Lake Texoma facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Location OklahomaTexas border,
United States
Primary  inflows Red River, Washita River
Primary  outflows Red River
Catchment  area 39,719 sq mi (102,870 km2)
Basin  countries United States
Surface area 89,000 acres (36,000 ha)
Water volume 2,525,568 acre⋅ft (3.115242 km3)
Surface  elevation 615 to 619 ft (187 to 189 m)
Settlements Denison, Sherman, Gainesville (Texas); Durant, Ardmore, Madill, (Oklahoma)

Lake Texoma is one of the largest reservoirs in the United States, the 12th largest US Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE) lake, and the largest in USACE Tulsa District. Lake Texoma is formed by Denison Dam on the Red River in Bryan County, Oklahoma, and Grayson County, Texas, about 726 miles (1,168 km) upstream from the mouth of the river. It is located at the confluence of the Red River and Washita Rivers. The damsite is approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) northwest of Denison, Texas, and 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Durant, Oklahoma. Lake Texoma is the most developed and most popular lake within the USACE Tulsa District, attracting approximately 6 million visitors a year.

Hydrology

Tributaries and outlet

Lake Texoma's two main sources are the Red River from the west and Washita River from the north. Other notable sources include Big Mineral Creek, Little Mineral Creek, Buncombe Creek, Rock Creek, and Glasses Creek. Lake Texoma drains into the Red River at the Denison Dam.

Water levels

Normal elevation of the conservation pool varies from 615 to 619 ft (187 to 189 m) National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) depending on the time of year. The flood control pool extends to elevation 645 ft (197 m) NGVD. The lake has crested the dam's spillway at a height of 640 ft (195.07 m) five times: once in 1957, again in 1990, 2007, May 24, 2015 and most recently on June 18, 2015 (USACE 2003a). The lake's previously highest elevation was recorded on May 6, 1990 at 644.76 feet. This record was broken on May 29, 2015 and the lake crested on June 1, 2015 at a new record elevation of 645.72 feet. The top of Denison Dam is at 670 feet.

Geography

Lake Texoma map
Map of Lake Texoma

Lake Texoma is situated on the border between the states of Oklahoma and Texas in the Oklahoma counties of Bryan, Marshall, Johnston, and Love, and the Texas counties of Grayson and Cooke. It has a surface area of 93,000 acres (360 km²), a conservation water volume of 2,525,568 acre⋅ft (3.115242 km3), and a flood control volume of 5,194,163 acre⋅ft (6.406906 km3).

Cities

Notable cities surrounding the lake in Texas are Denison, Sherman and Gainesville. In Oklahoma, the most notable city is Durant.

Other towns and cities near the lake in Bryan County, Oklahoma, include Cartwright, Colbert, Calera, Platter and Mead. In Marshall County, Oklahoma, they include Little City, Cumberland, Kingston, Woodville, McBride Willis and the unsubmerged portion of Aylesworth. Most of Aylesworth was submerged under the water of the lake. Other towns and cities in Texas include Gordonville, Cedar Mills, Locust, Fink, Pottsboro, and Preston.

Islands

There are several small islands on Lake Texoma accessible only by means of water transportation. Some of the island names include, in order from west to east, West Island, Wood Island, Hog Island, Treasure Island, Little Island, and North Island.

Parks

Lake Texoma features two state parks and fifty four USACE-managed parks. The northern and southern reaches of the lake each terminate within a National Wildlife Refuge.

History

Denison Dam and Lake Texoma were authorized for construction by the Flood Control Act approved June 28, 1938 (Public Law 75-791) for flood control and generation of hydroelectric power. The dam, spillway, and outlet works were started in August 1939 and completed in February 1944. At that time, Denison Dam was the largest rolled, earthfilled dam in the United States. The project was put into operation for flood control in January 1944. The first hydroelectric turbine was placed in operation in March 1945, while a second unit became operational in September 1949. The town of Woodville, Oklahoma was submerged by the lake. The site was later exposed by a severe drought in 2011. Most of the town of Aylesworth was submerged by the construction of the lake. Lake Texoma is also the only lake in the contiguous United States to have its own independent government known as Lake Texoma Indian Territory. The lake was constructed during WWII. North of Gainesville Camp Howze was constructed for military training. German prisoners were sent there. Some were used to clear cut the timber below the flood line for Lake Texoma. The lake was pristine until flood waters rose above the clear cut line in 1957.

The lake attracted worldwide media attention in June 2015 when water was drained following a flood, causing a vortex with 2.5 meter wide hole to form.

Popularity

Lake Texoma's popularity is largely attributed to its sheer size and proximity to the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. The lake is about an hour's drive north from the metropolitan area. The Lake Texoma area, known simply as Texoma or Texomaland, is experiencing rapid economic growth due to heavy tourist use.

Recreation

Diverse recreational opportunities include two wildlife refuges, two state parks, fifty four USACE-managed parks, twelve marinas, twenty-six resorts, hundreds of campgrounds and a variety of excellent golf courses. Power boating, sailing, personal watercraft, water skiing and wind surfing are all popular. The lake has become a major sailing center based on its size, depth and miles of sailing shoreline.

During the spring break and Fourth of July holidays, many college students home for the holidays will gather in an area called "Fobb Bottom" on the Oklahoma side.

Lake Texoma is also home to the Lakefest Regatta, widely considered to be the first inland charity regatta in the United States. The event typically attracts up to 100 keelboats and more than 500 sailors each spring. Since its inception, Lakefest has raised more than $2 million in support of various children’s charities in North Texas. The current beneficiary is the Make-A-Wish Foundation® of North Texas.

Former professional Funny Car race driver "Flash" Gordon Mineo organized many "Poker Run" events on Lake Texoma.

Fishing

Management of the fishery resources at Lake Texoma is the responsibility of the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation (ODWC) and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD). Lake Texoma provides habitat for at least 70 species of fish, several of which were introduced by the ODWC and TPWD. These agencies maintain a supplemental stocking program to improve the fishery resource. Those species popular for recreational fishing include largemouth, spotted, white, and striped bass (Micropterus salmoides, M. punctulatus, Morone chrysops, and M. saxatilis); white crappie (Pomoxis annularis); and channel, blue, and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, I. furcatus, and Pylodictis olivaris). The striped bass fishery in particular is very popular and is considered one most successful in the nation. In addition, downstream of the dam is a tailwater fishery that supports the species and the three local catfish. American gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), threadfin shad (D. petenense), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina) are important forage species. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), gars (Lepisosteus spp.), buffaloes (Ictiobus spp.), and river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) also inhabit the lake.

The lake was stocked with striped bass in the late 1960s, and has proven to be an excellent habitat for them. It is one of the seven U.S. inland lakes where the striped bass reproduce naturally, instead of being farmed and released into the waters. The "stripers" feed on large schools of shad, and often reach sizes of 12 to 20 pounds (5 to 9 kg), with a lake record of 35.12 lb (15.93 kg) caught April 25, 1984. The town of Kingston, Oklahoma, celebrates the importance of striper fishing to the local area with the annual Kingston Striper Festival each September.

In 2004, a blue catfish was pulled from the lake that weighed 121.5 pounds (55.1 kg), temporarily setting a world weight record for rod-and-reel-caught catfish. The fish was moved to a freshwater aquarium in Athens, Texas. More commonly, catfish in Lake Texoma weigh between 5 and 70 pounds (2 to 30 kg).

Historically, Texas and Oklahoma have not had a reciprocal fishing license agreement, which has posed a problem for anglers. Recent boundary resolutions have given Oklahoma jurisdiction over most of the fishing in Lake Texoma. An Oklahoma fishing license allows fishing most of the lake, up to within 400 yards (370 m) of Denison Dam. To fish the entire lake, a Lake Texoma fishing license is also available.

Camping

Many campgrounds, both public and private exist along the shores of Lake Texoma. Among these are Eisenhower State Park, named for President Dwight Eisenhower, who was born in nearby Denison, TX and Camp All Saints owned by the Episcopal Diocese of Dallas.

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