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John Schofield
John M Schofield by CM Bell, c1860s (cropped).JPG
Commanding General of the United States Army
In office
August 14, 1888 – September 29, 1895
President Grover Cleveland
Benjamin Harrison
Grover Cleveland
Preceded by Philip Sheridan
Succeeded by Nelson A. Miles
28th United States Secretary of War
In office
June 1, 1868 – March 13, 1869
President Andrew Johnson
Ulysses S. Grant
Preceded by Edwin Stanton
Succeeded by John Aaron Rawlins
Personal details
Born
John McAllister Schofield

(1831-09-29)September 29, 1831
Gerry, New York, U.S.
Died March 4, 1906(1906-03-04) (aged 74)
St. Augustine, Florida, U.S.
Resting place Arlington National Cemetery
Political party Republican
Education United States Military Academy (BS)
Military service
Allegiance  United States
 • Union
Branch/service  United States Army
 • Union Army
Years of service 1853–1860
1861–1895
Rank Union army lt gen rank insignia.jpg Lieutenant General
Commands Superintendent of the United States Military Academy (1876–1881)
Army of the Frontier
Department of the Missouri
XXIII Corps
Army of the Ohio
Battles/wars American Civil War
 • Battle of Wilson's Creek
 • Atlanta Campaign
 • Battle of Utoy Creek
 • Battle of Franklin
 • Battle of Nashville
 • Battle of Wyse Fork
Awards Medal of Honor

John McAllister Schofield (September 29, 1831March 4, 1906) was an American soldier who held major commands during the Civil War. He later served as U.S. Secretary of War under Presidents Andrew Johnson and Ulysses S. Grant, and Commanding General of the United States Army.

Schofield was born in Gerry, New York, and graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1853. He served for two years in the artillery, was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West Point from 1855 to 1860, and while on leave (1860–1861) was professor of physics at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.

Death and legacy

Schofield Barracks, Hawaii LCCN2016840243
Schofield Barracks, Hawaii 1925

General Schofield died at St. Augustine, Florida, and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His memoirs, Forty-six Years in the Army, were published in 1897. He is memorialized by the military installation Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. Prior to his death, Schofield was the last surviving member of Andrew Johnson's Cabinet.

Today, Schofield is remembered for a lengthy quotation that all cadets at the United States Military Academy at West Point and the United States Air Force Academy are required to memorize. It is an excerpt from his graduation address to the class of 1879 at West Point:

The discipline which makes the soldiers of a free country reliable in battle is not to be gained by harsh or tyrannical treatment. On the contrary, such treatment is far more likely to destroy than to make an army. It is possible to impart instruction and give commands in such a manner and such a tone of voice as to inspire in the soldier no feeling, but an intense desire to obey, while the opposite manner and tone of voice cannot fail to excite strong resentment and a desire to disobey. The one mode or the other of dealing with subordinates springs from a corresponding spirit in the breast of the commander. He who feels the respect which is due to others cannot fail to inspire in them respect for himself. While he who feels, and hence manifests, disrespect towards others, especially his subordinates, cannot fail to inspire hatred against himself.

John M. Schofield

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