Kilmacolm facts for kids
Kilmacolm centre from the Cross
|OS grid reference|
|• Edinburgh||56 mi (90 km)|
|• London||355 mi (571 km)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
Kilmacolm (i//) is a village and civil parish in the Inverclyde council area and the historic county of Renfrewshire in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. It lies on the northern slope of the Gryffe Valley 7 1⁄2 miles (12.1 km) south-east of Greenock and around 15 miles (24 km) west of the city of Glasgow. The village has a population of around 4,000 and is part of a wider civil parish which covers a large rural hinterland of 15,000 hectares (150 km2; 58 sq mi) containing within it the smaller settlement of Quarrier's Village, originally established as a 19th-century residential orphans' home.
The area surrounding the village was settled in prehistoric times and emerged as part of a feudal society with the parish divided between separate estates for much of its history. The village itself remained small, providing services to nearby farm communities and acting as a religious hub for the parish. The name of the village derives from the Scottish Gaelic Cill MoCholuim, indicating the dedication of its church to St Columba. The parish church was mentioned in a papal bull of 1225 showing its subservience to Paisley Abbey and sits on the site of an ancient religious community dating to the 5th or 6th centuries. Again in the 13th century, Duchal Castle was constructed in the parish and is notable for being besieged by King James IV in 1489 following the resident Lyle family's support of an insurrection against him. Feuding between the noble families of Kilmacolm was commonplace in the Middle Ages and in the 16th and 17th centuries the parish again came to the attention of the Crown for providing support to outlawed religious Covenanters.
The character of the village changed significantly in the Victorian era with the arrival of the railway in Kilmacolm in 1869. Many of Kilmacolm's modern buildings were constructed between this date and the outbreak of World War I. The emergence of such transport links enabled the village to expand as an affluent dormitory village serving the nearby urban centres of Glasgow, Paisley and Greenock. The economy of the village reflected this population change, moving away from its traditional reliance on agriculture to providing tertiary sector services to residents and visitors.
- Culture and community
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Kilmacolm is generally believed to take its name from the Scots Gaelic language, meaning cell or church of Columba, derived from the dedication of an ancient church to St. Columba of Iona. This is generally associated with the religious cell which was established in the sixth or seventh century on the site of the current parish church. The current parish church, known as the Old Kirk, was largely constructed in the 19th century and incorporates parts an older 13th century Norman church, which has become the Murray Chapel.
Traditionally it is believed that the village was the location of a cordial meeting in the latter half of the sixth century between Columba and St Kentigern, known locally as St Mungo, the patron saint of Glasgow. In his book Kilmacolm: A Parish History, 1100 - 1898, the then Minister of the Parish James Murray claims history would suggest the meeting took place at Glasgow, noting only that "as, on that occasion, [Columba] passed up the southern bank of the Clyde, he necessarily traversed a portion of Kilmacolm Parish."
For a period in the 18th century, Kilmacolm was generally spelled 'Kilmalcolm', based on a presumption that the settlement's name originated with one of the kings of Scotland named Malcolm. A vote of the parochial board in 1905 altered the accepted spelling to 'Kilmacolm', based largely on a case made by the previously mentioned Rev. James Murray that this association was mistaken.
The early human settlement of Kilmacolm can be traced as far back as the Stone Age, with a number of archaeological discoveries made within the village dating from that period. The most significant of these findings is the agricultural homestead located near to the Knapps Loch, which was excavated in the early 1960s. Later examples of human habitation in the parish are numerous.
As the Romans advanced north through Britain, they entered Kilmacolm - near to the Antonine Wall and contributing to the defence of the Empire's northern frontier. A Roman road leading to a fort at Old Kilpatrick was constructed through the north of the parish. Other forts were built at nearby Whitemoss, with a more significant one on Barochan Hill outside of neighbouring Houston. The Romans' continued presence as far north as Kilmacolm was, however, short lived.
A probable motte exists beside the Gryffe Water, near the current Duchal House, which has been excavated on a number of occasions.
Mediaeval and early modern Kilmacolm
In the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, Kilmacolm was part of a largely feudal society within the Kingdom of Scotland and later the Kingdom of Great Britain. The parish was largely divided between two estates, which throughout most of the period were based at Duchal Castle and Finlaystone House and began with its division between two families: the Dennistouns and the Lyles, who were later replaced by other families through sale or marriage. Many of the external problems of the two families related to religious disputes, the favour of the Crown and feuds with other families. From the early 13th century Kilmacolm is mentioned in records of the church, including an early papal bull of Pope Honorius III in 1225; these generally demonstrate the subservience of the church at Kilmacolm and the surrounding villages of Strathgryfe to Paisley Abbey.
Duchal Castle, on the outskirts of Kilmacolm, was constructed by Ralph de l'Isle (later Anglicised to Lyle) in the 13th century and remained in the family until purchased by the Porterfields in 1544. The Porterfields occupied the castle until 1710 when much of it was deconstructed and the stone used to build a new home further down the River Gryffe, which exists to this day as Duchal House. The ruins of the castle are still located in the parish. The name 'duchal' means 'between two rivers' and this indeed is reflected in the Castle's position, set between Green Water and its tributary, the Blacketty Water. Most significant in the Castle's history was its siege by King James IV of Scotland in July 1489, following the Lyle's support of an insurrection against him. The King attended personally and, according to accounts, the inhabitants of the Castle surrendered immediately on the sight of the famous Mons Meg cannon being rolled into position against them. The castle, however, was fired upon, and one of the Royal cannon gained the name Duchal.
The Dennistoun family originated in the parish in the mid-12th century and ended with Sir Robert Dennistoun, who died in 1399 with no male heirs. His two daughters inherited his parts of his estate and married into two new noble families, thus creating three main estates in Kilmacolm rather than two. The Cunninghams, later to become the Earls of Glencairn had their seat at Finlaystone House and the Maxwells later constructed a seat at Newark Castle in an area once known Nether Finlaystone. With the death of John Cunningham, 15th Earl of Glencairn in 1796 his title became extinct. Finlaystone House was passed to multiple owners, and is now the seat of the chief of the Clan MacMillan. In 1668, Sir George Maxwell sold much of his lands at Newark to the city of Glasgow, for the development of Port Glasgow. A later Sir George Maxwell disposed of his estate in the early 18th century. Newark Castle is now owned and operated by Historic Scotland.
The Duchal estates were acquired from the Lyles by John Porterfield in 1544. The Porterfields were staunch Covenanters and Duchal was widely seen as a refuge when the profession of such sympathies was criminalised. Conventicles were held in the estate, particularly on the natural amphitheatre which is positioned within the present-day 14th hole of the Kilmacolm Golf Club. As a result of these religious sympathies, the estate was sequestered by the Crown in 1684 and the men of the Porterfield family arrested; it was however returned following the Glorious Revolution.
The last of the Duchal-based Porterfield family was James Corbett Porterfield, who died without an heir in 1855. His estate then passed to Sir Hugh Shaw-Stewart, 8th Baronet, who served as a Unionist politician. Duchal House was subsequently purchased by the first Lord Maclay, and remains in the family to this day.
The arrival of the railway in Kilmacolm in 1869 marked a significant turning point in the village's history and lead to Victorian era expansion on a grand scale. Prior to this development, the village had changed little in the preceding centuries, falling behind the development of other parts of the county. Kilmacolm's rail connection came about as a result of railway companies entering into the shipping trade and the perceived need to link Glasgow directly to Greenock's waterfront. Links to the wider world, and particularly Glasgow, made the village an attractive dormitory settlement.
Kilmacolm expanded at an unprecedented speed and many of the large Victorian and Edwardian villas which characterise the village today were constructed, as well as such attractions as the Hydropathic Hotel and facilities such as banks and plumbed water. Combined with the dramatic expansion of the village and gentrification of the area, the traditional importance of agriculture to the parish economy declined significantly. Slightly further east on the railway line, William Quarrier's Orphans' Homes were opened in the 1870s and remained as a residential children's community until the late 1970s. Since then, what has become known as Quarrier's Village has become largely residential.
Kilmacolm gradually became a place with numerous amenities, with the construction of the Victorian schoolhouses of the village, the opening of a Royal Bank of Scotland branch in 1872 and piped clean water in 1878. Indicative of the changes which the gentrification of the village brought, in the 1920s a local referendum was held in the village under the Temperance (Scotland) Act 1913, resulting in it becoming a dry parish where the sale of alcohol was illegal. The numerous public houses which had existed in the Kilmacolm declined and it was to have no such establishment from this time until the 1990s. In 1921, the parish council purchased the former Buchanan Arms building at the cross, turning it into a Village Institute or community centre, which it has continued to be until the renovation of the Cargill Centre in 2009-10. In the religious sphere, the establishment of many of Kilmacolm's churches can be credited to religious disagreements, particularly the practice of patronage within the Church of Scotland - which allowed local landowners to choose a parish minister. This practice ended in 1874.
World War I paused local development somewhat, and 300 men (66 of whom were officers) in the parish enlisted in the British Armed Forces. The village came to accommodate a number of Belgian refugees. In the Second World War, Kilmacolm was used to house evacuees from Glasgow and public buildings were used to house those made homeless by the Greenock Blitz in 1941. One bomb fell in Kilmacolm, causing minor damage and, following the war, the hydropathic hotel was used as a naval hospital until being returned to private ownership with its purchase by Stakis Hotels.
The modern village retains the character of its Victorian and Edwardian boom. Kilmacolm railway station was closed in 1983, and the track converted into a recreational cycle path. Despite an increase in new housing in the village during the latter half of the 20th century and a corresponding increase in population, particularly in the 1960s and 70s, Kilmacolm has remained reasonably static in size over the past decade. Expansion into green belt land is now discouraged and, combined with a high demand for housing, this has led to an identified shortage of affordable housing in the village.
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|Largs||Lochwinnoch||Bridge of Weir|
At Scotland's western Central Lowlands. The village lies 350 feet (110 m) above sea level, 4 miles (6 km) south-east of Port Glasgow, 7 1⁄2 miles (12 km) east-south-east of Greenock, the administrative centre of Inverclyde; and 15 miles (24 km) west-north-west of Glasgow, the nearest city.Kilmacolm is situated in the Gryffe Valley in
Kilmacolm lies within a civil parish of the same name of 29.6 square miles (77 km2) of largely rural land. The parish stretches to the Firth of Clyde, some 4 miles (6 km) north of the village, and west into the Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park. The parish borders the parishes of Erskine, Greenock, Houston and Killellan, Inverkip, Kilbarchan, Largs, Lochwinnoch and Port Glasgow.
The area generally consists of lightly sloping and occasionally rocky (mostly granite) moorland. Despite this, the parish is home to the highest point in Inverclyde, Creuch Hill at a height of 441 m (1446 ft). The River Gryffe, a tributary of the Black Cart Water, begins its flow in the village, running through Quarrier's Village and then on to Bridge of Weir and other villages in the Gryffe Valley.
A number of significant bodies of water exist close to the village, including the Auchendores reservoir at Cloak (to the north of the village) and the Knapps Loch, part of the Duchal estate. The Knapps Loch and the area around it is used for recreational activities and events in the village. The Loch is itself artificial, having been created by a local angling club in the early 20th century. It is shallow, with a number of islands, and has a small boathouse and landing stage at the shore.
- See also: Demography of Scotland
|Over 75 years old||8.7%||7.3%||7.1%|
In the 2001 United Kingdom Census, Kilmacolm is listed as a locality area consisting of the main village settlement.
The total population of the village and census area was 4,000. 95.9% of this population were born in the United Kingdom, with 81.0% born in Scotland or a part of the UK not specified. 0.4% were born in the Republic of Ireland, with 1.1% born in the rest of Europe and 2.4% born elsewhere.
The median age of males and females living in Kilmacolm was 43 and 46 years respectively, compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland. Kilmacolm has a higher than average level of older people, with categories of people under the age of 45 being below the Scottish average, and categories above that age being higher; 23% of people in Kilmacolm are of pensionable age and over contrasting with 19% in Scotland as a whole.
Culture and community
Parks and recreation
There are number of community and recreational facilities in Kilmacolm. Set largely in open countryside, a number of outdoor pursuits such as angling and golf are available in the local area. Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park extends into the parish, which also contains Glen Moss Wildlife Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest operated by the Scottish Wildlife Trust.
A public park, Birkmyre Park, was donated by local merchant Adam Birkmyre for the benefit of the parish in 1897. The park is held and managed by the Birkmyre Trust. Recent redevelopment has modified the park's pavilion to contain a fitness gymnasium, a café and changing facilities as well as including a new children's playpark. Birkmyre Park also hosts association football, rugby and cricket within its grounds. In 2009, the Trust proposed reopening the former tennis courts and putting green in Birkmyre Park following public consultation, as well as creating a court for basketball and netball. Two smaller public parks exist within the Kilmacolm area: the smaller West Glen Park and a playpark in Quarrier's Village.
Local sports teams generally meet at the village's Birkmyre Park. These include the Birkmyre Rugby Club, who compete in the Scottish Rugby Union's West regional league and Kilmacolm Cricket Club, an amateur team with a long history. The park is also used by sports teams for the village's schools.
There is also a Kilmacolm Golf Club, Kilmacolm Tennis Club, Kilmacolm Bowling Club and Kilmacolm Squash Club, all of which have their own private facilities.
There was formerly a funfair held annually in Birkmyre Park. Due to park refurbishment, it has not continued in recent years although alternative sites are under review. A circus visited the park in 2010.
The field beside the Knapps Loch is used for community events such as the Kilmacolm and Port Glasgow Agricultural Society's annual show and the Bonfire Night celebrations organised by the Kilmacolm & Quarriers Village Conservative and Unionist Party.
Kilmacolm is depicted as 'Kilellan' in R.J. Price's Renfrewshire short stories A Boy in Summer (2002) and features briefly in Raymond Friel's poetry collection Stations of the Heart (2009). The Scottish sketch comedy Chewin' the Fat also featured a character, a man who breaks cultural taboos or does something very anti-social. When challenged or criticized, he then explains away his actions by saying that he's "fae Kilmacolm", which would immediately win understanding of his superiority from everyone around him.
People with links to Kilmacolm are known as Kilmacolmics or Kilmacomics.
The village has a long political tradition. The first Lord Maclay was a shipbuilder and later served as a minister from 1916-1922 in the coalition government. His son, the second Lord Maclay served as a Liberal MP for Paisley. John Maclay, 1st Viscount Muirshiel, the younger brother of the second Lord Maclay, was a National Liberal and Conservative MP, who served as Secretary of State for Scotland from 1957 to 1962. Annabel Goldie, The Baroness Goldie, former leader of the Scottish Conservatives (2005–11) and member of the House of Lords was brought up in Kilmacolm and serves as a deputy lieutenant for Renfrewshire. Eleanor Laing, the Conservative Member of Parliament for Epping Forest and Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons, was raised and educated in the village.
In entertainment and the arts, musicians Jim Kerr of Simple Minds and Chrissie Hynde of The Pretenders were residents of Kilmacolm, as was Gerry Rafferty in the 1970s. Hedrick Smith, a broadcaster in the United States, and television presenter Dallas Campbell also originate here. In business and industry Sir Eric Yarrow Bart., DL, notable for his connection with Yarrow Shipbuilders, is a current resident, and Ronald Campbell OBE - an engineer and pioneer of nuclear power in the UK - was brought up in the area. The late Wing Commander Hector McLean of the Royal Air Force was a lifelong resident of the village.
In sports, Rachael Ferrier, who competed in the 2014 Winter Paralympics at Sochi as a sighted guide for visually impaired athlete Millie Knight also resides in Kilmacolm.
Prof William Arthur Harland FRSE, Professor of Forensic Medicine at Glasgow University lived in Kilmacolm.
In May 2014, Kilmacolm signed a twinning agreement with the village of Mérignies in north-eastern France. The twinning agreement with formalised with delegations from both villages first at Kilmacolm's annual show and again in Mérignies during the latter's Bastille Day cerebration. A Kilmacolm-Mérignies Twinning Society co-ordinates activity around the twinning relationship, with support from the community council.
Whilst the village has a long history, the majority of its significant architecture is Victorian and Edwardian in origin, beginning with the arrival of the railway in the village, its gentrification and the subsequent boom in population. Utilising a wide variation of styles, the parish contains a considerable number of listed and notable buildings.
William Leiper's flamboyant Gothic Revival St Columba's Church (c.1902) is the most apparent Category A listed building in the village. The parish church (Old Kirk), mainly constructed in 1831 incorporating a 13th-century chancel, is B-listed and another example of the Gothic Revival style. The third listed church in the parish, Mount Zion Church (Quarrier's Village; 1888; Robert A Bryden) is also Category B listed and in the Scots Baronial style.
Kilmacolm's community centre, reopened in 2011 as the Cargill Centre following a refurbishment and donation from the WA Cargill Trust, has a significant position in the centre of the village and consists of two Victorian former schoolhouses. It contains a village hall, police office and is planned to house the village's relocated public library later in 2011. Other notable non-residential listed buildings in the parish include Bridge of Weir Hospital built by William Quarrier, as a sanatorium for tuberculosis sufferers at the turn of the 20th century, in the free revivalist style and incorporating ecclesiastical references. The Hospital buildings are Category B listed, and have been converted into private flats. Shallot, the former mansionhouse of Adam Birkmyre which now accommodates the St Columba's Junior School, constructed in 1884, is also B-listed.
In the countryside outside the village are the ruins of Duchal Castle, dating back to the 13th century and lending its name to the modern Duchal House and estate in the village. On a hill above the village lies the derelict remains of Balrossie School, formerly the Sailors' Orphans' Home. Of historical interest are preserved examples of significant anti-aircraft batteries dating back to the Second World War contained within the parish, and a Decontamination Centre built in case of gas attacks on the United Kingdom. There is also a narrow-gauge railway line formerly used for grouse-shooting in Kilmacolm. Known as the Duchal Moor Railway, it lies within the Clyde Muirshiel Park; it was used by, amongst others, King Edward VIII and finally closed in the 1970s.
A number of large private homes are also notable in the parish, which are also drawn from a wide variety of architectural styles. The village hosts a number of examples of the arts and crafts style, most notably 'Windy Hill' (c.1900), designed by Charles Rennie Macintosh. This is one of a number of buildings Macintosh was involved with in the village and alongside the Hill House is one of only two residential buildings wholly designed by him.
In the adjacent plot to Windyhill is James Salmon's 'Rowantreehill' of the same era, an unusual building which was designed by Salmon as a family home for his own use. James Salmon and Charles Rennie Mackintosh were friends and sharing influences a following of the Glasgow Style artistic movement. Both Salmon and Mackintosh went on to contribute more of their work to Kilmacolm, Salmon designing four more listed homes. Following William Leiper, the architect of St Columba's Church, being commissioned to design Auchenbothie House, Mackintosh was again recruited to design the building's gatehouse and to contribute to the expansion of nearby Cloak, all of which fell within the estate of Major Hugh Brown Collins, a mining engineer. Although Mackintosh planned for a tower to the constructed at Cloak, this was never executed. Auchenbothie House was donated by former owner Sir James Lithgow to the town council of nearby Port Glasgow in 1949 to be used as a home for the elderly; it later lay vacant before being converted into residential flats.
Other notable architects to have practiced in Kilmacolm include Sir John James Burnet whose works in the village include the Kidston Hall and the major late 19th-century renovation of Finlaystone House and James Austen Laird, who worked on numerous homes in the village. Also of significance are the former orphans' homes at Quarrier's Village, many of which are listed. The homes were designed individually according to the wishes of donors, mainly by Glasgow architect Robert A. Bryden. As previously mentioned, Bryden was also responsible for a number of the non-residential buildings in Quarrier's Village including Mount Zion Church, Elise Hospital and what became Bridge of Weir Hospital, the latter two having been converted into a home for the elderly and a residential development respectively.
Finlaystone House, a mansion house in the Baronial Revival style and former seat of the Earls of Glencairn, is Category A listed. The current building is mainly that constructed in 1760 around an earlier nucleus, and extensively added to and altered in the late 19th century. It is now seat of the Chief of the Clan MacMillan, with both building and grounds used for public events and visits.
Duchal House, which was constructed from stone from the aforementioned (now ruined) Duchal Castle, is a Renaissance style country house originally built in 1710 and largely rebuilt c. 1768 incorporating some of the previous structure. It is now the seat of current Lord Maclay.
Kilmacolm has a large Celtic cross-style war memorial sited on a hill to the south-east of the village. The land that it is built upon was donated for the purpose by the first Lord Maclay, who purchased Duchal House and its estates in 1915 and lost two sons in World War I. In addition to his work on buildings in the village, there is also a gravestone in the parish churchyard designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh dated 1892 and erected to the memory of one James Reid.
A monument containing a time capsule is also present in the village centre, outside the old schoolhouse. It was created in 1985 to celebrate International Youth Year. A lion statue lies in Birkmyre Park.
Kilmacolm is well connected by road, lying on the A761 between Greenock and Paisley a short distance from the link to the M8 motorway to Glasgow at Johnstone, and is thus popular with commuters. The Strathclyde Partnership for Transport, a public body, has direct operational responsibilities covering the area, such as supporting (and in some cases running) local bus services in Kilmacolm and across Strathclyde. Kilmacolm is served by the nearby Glasgow International Airport.
The former railway station, now a public house, operated in the village between 1869 and the 1980s. The railway played a significant role in the village's modern history and expansion, linking it conveniently to nearby urban centres such as Glasgow, Greenock and Paisley. Today, Kilmacolm's nearest National Rail link is at Port Glasgow railway station which lies on the Inverclyde Line linking Glasgow with Gourock and Wemyss Bay. The Ayrshire Coast Line, running between Glasgow and the south-west coast of Scotland, is accessible at nearby Lochwinnoch railway station.
The former railway track serving Kilmacolm has been converted into a cycle path, and is now part of the Clyde to Forth cycle route (National Cycle Route 75). The route of the line has been preserved, and has been confirmed by Strathclyde Partnership for Transport to be available for use again should future redevelopment of the line be considered.
The Christian religion has had a significant impact in Kilmacolm's history. It was the site where John Knox performed what was possibly the first Protestant communion in Scotland, a centre for Covenanters and a home for numerous historic religious festivals - often accompanied by drinking and 'riotous behaviour'. There are currently two congregations of the established presbyterian Church of Scotland, one Episcopal church which is part of the Anglican Communion and one Roman Catholic Church in the village. A further Church of Scotland congregation meets in Quarrier's Village.
The Parish Church, known as the "Old Kirk", is ancient in origin. Its chancel dates back to the 13th century and is incorporated into the modern structure, built in 1830 as a replacement for a structurally unsound 16th century main building, as the Murray Chapel.
In 1858, a number of the Parish's inhabitants broke away to form a United Presbyterian church in what had until recently been the abandoned Reformed Presbyterian Church. In 1868 the Church of St James was constructed on the site which now houses the Royal Bank of Scotland branch and lends its name to the town's main shopping terrace. There are no remains of this church today.
The congregation of St James's Church planned a new building in 1900, which was completed in 1903. This new Church of St James united with St Columba's Church, which was formed in the 1870s following another schism within the Church of Scotland. This former St Columba's Church stood on Bridge of Weir Road, and is recorded as standing in 1907 although the date of its construction is unknown. The magnificent spire and much of the church was demolished in the 1960s, but the main hall still remains and serves as the Kilmacolm Masonic Temple facing onto Glebe Road. The slates from the roof of the old church were used on the roof of "The Glen" being built at that time in Glencairn Road. When the church was demolished and the congregations of St Columba's and St James's united, the former St James's Church where they met was renamed St Columba's Church - recognising the origins of the village name and its relationship with Columba. Through various unions, this church has become part of the Church of Scotland, alongside the "Old Kirk" Parish Church. These Church of Scotland churches form part of the Presbytery of Greenock and Paisley in the Synod of Clydesdale (see: Church of Scotland synods and presbyteries).
Kilmacolm forms part of the Episcopalian (Anglican) Diocese of Glasgow and Galloway and is served by St Fillan's Church on Moss Road. Similarly to the ancient ruined church located nearby at Killellan, the St Fillan that the church is dedicated to is most likely Faelan of Cluain Moescna. The village also falls within the Roman Catholic Diocese of Paisley and Deanery of Inverclyde. There is one small Roman Catholic church in the village, St Colm's. Dedicated to St Columba, for whom St Colm is an alternative name, the current church building was constructed in 1995.
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