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St. Augustine

San Agustín  (Spanish)
City of Saint Augustine
Top, left to right: Castillo de San Marcos, St. Augustine Light, Flagler College, Lightner Museum, statue near the Cathedral Basilica of St. Augustine, St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park, Old St. Johns County Jail
Coat of arms of St. Augustine
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Ancient City, Old City
Location in St. Johns County and the U.S. state of Florida
Location in St. Johns County and the U.S. state of Florida
Country  United States
State  Florida
County St. Johns
Established September 8, 1565 (1565-09-08) (456 years ago)
Founded by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Named for Saint Augustine of Hippo
Government
 • Type City commission government
Area
 • City 12.85 sq mi (33.29 km2)
 • Land 9.52 sq mi (24.66 km2)
 • Water 3.33 sq mi (8.63 km2)
Elevation
0 ft (0 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • City 14,329
 • Density 1,504.99/sq mi (581.05/km2)
 • Urban
69,173 (US: 399th)
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP code(s)
32080, 32084, 32085, 32086, 32095, 32082, 32092
Area code(s) 904
FIPS code 12-62500
GNIS feature ID 0308101
Website City of St. Augustine

St. Augustine (Spanish: San Agustín) is a city in the Southeastern United States, on the Atlantic coast of northeastern Florida. Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorers, it is the oldest continuously-inhabited European-established settlement in what is now the contiguous United States.

St. Augustine was founded on September 8, 1565, by Spanish admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor. He named the settlement "San Agustín", as his ships bearing settlers, troops, and supplies from Spain had first sighted land in Florida eleven days earlier on August 28, the feast day of St. Augustine. The city served as the capital of Spanish Florida for over 200 years. It was designated as the capital of British East Florida when the colony was established in 1763; Great Britain returned Florida to Spain in 1783.

Spain ceded Florida to the United States in 1819, and St. Augustine was designated the capital of the Florida Territory upon ratification of the Adams–Onís Treaty in 1821. The Florida National Guard made the city its headquarters that same year. The territorial government moved and made Tallahassee the capital of Florida in 1824.

The county seat of St. Johns County, St. Augustine is part of Florida's First Coast region and the Jacksonville metropolitan area. Since the late 19th century, St. Augustine's distinct historical character has made the city a tourist attraction.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1830 1,708
1840 2,450 43.4%
1850 1,934 −21.1%
1860 1,914 −1.0%
1870 1,717 −10.3%
1880 2,293 33.5%
1890 4,742 106.8%
1900 4,272 −9.9%
1910 5,494 28.6%
1920 6,192 12.7%
1930 12,111 95.6%
1940 12,090 −0.2%
1950 13,555 12.1%
1960 14,734 8.7%
1970 12,352 −16.2%
1980 11,985 −3.0%
1990 11,692 −2.4%
2000 11,592 −0.9%
2010 12,975 11.9%
2020 14,329 10.4%
U.S. Decennial Census

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 12,975 people, 5,743 households, and 2,679 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,376.2 people per square mile (531/km2). There were 6,978 housing units at an average density of 549.4 per square mile (211.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 84.2% white, 11.6% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.1% of the population.

There were 5,743 households, out of which 14.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.7% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 53.4% were non-families. 37.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.67.

In the city, 13.1% of the population was under the age of 18, 15.3% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, and 19% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $36,424, and the median income for a family was $56,055. Males had a median income of $32,409 versus $30,188 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,485. About 7.6% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.8% of those under age 18 and 24.4% of those age 65 or over.

The United States Census Bureau's 2013 estimate of the city's population was 13,679, while the urban area had a population of 71,379 in 2012.

Education

St Aug Fla School Deaf Blind pano01
Ray Charles Center and the Theodore Johnson Center, at the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind

Primary and secondary education in St. Augustine is overseen by the St. Johns County School District. There are no county high schools located within St. Augustine's current city limits, but St. Augustine High School, Pedro Menendez High School, and St. Johns Technical High School are located in the vicinity. The Florida School for the Deaf and Blind, a state-operated boarding school for deaf and blind students, was founded in the city in 1885. The Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine operates the St. Joseph Academy, Florida's oldest Catholic high school, to the west of the city.

There are several institutions of higher education in and around St. Augustine. Flagler College is a four-year liberal arts college founded in 1968. It is located in the former Ponce de Leon Hotel in downtown St. Augustine. St. Johns River State College, a state college in the Florida College System, has its St. Augustine campus just west of the city. Also in the area are the University of North Florida, Jacksonville University, and Florida State College at Jacksonville in Jacksonville.

The institution now known as Florida Memorial University was located in St. Augustine from 1918 to 1968, when it relocated to its present campus in Miami. Originally known as Florida Baptist Academy, then Florida Normal, and then Florida Memorial College, it was a historically black institution and had a wide impact on St. Augustine while it was located there. During World War II it was chosen as the site for training the first blacks in the U. S. Signal Corps. Among its faculty members was Zora Neale Hurston; a historic marker is placed at the house where she lived while teaching at Florida Memorial (and where she wrote her autobiography Dust Tracks on a Road.)

Transportation

Highways

St. Augustine Major Roadways
Major roadways, St. Augustine and vicinity
  • I-95.svg Interstate 95 runs north–south.
  • US 1.svg U.S. Route 1 runs north–south.
  • Florida A1A.svg State Road A1A runs north–south.
  • Florida 16.svg State Road 16 runs east–west
  • Florida 207.svg State Road 207 runs northeast–southwest
  • Florida 312.svg State Road 312 runs east–west

Buses

Bus service is operated by the Sunshine Bus Company. Buses operate mainly between shopping centers across town, but a few go to Hastings and Jacksonville, where one can connect to JTA for additional service across Jacksonville.

Airport

St. Augustine has one public airport 4 miles (6.4 km) north of the downtown. It has three runways and two seaplane lanes. There is currently no scheduled service to the Airport following ViaAir’s suspension of service to Charlotte in 2018. Various private jets and tour helicopters also operate from the airport. Northrop Grumman runs a large manufacturing plant on the grounds, where the E-2 Hawkeye is produced. Jacksonville International Airport is 40 miles to the north along I-95.

Notable people

David Levy Yulee - Brady-Handy
United States Senator David Levy Yulee
  • Andrew Anderson, physician, St. Augustine mayor
  • John Alexander Armstrong, political theorist and scholar
  • Murray Armstrong, hockey coach
  • Pete Banaszak, professional football player
  • Frances Bemis, public relations specialist
  • Jorge Biassou, Haitian revolutionary and first black American general
  • Richard Boone, actor
  • James Branch Cabell, novelist
  • Doug Carn, jazz musician
  • Cris Carpenter, Major League baseball player
  • Ray Charles, pianist, singer, composer
  • George J. F. Clarke, Surveyor General of Spanish East Florida
  • Nicholas de Concepcion, escaped slave who became a Spanish privateer and pirate captain
  • Earl Cunningham, artist
  • Alexander Darnes, born a slave, became a celebrated physician
  • Edmund Jackson Davis, governor of Texas
  • Frederick Delius, composer
  • Henry Flagler, industrialist
  • Willie Galimore, football player
  • Michael Gannon, historian
  • Laura Jane Grace, singer
  • Martin Davis Hardin, Union General in the Civil War
  • Robert Hayling, civil rights leader
  • Hurley Haywood endurance race car driver
  • Martin Johnson Heade, artist
  • Louise Homer, opera singer
  • Sidney Homer, composer
  • Jack D. Hunter, novelist, author of The Blue Max
  • Zora Neale Hurston, novelist and folklorist
  • Lindy Infante, professional football coach
  • Willie Irvin, professional football player
  • Brandon James, professional football player
  • Stetson Kennedy, author and human rights activist
  • Jack Temple Kirby, historian
  • LaChanze, Tony Award & Emmy Award winning actor, singer, and dancer
  • Scott Lagasse Jr., race car driver
  • Charlie LaPradd, college football player, college president
  • Eugene Levy, actor, comedian, producer, director, and writer
  • Jacob Lawrence, artist
  • Sinclair Lewis, novelist
  • John C. Lilly, neuroscientist, developer of the isolation tank
  • William W. Loring, Confederate general
  • Mary MacLane, author
  • Albert Manucy, historian, author, Fulbright Scholar
  • George McGovern, U.S. Senator, presidential candidate
  • Howell W. Melton, United States district judge
  • Howell W. Melton Jr., attorney, law firm managing partner
  • Johnny Mize, Hall of Fame baseball player
  • Prince Achille Murat, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte
  • David Nolan, author and historian
  • Osceola, Seminole War leader (held prisoner at Fort Marion, now Castillo de San Marcos)
  • Tom Petty, rock musician
  • Scott Player, professional football punter
  • Verle A. Pope, state legislator
  • Richard Henry Pratt, soldier and educator
  • Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, novelist
  • Marcus Roberts, musician
  • Gamble Rogers, folk singer
  • John M. Schofield, Union general
  • Steven L. Sears, television writer-producer
  • Edmund Kirby Smith, Confederate general
  • Dale Snodgrass - United States Navy avaiator and air show performer who was considered one of the greatest fighter pilots of all time.
  • Steve Spurrier, college/pro (American) football coach
  • Caleb Sturgis, NFL kicker
  • Peter Taylor, novelist
  • The Wobbly Toms, music group
  • Felix Varela, Cuban national hero
  • Augustin Verot, first Bishop of St. Augustine
  • Patty Wagstaff, aerobatic pilot
  • DeWitt Webb, physician, St. Augustine mayor, state representative
  • David Levy Yulee, first Jewish U.S. Senator, Levy County and Yulee, Florida namesake

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