasing the safety of extraterrestrial travel. In September 2011, one of the company's unmanned prototype vehicles crashed during a short-hop test flight. Although the crash was viewed as a setback, news outlets noted how far the company went from its founding-to-date in advancing spaceflight. In May 2013, Bezos met with Richard Branson, chairman of Virgin Galactic, in 2013 to discuss commercial spaceflight opportunities and strategies. He has been compared to Branson and Elon Musk as all three are billionaires who prioritize spaceflight among their business interests.

Blue Origin construction site at Exploration Park
The Blue Origin site at Exploration Park - NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida

In 2015, Bezos announced that a new orbital launch vehicle was under development and would make its first flight in the late-2010s. Later in November, Blue Origin's New Shepard space vehicle successfully rocketed into space and reached its planned test altitude of 329,839 feet (100.5 kilometers) before executing a vertical landing back at the launch site in West Texas. In 2016, Bezos allowed select journalists to visit, tour, and photograph his facility. He has repeatedly called for increased inter-space energy and industrial manufacturing to decrease the negative costs associated with business-related pollution.

In December 2017, New Shepard successfully flew and landed dummy passengers, amending and pushing its human space travel start date into late 2018. To execute this program, Blue Origin built six of the vehicles to support all phases of testing and operations: no-passenger test flights, flights with test passengers, and commercial-passenger weekly operations. Since 2016, Bezos has spoken more freely about his hopes to colonize the solar system, and has been selling $1 billion in Amazon stock each year to capitalize Blue Origin in an effort to support this endeavor.

NASA Deputy Administrator Tours Blue Origin
NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, fourth from left meets Blue Origin Founder Jeff Bezos, third from left, next to Blue Origin's crew capsule

In May 2018, Bezos maintained that the primary goal of Blue Origin is to preserve the natural resources of Earth by making the human species multi-planetary. He announced that New Shepard would begin transporting humans into sub-orbital space by November 2018. In July 2018, it was announced that Bezos had priced commercial spaceflight tickets from $200,000 to $300,000 per person.

In June 2021 he announced via his Instagram account that he would fly to space as a passenger of the first crewed flight of New Shepard, with his brother Mark.

On July 20, 2021 He launched on The NS-16 Mission with His Brother Mark Bezos, Wally Funk, and Oliver Daemen He launched 9 days After Richard Branson launched onboard The Virgin Galactic Unity 22 Mission.

The Washington Post

New headquarters building of The Washington Post
New headquarters building of The Washington Post

On August 5, 2013, Bezos announced his purchase of The Washington Post for $250 million in cash. To execute the sale, he established Nash Holdings, a limited liability holding company that legally owns the paper. The sale closed on October 1, 2013, and Nash Holdings took control. In January 2016, Bezos set out to reinvent the newspaper as a media and technology company by reconstructing its digital media, mobile platforms, and analytics software. Bezos and the newspaper's editorial board have dismissed accusations that he unfairly controlled the paper's content and Bezos maintains the paper's independence. After a surge in online readership in 2016, the paper was profitable for the first time since Bezos made the purchase in 2013.

Bezos Expeditions

Bezos was one of the first shareholders in Google in 1998

Bezos makes personal investments through his venture capital vehicle, Bezos Expeditions. He was one of the first shareholders in Google, when he invested $250,000 in 1998. That $250,000 investment resulted in 3.3 million shares of Google stock, worth about $3.1 billion in 2017. He also invested in Unity Biotechnology, a life-extension research firm hoping to slow or stop the process of aging. Bezos is involved in the healthcare sector, which includes investments in Unity Biotechnology, Grail, Juno Therapeutics, and ZocDoc. In January 2018, an announcement was made concerning Bezos's role within a new, unnamed healthcare company. This venture is expected to be a partnership between Amazon, JPMorgan, and Berkshire Hathaway.

Public image

Jeff Bezos' iconic laugh
Jeff Bezos' iconic laugh

Journalist Nellie Bowles of The New York Times has described the public persona and personality of Bezos as that of "a brilliant but mysterious and coldblooded corporate titan". During the 1990s, Bezos earned a reputation for relentlessly pushing Amazon forward. His business practices projected a public image of prudence with his own wealth and that of Amazon. Bezos was a multi-billionaire who hung his clothes on a rack in his Amazon headquarters office and drove a 1996 Honda Accord. Throughout the early 2000s, he was perceived to be geeky or nerdy.

During the early 2010s, Bezos solidified his reputation for business practices, and his public image began to shift. Bezos started to wear tailored clothing; he weight trained, pursued a regimented diet and began to freely spend his money. His physical transformation has been compared to the transformation of Amazon; he is often referred to as the metonym of the company. His physical appearance increased the public's perception of him as a symbolically dominant figure in business and in popular culture, wherein he has been parodied as an enterprising super villain.


Jeff Bezos Painting
A spray painting by Thierry Ehrmann of Jeff Bezos, France 2017

In 1999, Bezos received his first major award when Time named him Person of the Year. In 2008, he was selected by U.S. News & World Report as one of America's best leaders. Bezos was awarded an honorary doctorate in science and technology from Carnegie Mellon University in 2008. In 2011, The Economist gave Bezos and Gregg Zehr an Innovation Award for the Amazon Kindle. In 2012, Bezos was named Businessperson of the Year by Fortune.

He is also a member of the Bilderberg Group and attended the 2011 Bilderberg conference in St. Moritz, Switzerland, and the 2013 conference in Watford, Hertfordshire, England. He was a member of the Executive Committee of The Business Council for 2011 and 2012. In 2014, he was ranked the best-performing CEO in the world by Harvard Business Review.

Jeff Bezos Portrait Painting Collage By Danor Shtruzman
Jeff Bezos Portrait Painting Collage By Danor Shtruzman

He has also figured in Fortunes list of 50 great leaders of the world for three straight years, topping the list in 2015. In September 2016, Bezos received a $250,000 prize for winning the Heinlein Prize for Advances in Space Commercialization, which he donated to the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. In February 2018, Bezos was elected to the National Academy of Engineering for "leadership and innovation in space exploration, autonomous systems, and building a commercial pathway for human space flight". In March 2018, he was awarded the Buzz Aldrin Space Exploration Award in recognition of his work with Blue Origin.

He received Germany's 2018 Axel Springer Award for Business Innovation and Social Responsibility. Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in their 2018 listing.

Personal life

Naturalization Ceremony (27590969882)
Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of with his wife MacKenzie Tuttle, was awarded the James Smithson Bicentennial medal

In 1992, Bezos was working for D. E. Shaw in Manhattan, New York, when he met novelist MacKenzie Tuttle, who was a research associate at the firm; they were married a year later. In 1994, they moved across the country to Seattle, Washington, where Bezos founded Amazon. He and his wife are the parents of four children: three sons, and one daughter adopted from China.

His brother, Mark Bezos, is a volunteer firefighter.

In March 2003, Bezos was one of three passengers in a helicopter that crashed in West Texas after the craft's tail boom hit a tree. Bezos sustained minor injuries and was discharged from a local hospital the same day.

In 2016, Bezos played a Starfleet official in the movie Star Trek Beyond, and joined the cast and crew at a San Diego Comic-Con screening.

On January 9, 2019, Bezos and his wife of 25 years, Mackenzie made a statement on Twitter stating; "After a long period of loving exploration and trial separation, we have decided to divorce and continue our shared lives as friends".


Saudi Vision 2030 logo
Logo for Saudi Vision 2030

Jeff Bezos supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, and in 2012 contributed $2.5 million to Washington United for Marriage, a group supporting a yes vote on Washington Referendum 74, which affirmed a same-sex marriage law enacted in the state.

After the 2016 presidential election, Bezos was invited to join Donald Trump's Defense Innovation Advisory Board, an advisory council to improve the technology used by the Defense Department. Bezos declined the offer without further comment. Trump has repeatedly attacked Bezos via Twitter, accused Bezos of avoiding corporate taxes, gaining undue political influence, and undermining his presidency by spreading "fake news." Bezos has repeatedly joked about using his rocket company to send Donald Trump into outer space.

Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman Al Saud - 2017
In March 2018, Bezos met in Seattle with Mohammad bin Salman, the crown prince and de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia, to discuss investment opportunities for Saudi Vision 2030

In 2014, Amazon won a bid for a cloud computing contract with the CIA valued at $600 million. A 2018, $10 billion contract known as the Joint Enterprise Defense Infrastructure (JEDI) project, this time with the Pentagon, was allegedly written up in a way that favors Amazon. Despite Bezos' support for an open borders policy towards immigrants, Amazon has actively marketed facial recognition software to the ICE.

In March 2018, Bezos met in Seattle with Mohammad bin Salman, the crown prince and de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia, to discuss investment opportunities for Saudi Vision 2030.


Jeff Bezos at Amazon Spheres Grand Opening in Seattle - 2018 (39262177384)
Jeff Bezos at Amazon Spheres Grand Opening in Seattle - 2018

Bezos supports his philanthropic efforts through direct donations and non-profit projects funded by Bezos Expeditions. Through Bezos Expeditions, he has funded the Bezos Center for Innovation at the Seattle Museum of History and Industry for $10 million and Bezos Center for Neural Circuit Dynamics at Princeton Neuroscience Institute for $15 million. He has donated multiple times to the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center: $10 million in 2009, $20 million in 2010, $15 million in 2011, and $35 million in 2017.

He also donated $800,000 to Worldreader, a non-profit, founded by a former Amazon employee. In 2015, he funded the recovery of two Saturn V first-stage Rocketdyne F-1 engines from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. They were positively identified as belonging to the Apollo 11 mission's S-1C stage in July 2013. The engine is currently on display at the Seattle Museum of Flight. His philanthropic efforts have been negatively compared to those of Bill Gates and Warren Buffett.

Recovered F-1 Engine parts
Bezos funded the retrieval of this F-1 engine from the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean in 2015, eventually donating it to the Seattle Museum of Flight

On May 23, 2017, he gave $1 million to the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, the largest single gift received by the organization. The committee provides pro bono legal services to protect the rights of American journalists. On June 15, 2017, he sent a message on Twitter asking for ideas for philanthropy, at the time of the post, Bezos's lifetime spending on charitable causes was estimated to be $100 million. Multiple journalists responded by asking Bezos to pay higher wages to Amazon warehouse workers. A year later in June, he tweeted that he would announce two philanthropic focuses by the end of summer 2018. An analysis of all 50,000 comments on the post concluded four areas of interest for Bezos' upcoming philanthropy: health care, education, workplace rights, and environmentalism.

Blue Origin M7
Blue Origin M7 2017

In January 2018, he made a $33 million donation to TheDream.US, a college scholarship fund for undocumented immigrants who were brought to the United States when they were minors. In June 2018, Bezos donated to Bill Gates' Breakthrough Energy Ventures, a private philanthropic coalition aimed at promoting emissions-free energy.

Bezos announced in September 2018 that he would deploy approximately $2 billion to a fund tasked with alleviating American homelessness and establishing a network of non-profit preschools for low income communities. He established the "Day 1 Families Fund" to finance "night shelters and day care centers for homeless families" and the "Day 1 Academies Fund" for early childhood education.

In September 2018, Bezos donated $10 million to With Honor, a nonpartisan organization that aims to get armed forces veterans elected to political office. Bezos's donation amounted to be one third of With Honor's total collection at the time.

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