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Sherman, Texas
Paul Brown United States Courthouse in Sherman
Paul Brown United States Courthouse in Sherman
Motto(s): 
"Classic Town. Broad Horizon."
Location of Sherman, Texas
Location of Sherman, Texas
Country United States
State Texas
County Grayson
Founded 1846
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
Area
 • City 46.22 sq mi (119.72 km2)
 • Land 46.15 sq mi (119.52 km2)
 • Water 0.08 sq mi (0.20 km2)
 • Urban
35.9 sq mi (93.1 km2)
 • Metro
979 sq mi (2,536 km2)
Elevation
735 ft (224 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • City 43,645
 • Estimate 
(2019)
44,002
 • Density 953.56/sq mi (368.17/km2)
 • Urban
61,900 (US: 438th)
 • Urban density 1,722.9/sq mi (665.2/km2)
 • Metro
120,877
 • Metro density 130/sq mi (50/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central (CST))
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
75090-75092
Area code(s) 903
FIPS code 48-67496
GNIS feature ID 1368131

Sherman is a U.S. city in and the county seat of Grayson County, Texas. The city's population in 2020 was 43,645. It is one of the two principal cities in the Sherman–Denison metropolitan statistical area, and it is part of the Texoma region of North Texas and southern Oklahoma.

History

Sherman, Texas in 1891
Sherman in 1891

Sherman was named after General Sidney Sherman (July 23, 1805 – August 1, 1873), a hero of the Texas Revolution. The community was designated as the county seat by the act of the Texas legislature which created Grayson County on March 17, 1846. In 1847, a post office began operation. Sherman was originally located at the center of the county, but in 1848 it was moved about 3 miles (5 km) east to its current location. By 1850, Sherman had become an incorporated town under Texas law. It had also become a stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail route through Texas. By 1852, Sherman had a population of 300. It consisted of a public square with a log court house, and several businesses, a district clerk's office, and a church along the east side of the square.

During the 1850s and 1860s, Sherman continued to develop and to participate in regional politics. The first flour mill was built in 1861. In 1862 the publisher of Sherman's anti-secessionist Whig newspaper, the Patriot, was murdered. During and after the Civil War, north Texas outlaw bands led by Jesse James and William Quantrill were seen in Sherman. Years later, James spent at least part of his honeymoon in Sherman, where he was photographed on horseback.

Education developed in north Texas during this time. The Sherman Male and Female High School started accepting students during 1866, under the patronage of the North Texas Methodist Conference. It was one of three private schools in Sherman at the time. This school operated under several names (North Texas Female College and Conservatory of Music beginning in 1892 and Kidd-Key College and Conservatory beginning in 1919) until 1935. It gradually lost Methodist support, after the opening of Southern Methodist University in 1915 in Dallas. In 1876, Austin College, the oldest continuously operating college in Texas, relocated from Huntsville to Sherman. Sherman Female Institute, later known as Mary Nash College, opened in 1877 under sponsorship of the Baptist Church. It continued operation until 1901 when the campus was sold to Kidd-Key College. Carr–Burdette College, a women's college affiliated with the Disciples of Christ, operated there from 1894 to 1929. Jews have had a long history in Sherman, too, settling in the area and meeting for the High Holidays by 1873.

While there was general depression and lawlessness during Reconstruction, Sherman remained commercially active. During the 1870s Sherman's population reached 6,000. In 1875, two fires destroyed many buildings east of the square. They were rebuilt with superior materials. This included a new Grayson County Courthouse built in 1876. In 1879, the Old Settlers' Association of North Texas formed and met near Sherman. The Old Settlers' Association of Grayson County incorporated in 1898 and completed purchase of Old Settlers' Park in 1909.

On May 15, 1896, a tornado measuring F5 on the Fujita scale struck Sherman. The tornado had a damage path 400 yards (370 m) wide and 28 miles (45 km) long, killing 73 people and injuring 200. About 50 homes were destroyed, with 20 of them being completely obliterated.

In 1901 the first electric "Interurban" railway in Texas, the Denison and Sherman Railway, was completed between Sherman and Denison. The Texas Traction Company completed a 65-mile (105 km) interurban between Sherman and Dallas in 1908, and it purchased the Denison and Sherman Railway in 1911. Through the connections in Dallas and Denison, it was possible to travel to the Texas destinations of Terrell, Corsicana, Waco, Fort Worth, Cleburne, and Denton, as well as to Durant, Oklahoma, by interurban railways. One popular destination on the Interurban between Sherman and Denison was Wood Lake Park, a private amusement park at the time. By 1948, all interurban rail service in Texas had been discontinued.

During the Sherman Riot of May 9, 1930, Sherman's elegant 1876 courthouse was burned down by arson during the trial of an African American man, George Hughes. During the riot, Hughes was locked in the vault at the courthouse and died in the fire. After rioters retrieved Hughes' body from the vault, it was dragged behind a car, hanged, and set afire. Texas Ranger Frank Hamer was in Sherman during this riot and reported the situation to Texas Governor Dan Moody. Governor Moody sent National Guard troops to Sherman on May 9 and more on May 10 to control the situation. Fourteen men were later indicted. Two were convicted, of arson and rioting.

Geography

Sherman is located slightly east of the center of Grayson County, between Denison to the north and Howe to the south. The city has a total area of 41.5 square miles (107.4 km2), of which 41.4 square miles (107.2 km2) are land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km2), or 0.20%, are water.

Sherman is 70 miles (110 km) north of Dallas and 31 miles (50 km) southwest of Durant, Oklahoma. Gainesville is 32 miles (51 km) to the west, and Bonham is 26 miles (42 km) to the east.

Climate

Sherman is part of the humid subtropical climate area.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 35
1860 613 1,651.4%
1870 1,439 134.7%
1880 6,093 323.4%
1890 7,335 20.4%
1900 10,243 39.6%
1910 12,412 21.2%
1920 15,031 21.1%
1930 15,713 4.5%
1940 17,156 9.2%
1950 20,150 17.5%
1960 24,988 24.0%
1970 29,061 16.3%
1980 30,413 4.7%
1990 31,601 3.9%
2000 35,082 11.0%
2010 38,521 9.8%
2020 43,645 13.3%
U.S. Decennial Census

As of the 2010 census, 38,521 people, 14,864 households, and 8,820 families were residing in the city. The population density was 910.0 people/sq mi (351.4/km2). The 14,926 housing units averaged 387.2/sq mi (149.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.6% White, 11.4% African American, 0.8% Native American, 2.1% Asian, and 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 19.8% of the population.

Of the 14,864 households, 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.8% were not families. About 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59, and the average family size was 3.01.

In the city, the age distribution was 25.9% under 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 13.5% who were 65 or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $43,557. Males had a median income of $31,828 versus $23,363 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,029. About 19.9% of the population was below the poverty line.

Education

AdminAC
Administration Building on the Austin College campus

Public schools

Most children in Sherman are zoned to the Sherman Independent School District, which includes Sherman High School. Some parts are in Denison Independent School District or Howe Independent School District.

Private schools

A small percentage of children attend one of the three private schools in Sherman: Grayson Christian School, St. Mary's Catholic School, or Texoma Christian School.

Colleges and universities

Austin College, a private, Presbyterian, liberal arts college, relocated to Sherman in 1876. Founded in 1849, it is the oldest college or university in Texas operating under its original charter. Grayson College, a community college based in neighboring Denison, operates a branch campus in Sherman.

Libraries

The Sherman Public Library serves the city of Sherman and all citizens. The library underwent a $2 million, floor-to-ceiling renovation in 2017, reopening to the public in August 2018.

Infrastructure

Sherman July 2016 50 (City Hall)
Sherman City Hall

Transportation

  • US 75.svg U.S. Highway 75 Oklahoma to Dallas
  • US 82.svg U.S. Highway 82 east-west: Georgia to New Mexico
  • Texas 56.svg SH 56 east-west: Honey Grove to Whitesboro
  • Texas 91.svg SH 91 north-south: Achille, Oklahoma to Sherman
  • Texas 11.svg SH 11 east-west: Linden to Sherman
  • Texas FM 1417.svg FM 1417 north-south: Denison to Sherman
  • Texas FM 691.svg FM 691 east-west: Sherman to North Texas Regional Airport
  • Texas FM 131.svg FM 131 north-south: Denison to Sherman
  • Texas FM 697.svg FM 697 east-west: Whitewright to Sherman

Sherman is served by two U.S. Highways: US 75 (Sam Rayburn Freeway) and US 82. (The latter is locally designated as the Buck Owens Freeway after the famous musician who was born in Sherman.) It is also served by three Texas State Highways, which extend beyond Grayson County: State Highway 11, State Highway 56, and State Highway 91 (Texoma Parkway), one of the main commercial strips that connects Sherman and Denison, and also extends to Lake Texoma.

Sherman Municipal Airport
Sherman Municipal Airport

General aviation service is provided by Sherman Municipal Airport and North Texas Regional Airport/Perrin Field in Denison.

Wilson N Jones Regional Medical Center in Sherman, Texas
Wilson N. Jones Regional Medical Center in Sherman

TAPS Public Transit is the sole transit provider for Sherman, with curb-to-curb paratransit for all residents.

Medical care

The city of Sherman is served locally by Wilson N. Jones Regional Medical Center, Texoma Medical Center, and a Baylor Scott & White surgery center.

Top employers

Tyson Trailer
Tyson Foods is the largest employer in the area.
  • Tyson Foods
  • Texas Instruments
  • II-VI Incorporated
  • Grayson County
  • City of Sherman
  • Cooper B-Line Systems
  • Austin College
  • Fisher Controls/ Emerson Process Management
  • Kaiser Aluminum
  • Presco Products
  • Progress Rail
  • Consolidated Containers
  • Plyler Construction
  • Starr Aircraft
  • Douglass Distributing
  • GlobiTech
  • Sunny Delight Beverages

Notable people

Images for kids

Black History Month on Kiddle
Famous African-American Inventors:
Shirley Ann Jackson
Garett Morgan
J. Ernest Wilkins Jr.
Elijah McCoy
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