Randolph County, Arkansas facts for kids
|Randolph County, Arkansas|
Location in the state of Arkansas
Arkansas's location in the U.S.
|Founded||October 29, 1835|
656.04 sq mi (1,699 km²)
651.83 sq mi (1,688 km²)
4.21 sq mi (11 km²), 0.6%
26.8/sq mi (10/km²)
|Time zone||Central: UTC-6/-5|
|Named for: John Randolph|
Randolph County is located between the Ozark Mountains and Arkansas Delta in the U.S. state of Arkansas. The county is named for John Randolph, a U.S. senator from Virginia influential in obtaining congressional approval of the Louisiana Purchase, which includes today's Randolph County. Created as Arkansas's 32nd county on October 29, 1835, Randolph County has two incorporated cities, including Pocahontas, the county seat and most populous city. The county is also the site of numerous unincorporated communities and ghost towns.
Crossed by five rivers, most of Randolph County contains foothills and valleys typical of the Ozarks. However, the eastern side of the county is largely flat with fertile soils typical of the Delta, with the Black River roughly dividing the regions. The county contains three protected areas: two Wildlife Management Areas and Davidsonville Historic State Park, which preserves and interprets an early pioneer settlement. Other historical features such as log cabins, one-room school houses, community centers, and museums describe the history and culture of Randolph County.
Randolph County occupies 656.04 square miles (169,910 ha) and contained a population of 17,969 people in 7,299 households as of the 2010 Census, ranking it 38th in size and 41st in population among the state's 75 counties. The economy is largely based on agriculture and small manufacturing. Poverty and unemployment rates are above national averages, but steady. Household incomes are below state and national averages. Politically, Randolph County has transitioned from reliably Democratic to steadily Republican since the mid-20th century.
Randolph County is served by two school districts, Pocahontas School District and Maynard School District, and parts of three others. Higher education is provided at Black River Technical College, a public two-year community college in Pocahontas. Five Rivers Medical Center in Pocahontas is a community hospital providing primary care in the county. Although no Interstate highways serve Randolph County, the county has access to three United States highways (U.S. Route 62 [US 62], US 67, and US 412) and eleven Arkansas state highways. Randolph County is also served by one public owned/public use general aviation airport, Pocahontas Municipal Airport, and six community water systems provide potable water to customers in the county.
- Human resources
- Culture and contemporary life
- Images for kids
- See also: Geography of Arkansas and Arkansas Delta
Randolph County is located where the foothills of the Ozark Mountains intersect the Arkansas Delta (in Arkansas, usually referred to as "the Delta") in the southeast part of the county. Two of the six primary geographic regions of Arkansas, the Ozarks are a mountainous subdivision of the U.S. Interior Highlands, and the Arkansas Delta is a subregion of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, which is a flat area consisting of rich, fertile sediment deposits from the Mississippi River between Louisiana and Illinois. The Black River roughly divides the two regions in Randolph County. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 656.04 square miles (1,699.1 km2), of which 651.83 square miles (1,688.2 km2) is land and 4.21 square miles (10.9 km2) (0.6%) is water.
The county is located approximately 144 miles (232 km) northeast of Little Rock, 108 miles (174 km) northwest of Memphis, Tennessee, and 204 miles (328 km) southwest of St. Louis, Missouri. Randolph County is surrounded by three Delta counties: Clay County to the east, Greene County to the southeast, Lawrence County to the south, one Ozark county, Sharp County, to the west, and two Missouri counties, Oregon County to the northwest, and Ripley County to the northeast.
Water is an extremely important part of Randolph County's geography, history, economy, and culture. The many rivers, streams, and ditches crossing the county have featured prominently since prehistoric times, and many of the hundreds of archaeological sites are along waterways. Tribes of Lenape, Shawnee, and Cherokee were settled in the area along rivers but left the area following the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes.
Randolph County is home to five major rivers: Black River, Current River, Eleven Point River, Fourche River, and Spring River.
Running from east to west toward its own mouth in the southern tip of Randolph County, the Black receives the Current River and Fourche River east of Pocahontas. The Current River serves as the northeastern county boundary with Clay County before turning southwest, passing Reyno and Biggers and meeting the Black east of Pocahontas. The Fourche River enters Randolph County near Doniphan, Missouri and runs south to meet the Black east of Pocahontas. The Black meets the Spring at the southern tip of Randolph County near Black Rock.
The Spring River serves as the county's southwestern boundary with Lawrence County between Davidsonville Historic State Park and Ravenden. The Eleven Point River enters from Missouri near Billmore and runs south to empty into the Spring just west of the state park.
Rivers brought early prosperity to the county during white settlement for navigation. Control of the rivers and Pitman's Ferry lead to military action in the county during the Civil War, including a skirmish in 1862. Following the war, natural hot springs at Warm Springs and Ravenden Springs attracted visitors to the area.
Randolph County contains one state park, Davidsonville Historic State Park, and two Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), Dave Donaldson/Black River WMA and Robert L. Hankins/Mud Creek Upland WMA, owned by the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission.
Black River WMA preserves bottomland hardwood forest habitat and wintering habitat for migratory birds. Created in 1957, Black River WMA contains over 25,000 acres (10,000 ha) total and extends into Clay and Greene counties. Mud Creek Upland WMA was created in 1989 with 1,250 acres (510 ha) of upland hardwood forest. The area is open to birding, hunting, and hiking.
Davidsonville Historic State Park is a 163-acre (66 ha) history state park focused on the interpretation and archaeology of the abandoned frontier town of Davidsonville. Once a very important stop on the Black River and Southwest Trail within Arkansaw Territory, Davidsonville was abandoned by 1836 following the decline of river transport and the shifting of the Southwest Trail. The park is owned and operated by the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism.
|U.S. Decennial Census
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 17,969 people, 7,299 households, and 4,997 families residing in the county. The population density was 27 people per square mile (10.6/km²). There were 8,513 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile (5/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 96.5% White, 0.7% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.7% from other races, and 1.4% from two or more races. 1.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 7,299 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.5% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 27.1% from 45 to 64, and 18.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.9 years. For every 100 females there were 96.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males.
As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 18,195 people, 7,265 households, and 5,245 families residing in the county. The population density was 28 people per square mile (11/km²). There were 8,268 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile (5/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 96.99% White, 0.97% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, and 1.15% from two or more races. 0.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 7,265 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.40% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.80% were non-families. 24.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, and 17.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.50 males.
- See also: Education in Arkansas
Educational attainment in Randolph County is typical for a rural Arkansas county, with a 2012 study finding 82.5% of Randolph County residents over age 25 held a high school degree or higher and 13.4% holding a bachelor's degree or higher. The Randolph County rates are below Arkansas averages of 84.8% and 21.1%, and significantly below national averages of 86.7% and 29.8%, respectively.
Primary and secondary education
Two public school districts are based in Randolph County; the Pocahontas School District is the largest school district in Randolph County, with the Maynard School District serving the northeast corner of the county. Successful completion of the curriculum of these schools leads to graduation from Pocahontas High School or Maynard High School, respectively. Both high schools offer Advanced Placement (AP) courses, concurrent credit agreements with nearby Black River Technical College (BRTC), and are accredited by the Arkansas Department of Education (ADE). Additionally, Pocahontas HS is accredited by AdvancED.
Residents outside the two Randolph County-based districts are within either the Mammoth Spring School District, Sloan-Hendrix School District, Greene County Tech School District, or Corning School District.
Randolph County contains one institution of higher education, Black River Technical College, a public community college in Pocahontas. Other higher education institutions in the region include two member institutions of the Arkansas State University System: Arkansas State University (ASU), a public four-year university in Jonesboro, and a public two-year satellite campus in Newport. Two private, four-year colleges are also nearby Randolph County: Crowley's Ridge College, a Christian liberal arts college in Paragould, and Williams Baptist College in Walnut Ridge.
The Randolph County Library (RCL) in downtown Pocahontas is a member library of the Northeast Arkansas Regional Library System. RCL offers books, e-books, media, reference, youth, business and genealogy services.
Randolph County's above-average poverty rate also indicates a high Medicaid eligibility rate. As of 2012, 38.1% of Randolph County was eligible for Medicaid, with 65.1% of children under 19 eligible for ARKids First, a program by the Arkansas Department of Human Services that combines children's Medicaid (ARKids A) and other programs for families with higher incomes (ARKids B). The county's population is significantly above healthy weight, with 71.7% of adults and 41.2% of children/adolescents ranking as overweight or obese, above the state averages of 67.1% and 39.3%, themselves significantly above national averages of 62.9% and 30.3%, respectively.
The Five Rivers Medical Center in Pocahontas is a community hospital offering acute inpatient care, emergency care, diagnostics, surgery, rehabilitation, therapy, and senior care services. The facility is rated as a Level 4 Trauma Center by the Arkansas Department of Health. St. Bernards Medical Center in Jonesboro is a referral hospital in the region, focusing on heart care, cancer treatment, women's/children's services, and senior services.
The nearest Level 1 Trauma Centers are Le Bonheur Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, both in Memphis.
The Randolph County Sheriff's Office is the primary law enforcement agency in the county. The agency is led by the Randolph County Sheriff, an official elected by countywide vote every four years.
The county is under the jurisdiction of the Randolph County District Court, a local district court. Local district courts in Arkansas are courts of original jurisdiction for criminal, civil, small claims, and traffic matters. Local district courts are presided over by an elected part-time judge who may privately practice law. Randolph County District Court is located at 1510 Pace Road in Pocahontas, and is presided over by the District Judge, who is elected in a countywide election. The court handles within Randolph County.
Superseding district court jurisdiction is the 3th Judicial Circuit Court, which covers Jackson, Lawrence, Randolph, and Sharp counties. The 3rd Circuit contains three circuit judges, elected to six-year terms circuitwide.
Culture and contemporary life
- See also: Culture of Arkansas
Randolph County has several facilities, monuments, and museums dedicated to preserving the history and culture of the area. Several historic log structures remain in the county from the pioneer era. The Rice-Upshaw House, a 1820s-era log cabin near Dalton, is one of the oldest structures in Arkansas. Randolph County also includes Hillyard Cabin and the Looney-French House, both listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The county contains several historic schools and community centers, including Cedar Grove School No. 81, a historic one room schoolhouse now used as a community center, the Eddie Mae Herron Center & Museum, a refurbished black school today serving as a community center and interpretative site, Old Union School in Birdell, and Ravenden Springs School.
- Century Wall Monument, celebration of influential twentieth-century Americans
- Davidsonville Historic State Park
- Maynard Pioneer Museum, celebrates the early settlers
- Old Randolph County Courthouse, restored 1875 courthouse in Pocahontas town square today used by Randolph County Chamber of Commerce
Randolph County is currently an alcohol prohibition or dry county.
Two incorporated cities and four incorporated towns are located within the county. The largest city and county seat, Pocahontas, is located in the south-central part of the county on the Black River. Pocahontas' population in 2010 was 6,608, and has been increasing since the 1960 Census. The county's small towns all have a population under 500 as of the 2010 Census, with Ravenden Springs the smallest at 118 in western Randolph County. The remaining communities are in the Delta portion of the county: Maynard north of Pocahontas, Biggers and Reyno (the other city) along US 67 near the county's eastern border, and O'Kean in the southeastern corner.
Randolph County has dozens of unincorporated communities and ghost towns within its borders. This is due to early settlers in Arkansas tending to settle in small clusters rather than incorporated towns. For example, communities like Davidsonville had a post office and dozens of buildings at some point in their history. Other communities are simply a few dwellings at a crossroads that have adopted a common place name over time. Some are officially listed as populated places by the United States Geological Survey, and others are listed as historic settlements.
- Cedar Grove
- East Pocahontas
- Elkins Park
- Elm Store
- Glaze Creek
- Hoover Landing
- Old Reyno
- Old Siloam
- Stoney Point
- Warm Springs
- Baker Den
- Running Lake
Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas; some may have incorporated cities or towns within part of their boundaries. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships (sometimes referred to as "county subdivisions" or "minor civil divisions"). Townships are also of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research. Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Randolph County are listed below; listed in parentheses are the cities, towns, and/or census-designated places that are fully or partially inside the township.
- Current River (Biggers)
- Demun (Pocahontas)
- East Roanoke
- Eleven Point
- Janes Creek (Ravenden Springs)
- Little Black
- O'Kean (O'Kean)
- Reyno (Reyno)
- Richardson (Maynard)
- Running Lake
- Spring River
- Warm Springs
- Water Valley
- West Roanoke
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