|Winston-Salem, North Carolina|
|City of Winston-Salem|
|Nickname(s): City of Arts & Innovation, Twin City, Camel City, Winston, The Dash|
|Motto: Urbs Condita Adiuvando (A city founded on cooperation)|
Location in Forsyth County and the state of North Carolina.
|• Total||133.7 sq mi (346.3 km2)|
|• Land||132.4 sq mi (343.0 km2)|
|• Water||1.2 sq mi (3.2 km2)|
|Elevation||970 ft (300 m)|
|Population (2015 estimate)|
|• Total||241,218 (US: 88th)|
|• Density||1,821/sq mi (703.2/km2)|
|• MSA||659,330 (US: 83rd)|
|• CSA||1,642,506 (US: 33rd)|
|Time zone||Eastern (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
Winston-Salem is a city in and the county seat of Forsyth County, North Carolina, United States. With a 2015 estimated population of 241,218, it is the second largest municipality in the Piedmont Triad region and the fifth largest city in the state. Winston-Salem is home to the tallest office building in the region, 100 North Main Street, formerly the Wachovia Building and now known locally as the Wells Fargo Center.
Winston-Salem is called the "Twin City" for its dual heritage and "City of the Arts and Innovation" for its dedication to fine arts and theater and technological research. "Camel City" is a reference to the city's historic involvement in the tobacco industry related to locally based R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company's Camel cigarettes. Winston-Salem is also known for its traditional furniture company. Many locals refer to the city as "Winston" in informal speech. "The Dash" is referenced from the hyphen between Winston and Salem and was popularized by the nickname of the local minor league baseball team, the Winston-Salem Dash.
In 2012, the city was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the U.S. by CBS MoneyWatch.
The city of Winston Salem is a product of the merging of the two neighboring towns of Winston and Salem in 1913.
The origin of the town of Salem dates to January 1753, when Bishop August Gottlieb Spangenberg, on behalf of the Moravian Church, selected a settlement site in the three forks of Muddy Creek. He called this area "die Wachau" (Latin form: Wachovia) named after the ancestral estate of Count Nicolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf. The land, just short of 99,000 acres (400 km2), was subsequently purchased from John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville.
On November 17, 1753, the first settlers arrived at what would later become the town of Bethabara. This town, despite its rapid growth, was not designed to be the primary settlement on the tract. Some residents expanded to a nearby settlement called Bethania in 1759. Finally, lots were drawn to select among suitable sites for the location of a new town.
The town established on the chosen site was given the name of Salem (from "Shalom" meaning "Peace",after the Canaanite city mentioned in the Book of Genesis) chosen for it by the Moravians' late patron, Count Zinzendorf. On January 6, 1766, the first tree was felled for the building of Salem. Salem was a typical Moravian settlement congregation with the public buildings of the congregation grouped around a central square, today Salem Square. These included the church, a Brethren's House and a Sisters' House for the unmarried members of the Congregation, which owned all the property in town. For many years only members of the Moravian Church were permitted to live in the settlement. This practice had ended by the American Civil War. Many of the original buildings in the settlement have been restored or rebuilt and are now part of Old Salem Museums & Gardens.
Salem was incorporated as a town in December 1856. Salem Square and "God's Acre", the Moravian Graveyard, since 1772 are the site each Easter morning of the world-famous Moravian sunrise service. This service, sponsored by all the Moravian church parishes in the city, attracts thousands of worshipers each year.
In 1849, the Salem congregation sold land north of Salem to the newly formed Forsyth County for a county seat. The new town was called "the county town" or Salem until 1851 when it was named Winston for a local hero of the Revolutionary War, Joseph Winston. For its first two decades, Winston was a sleepy county town. In 1868, work began by Salem and Winston business leaders to connect the town to the North Carolina Railroad. That same year, Thomas Jethro Brown of Davie County rented a former livery stable and established the first tobacco warehouse in Winston. That same year, Pleasant Henderson Hanes, also of Davie, built his first tobacco factory a few feet from Brown's warehouse. In 1875, Richard Joshua Reynolds, of Patrick County, Virginia, built his first tobacco factory a few hundred feet from Hanes's factory. By the 1880s, there were almost 40 tobacco factories in the town of Winston. Hanes and Reynolds would compete fiercely for the next 25 years, each absorbing a number of the smaller manufacturers, until Hanes sold out to Reynolds in 1900 to begin a second career in textiles.
In the 1880s, the US Post Office began referring to the two towns as Winston-Salem. In 1899, after nearly a decade of contention, the United States Post Office Department established the Winston-Salem post office in Winston, with the former Salem office serving as a branch. After a referendum the towns were officially incorporated as "Winston-Salem" in 1913. The USPS Address Information System (AIS) does not recognize the hyphen. Ironically, the sign hanging on the USPS location in downtown Winston-Salem reads "United States Postal Service, Winston-Salem, NC."
The Reynolds family, namesake of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, played a large role in the history and public life of Winston-Salem. By the 1940s, 60% of Winston-Salem workers worked either for Reynolds or in the Hanes textile factories. The Reynolds company imported so much French cigarette paper and Turkish tobacco for Camel cigarettes that Winston-Salem was designated by the United States federal government as an official port of entry for the United States, despite the city being 200 miles (320 km) inland. Winston-Salem was the eighth-largest port of entry in the United States by 1916.
In 1917, the company bought 84 acres (340,000 m2) of property in Winston-Salem and built 180 houses that it sold at cost to workers, to form a development called "Reynoldstown." By the time R.J. Reynolds died in 1918, his company owned 121 buildings in Winston-Salem.
In 1929, the Reynolds Building was completed in Winston-Salem. Designed by William F. Lamb from the architectural firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, the Reynolds Building is a 314 feet (96 m) skyscraper that has 21 floors. When completed as the headquarters of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, it was the tallest building in the United States south of Baltimore, Maryland, and it was named the best building of the year by the American Institute of Architects. The building is well known for being the predecessor and prototype for the much larger Empire State Building that was built in 1931 in New York City. Every year the staff of the Empire State Building sends a Father's Day card to the staff at the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem to pay homage to its role as predecessor to the Empire State Building.
Notable early businesses
- In 1799, the Winkler Bakery, famous for its Moravian cookies, was commissioned, and in 1807, the congregation brought in Christian Winkler of Pennsylvania to operate the bakery; his family owned and operated the business until 1929. It continues to operate today as part of Old Salem.
- In 1875, R J Reynolds founded R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company later famous for branded products such as Prince Albert pipe tobacco (1907) and Camel cigarettes (1913). Other brands which it made famous are Winston, Salem, Doral, and Eclipse cigarettes. The Winston-Salem area is still the primary international manufacturing center for Reynolds brands of cigarettes, although employment is down from its peak of nearly 30,000 to under 3,000.
- In 1901, J. Wesley Hanes's Shamrock Hosiery Mills in Winston-Salem began making men's socks. Shortly afterward, his brother Pleasant Henderson Hanes founded the P.H. Hanes Knitting Company, which manufactured men's underwear. The two firms eventually merged to become the Hanes Corporation, now known as Hanesbrands, innovators in the textile industry.
- In 1906, the Bennett Bottling Company produced Bennett's Cola, a "Fine Carbonic Drink." The name was changed to Winston-Salem Bottling Works in 1915.
- in 1911, Wachovia Bank and Trust was formed by the merger of Wachovia National Bank (founded 1879) and Wachovia Loan and Trust (founded 1893). The company was purchased by First Union in 2001, which changed its name to Wachovia. Wachovia was purchased by Wells Fargo in 2009, and the Wachovia name was retired in 2011.
- In 1928, Miller's Clothing Store was opened by Mrs. Henry Miller. Miller's Variety Store still operates at the same location at 622 North Trade Street. Miller's was the first store in Winston-Salem to offer bell-bottoms in the area in the 1960s. Millers was listed by Playboy magazine in 1968 as a popular place to shop.
- In 1929, the local T.W. Garner Foods introduced Texas Pete, a popular hot sauce.
- In 1929 Quality Oil Company was organized in December 1929, initially to launch a distributorship for the then little known Shell Oil Company.
- In 1934, Malcolm Purcell McLean formed McLean Trucking Co. The firm benefited from the tobacco and textile industry headquartered in Winston-Salem, and became the second largest trucking firm in the nation.
- In 1937, Krispy Kreme opened its first doughnut shop on South Main Street.
- In 1945 Piedmont Bible College opened (now Piedmont International University).
- In 1948, Piedmont Airlines was formed out of the old Camel City Flying Service. The airline was based at Smith Reynolds Airport in Winston-Salem but marked its first commercial flight out of Wilmington, North Carolina on February 20, 1948. Piedmont grew to become one of the top airlines in the country before its purchase by USAir (now US Airways) in 1987. US Airways maintains a reservation center in the old Piedmont Reservations office.
Geography and climate
Winston-Salem is in the northwest Piedmont area of North Carolina, situated 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the geographic center of the state. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 133.7 square miles (346.3 km2), of which 132.4 square miles (343.0 km2) is land and 1.2 square miles (3.2 km2), or 0.93%, is water.
Less than 30 miles (48 km) north of Winston-Salem are the remains of the ancient Sauratown Mountains, named for the Saura people who lived in much of the Piedmont area, including where is now Winston-Salem.
The city of Winston-Salem has a humid subtropical climate characterized by cool, sometimes moderately cold winters, and hot, humid summers. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Cfa. The average high temperatures range from 51 °F (11 °C) in the winter to around 89 °F (32 °C) in the summer. The average low temperatures range from 28 °F (−2 °C) in the winter to around 67 °F (19 °C) in the summer.
|Climate data for Winston-Salem, North Carolina|
|Record high °F (°C)||79
|Average high °F (°C)||49.5
|Daily mean °F (°C)||39.1
|Average low °F (°C)||28.8
|Record low °F (°C)||−10
|Precipitation inches (mm)||3.30
|Snowfall inches (cm)||3.0
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9||9||10||9||10||9||11||10||7||6||7||9||106|
|Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center (normals and extremes 1899–2012)|
|U.S. Decennial Census
Winston-Salem's population grew by 23.6% from 2000 to 2010, making it the fourth largest city in North Carolina. As of the census of 2010, the population is 229,617, with 90,245 households and a population density of 1,733.6 people per square mile.
Winston-Salem is 53.0% female, and 27.8% of its firms are owned by women. The median age is 35 years. 24.6% of the population is under 18 years old, and 12.5% of the population is 65 years or older.
The racial composition of the city in 2010 was 51.2% White, 34.7% Black or African American, 2% Asian American, 0.1% Native American, 0.08% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific native alone, and 2.4% two or more races. In addition, 14.7% was Hispanic or Latino, of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites were 47.1% of the population in 2010.
38.4% are married couples living together, 17.3% have a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% are non-families. 33.1% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.3% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.38 and the average family size is 3.06.
The median income for a household in the city is $41,228, and the median income for a family is $53,222. The mean income for a household in the city is $60,637, and the mean income for a family is $74,938. Males have a median income of $41,064 versus $33,683 for females. The per capita income for the city is $24,728. 20.6% of the population and 15.7% of all families are below the poverty line. 26.2% of Out of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.2% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Winston-Salem is the most religious city in North Carolina, with 54.14% of the population being religiously affiliated. Christianity is the largest religion, with Baptists (15.77%) making up the largest religious group, followed by Methodists (12.79%) and Catholics (4.39%). Pentecostals (2.97%), Presbyterians (2.59%), Lutherans (0.96%), Mormons (0.90%) make up a significant amount of the Christian population as well. The remaining Christian population (11.93%) is affiliated with other churches such as the Moravians and the United Church of Christ. Islam (0.43%) is the second largest religion after Christianity, followed by Judaism (0.20%). Eastern religions (0.02%) make up the religious minority.
The city's long history with the Moravian church has had a lasting cultural effect. The Moravian star is used as the city's official Christmas street decoration. In addition, a 31-foot Moravian star, one of the largest in the world, sits atop the North Tower of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center during the Advent and Christmas seasons. Another star sits under Wake Forest University's Wait Chapel during the Advent and Christmas seasons as well. Also, Moravian star images decorate the lobby of the city's landmark Reynolds Building.
- Bethabara Historic District is a site where Moravians from Pennsylvania first settled in North Carolina, the 195-acre (0.79 km2) area includes a museum and a Moravian church and offers hiking, birdwatching and many varieties of trees and plants.
- Old Salem is a restored Moravian settlement founded in 1766. Seventy percent of the buildings are original and the village is a living history museum with skilled tinsmiths, blacksmiths, cobblers, gunsmiths, bakers and carpenters practicing their trades while interacting with visitors. Along with the original 18th-century buildings, Old Salem is also home to the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts (MESDA), a gallery of 18th- and early 19th-century furniture, ceramics, and textiles.
- Reynolda Gardens is a 4-acre (16,000 m2) formal garden set within a larger woodland site, originally part of the R. J. Reynolds country estate.
- The Wake Forest University Museum of Anthropology is an anthropological museum, maintained by Wake Forest University, that has many artifacts and other pieces of history.
- SciWorks – An interactive museum for children, SciWorks has 25,000 square feet (2,300 m2) of exhibit space, 119-seat Planetarium and 15-acre (61,000 m2) outdoor Environmental Park. Permanent exhibits include: Foucault Pendulum, PhysicsWorks, SoundWorks, HealthWorks, BioWorks and KidsWorks. The Environmental Park includes habitats for river otter, deer and waterfowl.
- Children's Museum of Winston-Salem offers exhibits and programs designed to develop creative thinking, strengthen language skills, and encourage curiosity for children ages birth to eight. Despite the name, it is primarily an indoor playground for children with activities (admission fee or membership required).
- New Winston Museum is the community history museum for Winston-Salem and Forsyth County. It focuses on time periods since 1850 and features exhibitions and public programs.
Winston-Salem is often referred to as the "City of the Arts", partly because it created the first arts council in the United States, founded in 1949, and because of the local art schools and attractions. These include the University of North Carolina School of the Arts, Twin City Stage, Winston-Salem Theatre Alliance, the Piedmont Opera Theater, the Winston-Salem Symphony, the Stevens Center for the Performing Arts, the Milton Rhodes Center for the Arts, the Hanesbrands Theater, and the Sawtooth Center for Visual Arts.
The city's Arts District is centered around Sixth and Trade Streets, where there are many galleries and workshops; nearby is also the ARTivity on the Green art park, established by Art for Art's Sake.
It is also home to the Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art (SECCA), a nationally known art center, as well as the Reynolda House Museum of American Art (the restored 1917 mansion built by the founder of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and now affiliated with Wake Forest University), displays a premiere collection of American art.
The city plays host to the National Black Theatre Festival, the RiverRun International Film Festival and the Reynolda Film Festival.
Winston-Salem is also the home of the Art-o-mat and houses nine of them throughout the city.
The city is also home to Carolina Music Ways, a grassroots arts organization focusing on the area's diverse, interconnected music traditions, including bluegrass, blues, jazz, gospel, old-time stringband, and Moravian music.
Once a year the city is also the home of the Heavy Rebel Weekender music festival, featuring over 70 bands, primarily rockabilly, punk and honky tonk, over three days.
Winston-Salem is home to Hanes Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in North Carolina. The area surrounding the mall along Stratford Road and Hanes Mall Boulevard has become the city's largest shopping district.
Other shopping areas exist in the city, including Thruway Shopping Center, the city's first shopping center, Hanes Point Shopping Center, Hanes Commons, Pavilions, Stone's Throw Plaza, Silas Creek Crossing, and the Marketplace Mall.
Movies filmed in Winston-Salem
- The Bedroom Window (1987)
- Mr. Destiny (1990)
- Eddie (1996)
- The Lottery, made-for-television adaptation of Shirley Jackson's short story (1996)
- George Washington (2000)
- Brand X, X-Files, episode involving the tobacco industry (2000)
- A Union in Wait (2001, documentary)
- Junebug (2005)
- Lost Stallions: The Journey Home (2008)
- Goodbye Solo (2008)
- Leatherheads (2008)
- Eyeborgs (2009)
- The 5th Quarter (2010)
- Are You Here (2013)
- Goodbye to All That (2014)
- The Longest Ride (2014)
The Winston-Salem Transit Authority (WSTA) has the responsibility of providing public transportation. It took over from the Safe Bus Company, founded in the 1920s as the largest black owned transportation company in the United States, in 1972. Operating out of the Clark Campbell Transportation Center at 100 West Fifth Street, WSTA has 26 daily routes, which run between 5:30am and 12:00 midnight Monday through Friday and from 6:30am through 6:30pm on Saturday. WSTA makes nearly 3 million passenger trips annually. In February 2010 WSTA added 10 diesel-electric buses to its fleet.
The Piedmont Authority for Regional Transportation (PART) operates a daily schedule from the Campbell center connecting Winston-Salem to Boone, Mt. Airy and Greensboro, where other systems provide in-state routes to points east.
Greyhound lines also provides interstate transportation from the Campbell Center.
US 52 (which runs concurrent with NC 8) is the predominant north-south freeway through Winston-Salem; it passes near the heart of downtown. Business 40 is the main east-west freeway through downtown Winston-Salem and was the main east-west route through the city until 1993, when a bypass loop of I-40 was built. I-74 links Winston-Salem to High Point (southeast) and US 311 follows I-40 and US 52 through the Winston-Salem business district. US 421, which shares Business 40 through downtown, splits in the western part of the city onto its own freeway west (signed north) toward Wilkesboro, North Carolina and Boone, North Carolina.
The Winston-Salem Northern Beltway is a proposed freeway that will loop around the city to the north, providing a route for the Future I-74 on the eastern section and the Future Auxiliary Route I-274 on the western section. The NCDOT plans for this project to begin after 2010.
By 2014, US 52 south of I-40 will be signed as Spur Route I-285. The Winston-Salem Department of Transportation also plans for the US 311 freeway to be extended north along the east side of the city to Business I-40 by 2030, according to the Long Range Plan.
Major thoroughfares in Winston-Salem include NC 67 (Silas Creek Parkway & Reynolda Road), NC 150 (Peters Creek Parkway), US 158 (Stratford Road), University Parkway, Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, North Point Boulevard, and Hanes Mall Boulevard.
A smaller airport, known as Smith Reynolds Airport, is located within the city limits, just northeast of downtown. It is mainly used for general aviation and charter flights. Every year, Smith Reynolds Airport hosts an air show for the general public. The Smith Reynolds Airport is home to the Winston-Salem Civil Air Patrol Composite Squadron, also known as NC-082. The Civil Air Patrol is a non-profit volunteer organization.
Amtrak runs a thruway motorcoach, twice daily in each direction, between Winston-Salem and the Amtrak station in nearby High Point. Buses depart from the Winston-Salem Transportation Center, then stop on the university campus before traveling to High Point. From the High Point station, riders can board the Crescent line or the Carolinian and Piedmont lines. These lines run directly to local North Carolina destinations as well as cities across the Southeast, as far west as New Orleans and as far north as New York City.
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