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Keokuk, Iowa
Main Street (January 2009)
Main Street (January 2009)
Location within Lee County and Iowa
Location within Lee County and Iowa
Country United States
State Iowa
County Lee
Founded 1832
Incorporated December 13, 1848
Area
 • Total 10.55 sq mi (27.32 km2)
 • Land 9.10 sq mi (23.57 km2)
 • Water 1.45 sq mi (3.75 km2)
Elevation
568 ft (173 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total 9,900
 • Density 1,088.03/sq mi (420.08/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central (CST))
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Code
52632
Area code 319
FIPS code 19-40845

Keokuk is a city in and a county seat of Lee County, Iowa, United States, along with Fort Madison. It is Iowa's southernmost city. The population was 9,900 at the time of the 2020 census. The city is named after the Sauk chief Keokuk, who is thought to be buried in Rand Park. It is in the extreme southeast corner of Iowa, where the Des Moines River meets the Mississippi. It is at the junction of U.S. Routes 61, 136 and 218. Just across the rivers are the towns of Hamilton and Warsaw, Illinois, and Alexandria, Missouri. Keokuk, along with the city of Fort Madison, is a principal city of the Fort Madison-Keokuk micropolitan area, which includes all of Lee County, Iowa, Hancock County, Illinois and Clark County, Missouri.

History

Keokuk IA Barber 1865p527cropped
Keokuk in 1865.

Situated between the Des Moines and Mississippi rivers, the area that became Keokuk had access to a large trading area and was an ideal location for settlers. In 1820, the US Army prohibited soldiers stationed along the Mississippi River from having wives who were Native American. Dr. Samuel C. Muir, a surgeon stationed at Fort Edwards (near present-day Warsaw, Illinois), instead resigned his commission rather than leave his Indian wife and crossed the river to resettle. He built a log cabin for them at the bottom of the bluff, and became the area’s first white settler.

As steamboat traffic on the Mississippi increased, more European Americans began to settle here. Around 1827, John Jacob Astor established a post of his American Fur Company at the foot of the bluff. Five buildings were erected to house workers and the business. This area became known as the “Rat Row.”

One of the earliest descriptions of Keokuk was by Caleb Atwater in 1829:

The village is a small one containing twenty families perhaps. The American Fur Company have a store here and there is a tavern. Many Indians were fishing and their lights on the rapids in a dark night were darting about appearing and disappearing like so many fire flies; the constant roaring of the waters, on the rapids the occasional Indian yell, the lights of their fires on the shore, and the boisterous mirth of the people at the doggery attracted my attention occasionally while we were lying here. Fish were caught here in abundance.

The settlement was part of the land designated in 1824 as a Half-Breed Tract by the United States Government for allotting land to mixed-race descendants of the Sauk and Fox tribes. Typically children of European or British men (fur traders and trappers) and Native women, they were often excluded from tribal communal lands because their fathers were not tribal members. Native Americans considered the settlement a neutral ground. Rules for the tract prohibited individual sale of the land, but the US Congress ended this provision in 1837, creating a land rush and instability.

Centering on the riverboat trade, the settlement continued to grow. The village became known as Keokuk shortly after the Blackhawk War in 1832. Why residents named it after the Sauk chief is unknown. Keokuk was incorporated on December 13, 1847.

In 1853, Keokuk was one of the centers for outfitting Mormon pioneers for their journey west; more than 2,000 Mormons passed through the city.

Keokuk was the longtime home of Orion Clemens, brother of Samuel Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. Samuel's visits to his brother's home led him to write of the beauty of Keokuk and southeastern Iowa in Life on the Mississippi.

During the American Civil War, Keokuk became an embarking point for Union troops heading to fight in southern battles. Injured soldiers were returned to Keokuk for treatment, so several hospitals were established. A national cemetery was designated for those who did not survive. After the war was over, Keokuk continued its expansion. A medical college was founded, along with a major-league baseball team, the Keokuk Westerns, in 1875.

In 1913, Lock and Dam No. 19 was completed nearby on the Mississippi River. The population of Keokuk reached 15,106 by 1930. During the last half of the twentieth century, Keokuk has become less engaged in Mississippi River trade and more dependent on jobs in local factories. The town celebrated 150 years in 1997.

Keokuk has deep baseball history that started in 1875 when the Keokuk Westerns played in the National Association. On May 4, 1875, the Westerns and the Chicago White Stockings (today's Chicago Cubs) played the first professional baseball game in Iowa. The Keokuk Indians minor league team played in the Iowa State League (1904-1907), Central Association (1908-1915), Mississippi Valley League (1929-1933) and Western League (1935). After the Indians (1904-1915, 1929-1933, 1935), Keokuk was home to the Keokuk Pirates (1947-1949), Keokuk Kernels (1952-1957), Keokuk Cardinals (1958-1961) and the Keokuk Dodgers (1962). The team was an affiliate of the St. Louis Cardinals, Pittsburgh Pirates, Cleveland Indians and the Los Angeles Dodgers. Notable players included baseball pioneer Bud Fowler, 1961 Home Run Record Holder Roger Maris and Player/Announcer Tim McCarver.

Geography

Keokuk is located at 40°24′9″N 91°23′40″W / 40.40250°N 91.39444°W / 40.40250; -91.39444 (40.402525, -91.394372). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.58 square miles (27.40 km2), of which, 9.13 square miles (23.65 km2) of it is land and 1.45 square miles (3.76 km2) is water. The lowest point in the state of Iowa is 480 feet (150 m) located at the confluence of the Des Moines River with the Mississippi just southwest of Keokuk.

Climate

Keokuk has a humid continental climate. Keokuk is also known for having recorded the highest temperature ever in the state of Iowa with a temperature of 118 °F (48 °C) recorded here on July 20, 1934.

Climate data for Keokuk, IA
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 70
(21.1)
75
(23.9)
87
(30.6)
92
(33.3)
102
(38.9)
104
(40)
118
(47.8)
110
(43.3)
100
(37.8)
94
(34.4)
82
(27.8)
70
(21.1)
118
(47.8)
Average high °F (°C) 32
(0)
38
(3.3)
50
(10)
62
(16.7)
73
(22.8)
82
(27.8)
87
(30.6)
85
(29.4)
77
(25)
66
(18.9)
50
(10)
37
(2.8)
62
(16.7)
Average low °F (°C) 15
(-9.4)
20
(-6.7)
30
(-1.1)
42
(5.6)
52
(11.1)
62
(16.7)
67
(19.4)
65
(18.3)
56
(13.3)
45
(7.2)
33
(0.6)
21
(-6.1)
42
(5.6)
Record low °F (°C) −22
(-30)
−19
(-28.3)
−11
(-23.9)
15
(-9.4)
33
(0.6)
44
(6.7)
50
(10)
44
(6.7)
32
(0)
20
(-6.7)
−3
(-19.4)
−20
(-28.9)
−22
(-30)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.29
(32.8)
1.42
(36.1)
2.65
(67.3)
3.61
(91.7)
5.38
(136.7)
3.92
(99.6)
3.99
(101.3)
3.20
(81.3)
3.94
(100.1)
3.04
(77.2)
2.98
(75.7)
1.99
(50.5)
37.41
(950.2)
Snowfall inches (cm) 6.00
(15.24)
4.80
(12.19)
2.90
(7.37)
1.00
(2.54)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.30
(3.3)
4.90
(12.45)
20.90
(53.09)
Source: http://www.intellicast.com/Local/History.aspx?location=USIA0434

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 2,478
1860 8,136 228.3%
1870 12,766 56.9%
1880 12,117 −5.1%
1890 14,101 16.4%
1900 14,641 3.8%
1910 14,008 −4.3%
1920 14,423 3.0%
1930 15,106 4.7%
1940 15,076 −0.2%
1950 16,144 7.1%
1960 16,316 1.1%
1970 14,631 −10.3%
1980 13,536 −7.5%
1990 12,451 −8.0%
2000 11,427 −8.2%
2010 10,780 −5.7%
U.S. Decennial Census

2010 census

As of the census of 2010, there were 10,780 people, 4,482 households, and 2,818 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,170 people per square mile (452/km2). There were 5,199 housing units at an average density of 565 per square mile (218/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.9% White, 4.0% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, < 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. 1.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 4,482 households, out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.3% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.1% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.94.

Population spread: 24.4% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, and 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.6 males.

Arts and culture

Attractions

Mississippi River Lock and Dam Number 19 near Keokuk Iowa
Keokuk, Iowa at bottom, with the Mississippi River, lock and dam No. 19, power plant, rail bridge and highway bridge.

The Mississippi River lock and dam along with the hydroelectric power plant were built in 1913. They still use most of the original equipment. When the plant began operation in August 1913, it was the largest single powerhouse electric generating plant in the world. It is part of the Keokuk Lock & Dam, both of which are visible from a park at the foot of the commercial district. Built in 1913, the old lock was too small to serve the newer, larger barges. It was replaced in 1957 with a 1200' x 110' lock. At the time of construction in 1913, this was the longest dam in the world, with the longest transmission line and the highest voltage in the world. The Chief Engineer was Hugh L. Cooper.

Designed by Merle F. Baker, the Grand Theatre was constructed on the foundation of the Keokuk Opera House (c. 1880), which burned down in 1923. Modeled after theaters in Chicago, it was praised as one of the finest theaters in the country at the time. The Grand Theatre is owned by the city of Keokuk and used as a performing arts center. The theatre has housed many historically important performers over the years, including John Philip Sousa and Maynard Ferguson.

The Iowa Water Council has ranked the tap water produced at the Keokuk Waterworks Plant as the "Best Tasting Water In Iowa".

Keokuk is home to the Keokuk National Cemetery, the Keokuk Veteran's Memorial, the Miller House Museum, an annual American Civil War reenactment, and the George M. Verity River Museum.

Music

Each summer Keokuk is home to "Rollin' on the River," a local blues festival that attracts hundreds to Victory Park.

The Irish-themed McNamara's Band is a community concert band that has performed for decades. It regularly performs throughout the area.

Once a month the jazz big band, "Craig Bullis and Friends," performs at the local Hawkeye restaurant. The band is made up of area jazz musicians, as well as both collegiate-level students and professors of music. The band has featured such guest artists as Reggie Watkins, former lead trombone and music arranger for Maynard Ferguson and Big Bop Nouveau.

The notable garage band Gonn is from Keokuk

Theatre

Keokuk is home to the Great River Players, a thespian troupe that strives "to provide quality amateur theatrical productions for the tri-state area by encouraging members of the surrounding communities to express their creative abilities in all aspects of live theatre." The troupe performs a season of three shows, usually two plays and one musical.

Sports

Keokuk has deep baseball history that started in 1875 when the Keokuk Westerns played in the National Association. On May 4, 1875, the Westerns and the Chicago White Stockings (today's Chicago Cubs) played the first professional baseball game in Iowa. The Keokuk Indians minor league team played in the Iowa State League (1904-1907), Central Association (1908-1915), Mississippi Valley League (1929-1933) and Western League (1935). After the Indians (1904-1915, 1929-1933, 1935), Keokuk was home to the Keokuk Pirates (1947-1949), Keokuk Kernels (1952-1957), Keokuk Cardinals (1958-1961) and the Keokuk Dodgers (1962). The team was an affiliate of the St. Louis Cardinals, Pittsburgh Pirates, Cleveland Indians and the Los Angeles Dodgers. Notable players included baseball pioneer Bud Fowler, 1961 Home Run Record Holder Roger Maris and Player/Announcer Tim McCarver.

Keokuk is nicknamed "The Racing Capital of the World" and "Home of Champions" for having many racing drivers win races and championships. Don White was the first driver to impact nationally; he won the 1954, 1955 and 1958 IMCA national championships. White's brother-in-law Ernie Derr won the 12 IMCA national championships between 1953 and 1971. White helped Dick Hutcherson get started; Hutcherson won the 1963 and 1964 IMCA championship before moving to NASCAR and finishing second in points. Ramo Stott won the 1970 and 1971 ARCA and 1976 USAC Stock Car championships. White, Derr, Hutcherson, and Stott were nicknamed "The Keokuk Gang". Ron Hutcherson, Dick's brother, also competed nationally.

Education

The Keokuk Community School District has two elementary schools (George Washington, and Hawthorne), Keokuk Middle School, and Keokuk High School. Several additional elementary schools have been closed over the years (Torrence, Lincoln, Garfield, Wells Carey, and Jefferson). The middle school was damaged by a fire in 2001 and replaced by a new school on a lot next to the high school.

Private education is provided by Keokuk Catholic Schools (St. Vincent's School) and Keokuk Christian Academy. Keokuk Catholic previously had a senior high school division, Cardinal Stritch High School; in 2006 it merged into Holy Trinity High School in Fort Madison.

Keokuk is also home to a campus of Southeastern Community College.

A few miles north of Keokuk is the Galland School, a replica of the first schoolhouse constructed in Iowa.

Notable people

  • Edward P. Alexander, author, historian, and educator
  • Herman C. Baehr, 36th Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio
  • William H. Clagett, politician
  • Orion Clemens, first and only secretary of Nevada Territory and brother of Mark Twain
  • William Lane Craig, analytic philosopher and Christian apologist
  • Samuel Curtis, military officer
  • Mary Fels, philanthropist, suffragist, Georgist
  • Bud Fowler, first professional African American baseball player
  • Nathaniel Lyon Gardner, botanist, born in Keokuk
  • Jerry Harrington, baseball player
  • James B. Howell, newspaper editor and U.S. Senator, resided in Keokuk
  • Howard Hughes, aviator, engineer, industrialist, film producer and director, and philanthropist
  • Howard R. Hughes, Sr., businessman and inventor; father of Howard Hughes
  • Rupert Hughes, novelist, screenwriter, film director, historian; uncle of Howard Hughes
  • Dick Hutcherson, stock car driver
  • Ron Hutcherson, stock car driver
  • John N. Irwin, Governor of Idaho Territory (1883) and of Arizona Territory (1890–1892)
  • Edward Kimball, actor
  • Lloyd Steel Lourie, orthodontist
  • Elsa Maxwell, gossip columnist, socialite
  • Edward Joseph McManus, U.S. federal judge and Lieutenant Governor of Iowa (1959 – 1961)
  • Grace Medes, biochemist
  • Samuel Freeman Miller, Supreme Court justice
  • Conrad Nagel, actor and a founder of the Academy Awards
  • Richard Page, lead vocalist and bass player for the band Mr. Mister
  • George Pomutz, Union Army officer and diplomat
  • Mike Pyle, NFL player
  • Palmer Pyle, NFL player
  • John M. Rankin, Iowa state legislator and judge
  • Hugh T. Reid, Union Army general
  • Jeremy Soule composer of video game soundtracks
  • Frank Steunenberg, Governor of Idaho (1897–1901)
  • Ramo Stott, stock car driver
  • James Vandenberg, football quarterback
  • Don White, stock car driver
  • Verner Moore White, artist, painted oil of Keokuk presented to President Theodore Roosevelt
  • Annie Turner Wittenmyer, social reformer and relief worker
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