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Augusta, Maine
Kennebec River flowing past Downtown Augusta
Kennebec River flowing past Downtown Augusta
Flag of Augusta, Maine
Official seal of Augusta, Maine
"A Capital Opportunity"
Location in Kennebec County in Maine
Location in Kennebec County in Maine
Augusta, Maine is located in Maine
Augusta, Maine
Augusta, Maine
Location in Maine
Augusta, Maine is located in the United States
Augusta, Maine
Augusta, Maine
Location in the United States
Country  United States
State  Maine
County Kennebec
Settled 1754
Incorporated (town) February 20, 1797
Incorporated (city) August 20, 1849
Village North Augusta
 • Total 58.04 sq mi (150.31 km2)
 • Land 55.15 sq mi (142.83 km2)
 • Water 2.89 sq mi (7.48 km2)  5.00%
68 ft (20 m)
 • Total 18,899
 • Density 342.70/sq mi (132.32/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP Codes
04330, 04332-04333, 04336, 04338
Area code(s) 207
FIPS code 23-02100
GNIS feature ID 581636
Website City of Augusta, Maine

Augusta is the state capital of the U.S. state of Maine and the county seat of Kennebec County.

The city's population was 18,899 at the 2020 census, making it the third-least populous state capital in the United States after Montpelier, Vermont, and Pierre, South Dakota. It is the ninth-most populous city in Maine.

Located on the Kennebec River at the head of tide, Augusta is home to the University of Maine at Augusta. It is the principal city in the Augusta-Waterville Micropolitan Statistical Area. It is 109 miles from the mouth of the Kennebec at the Gulf of Maine.


The area was first explored by the ill-fated Popham Colony in September 1607. It was first inhabited by English settlers from the Plymouth Colony in 1629 as a trading post on the Kennebec River. The settlement was known by its Indian name—Cushnoc (or Coussinoc or Koussinoc), meaning "head of tide." Fur trading was at first profitable, but with Indian uprisings and declining revenues, the Plymouth Colony sold the Kennebec Patent in 1661. Cushnoc would remain unoccupied for the next 75 years. This area was inhabited by the Canibas Indians. During the 17th century they were on friendly terms with the English settlers in the region.

A hotbed of Abenaki hostility toward British settlements was located further up the Kennebec at Norridgewock. In 1722, the tribe and its allies attacked Fort Richmond (now Richmond) and destroyed Brunswick. In response, Norridgewock was sacked in 1724 during Dummer's War, when English forces gained tentative control of the Kennebec. In 1754, a blockhouse named Fort Western (now the oldest wooden fort in America), was built at Cushnoc on the eastern bank. It was intended as a supply depot for Fort Halifax upriver, as well as to protect its own region. In 1775, Benedict Arnold and his 1,100 troops would use Fort Western as a staging area before continuing their journey up the Kennebec to the Battle of Quebec.

Cushnoc was incorporated as part of Hallowell in 1771. Known as "the Fort," it was set off and incorporated by the Massachusetts General Court in February 1797 as Harrington. In August, however, the name changed to Augusta after Augusta Dearborn, daughter of Henry Dearborn. In 1799, it became county seat for newly created Kennebec County. Maine became a state in 1820 and Augusta was designated its capital in 1827. The Maine State Legislature continued meeting in Portland, however, until completion in 1832 of the new Maine State House designed by Charles Bulfinch. Augusta was chartered as a city in 1849. After being named the state capital and the introduction of new industry, the city flourished. In 1840 and 1850, the city ranked among the 100 largest urban populations. The next decade, however, the city was quickly bypassed by rapidly growing metropolises in the Midwest.

Excellent soil provided for agriculture, and water power from streams provided for industry. In 1837, a dam was built across the Kennebec where the falls drop 15 feet at the head of tide. By 1838, 10 sawmills were contracted. With the arrival of the Kennebec & Portland Railroad in 1851, Augusta became an even more productive mill town. In 1883, the property of A. & W. Sprague Company was purchased by the Edwards Manufacturing Company, which erected extensive brick mills for manufacturing cotton textiles. In the late 19th century, a paper and pulp plant was constructed. Other Augusta firms produced lumber, sash, doors, window shutters, broom handles, stone cutters' tools, shoes, headstones, ice and furniture. The city developed as a publishing and shipping center. Today, government and post-secondary education are important businesses.

In the 19th century, Augusta got a regular steamboat service and the railroad. The city installed gas lights in 1859. A telephone service was available in 1880 and a local hospital in 1898. In the early 20th century, Augusta built two movie houses and a film production studio.

For much of Augusta's history, the central business district was on and near Water Street on the west bank of the Kennebec River. The street, laid out in the late 1700s, was also the location of many of the government buildings. As the city grew and spread out the local government buildings moved further away from the business district. Many fires damaged this concentrated area, including one significant fire in 1865 that destroyed nearly 100 buildings. In 1890, the first trolley line began operation down Water Street, connecting Augusta with Gardiner and Hallowell to the south. In 1932, buses replaced the trolley line. With the completion of the Maine Turnpike and Interstate 95 in 1955, local commercial developments began to move away from Water Street and closer to the highway.

Since the 1980s, there has been an attempt by city officials to revitalize the downtown area. Historian Dan Holcomb noted "they don't say Augusta it's Auguster," in reference to his observation of the local dialect, noting that it had become pervasive and widespread throughout central to northern Maine by the mid to late 1980s. Surviving mill and factory buildings have been redeveloped into housing. The dam on the Kennebec was removed in 1999 and the area around the dam has been turned into a city park. The city hall and other local government departments were relocated to the eastern bank of the river in the 1980s.

Since the mid-eighteenth century, there has been a military presence in Augusta. Fort Western has not had troops garrisoned there since the 1790s, but in 1828, the U.S. Government built an arsenal to protect their interests from Britain. During the Civil War, Augusta was a rendezvous point for soldiers traveling to the front. Many of the soldiers camped on the green in front of the capitol building. In 1862, Camp E.D. Keyes was established in the northwestern portion of the city. During World War I, Camp Keyes was used as a mobilization and training camp for soldiers. The camp eventually became a headquarters for the Maine National Guard. In 1929, the state legislature approved the placement of the Augusta State Airport next to the camp. As the airport grew, the use of the camp as a training facility was no longer possible. Today, it is still used for administrative and logistical purposes by the National Guard.



Augusta is located at 44°18′26″N 69°46′54″W / 44.30722°N 69.78167°W / 44.30722; -69.78167, making it the easternmost state capital in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 58.03 square miles (150.30 km2), of which 55.13 square miles (142.79 km2) is land and 2.90 square miles (7.51 km2) is water. Augusta is drained by Bond's Brook, Woromontogus Stream and the Kennebec River.


The city is crossed by Interstate 95, U.S. Route 201, State Route 11, U.S. Route 202, State Route 9, State Route 3, State Route 100, State Route 27, State Route 8, State Route 104, and State Route 105.


Augusta borders the towns of Manchester to its west, Sidney and Vassalboro to its north, Windsor to its east, Chelsea to its south, and the city of Hallowell to its southwest.


Augusta's climate is classified as a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb). Summers are typically warm, rainy, and humid, while winters are cold, windy, and snowy. Spring and fall are usually mild, but conditions are widely varied, depending on wind direction and jet stream positioning. The hottest month is July, with an average high temperature of 80 °F (26.7 °C). The coldest month is January, with an average low of 10 °F (−12.2 °C). Most snowfall occurs from December through March. There is usually little or no snow in April and November, and snow is rare in May and October.

Climate data for Augusta, Maine (Augusta State Airport), 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 61
Average high °F (°C) 27.6
Daily mean °F (°C) 19.3
Average low °F (°C) 11.0
Record low °F (°C) -33
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.61
Snowfall inches (cm) 20.0
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.3 9.1 11.0 11.8 13.5 12.9 11.8 10.2 10.2 11.4 11.8 11.4 135.4
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 8.6 7.2 6.3 2.0 .1 0 0 0 0 .3 2.7 6.8 33.7
Source: NOAA


Historical population
Census Pop.
1800 1,211
1810 1,805 49.1%
1820 2,457 36.1%
1830 3,980 62.0%
1840 5,314 33.5%
1850 8,225 54.8%
1860 7,609 −7.5%
1870 7,808 2.6%
1880 8,665 11.0%
1890 10,527 21.5%
1900 11,683 11.0%
1910 13,211 13.1%
1920 14,114 6.8%
1930 17,198 21.9%
1940 19,360 12.6%
1950 20,913 8.0%
1960 21,680 3.7%
1970 21,945 1.2%
1980 21,819 −0.6%
1990 21,325 −2.3%
2000 18,560 −13.0%
2010 19,136 3.1%
2020 18,899 −1.2%
U.S. Decennial Census

2010 census

As of the census of 2010, there were 19,136 people, 8,802 households, and 4,490 families residing in the city. The population density was 347.1/sq mi (134.0/km2). There were 9,756 housing units at an average density of 177.0/sq mi (68.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 94.1% White, 1.1% African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, and 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population.

There were 8,802 households, of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.2% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 49.0% were non-families. 39.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.76.

The median age in the city was 43.2 years. 18.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26% were from 25 to 44; 29.4% were from 45 to 64; and 18% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.6% male and 51.4% female.

Sites of interest


There are five public schools, one private school, and one college (the University of Maine at Augusta). There are two public libraries in Augusta.

Farrington, Gilbert, Hussey, and Lincoln are the four public elementary schools that are located in the city.

Cony serves students in grades 7–12 from Augusta and the surrounding towns; Cony comprises Cony Middle School and Cony High School.

St. Michaels is a private Catholic school; it charges tuition to its students.

The University of Maine at Augusta is third-largest university in the University of Maine System.

The Maine State Library and Lithgow Public Library are both located in Augusta.


Interstate 95 runs by the western outskirts of Augusta. U.S. 202 runs east-west through the city. U.S. 201 runs north-south through the city.

Augusta State Airport in the western part of the city has commercial flights.

Notable people

Old Fort Western
A View of Old Fort Western.
  • Ambrose Abbott, state legislator
  • Martha Ballard, midwife
  • James G. Blaine, Secretary of State and presidential nominee
  • Horatio Bridge, navy officer
  • Julia Clukey, 2010 Olympic luger
  • Beverly Daggett, President of the Maine Senate
  • Olive E. Dana, short-story writer, essayist, poet
  • Melville Fuller, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court
  • George Huntington Hartford, owned the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, the country's largest food retailer at the time of his death
  • John F. Hill, former Maine governor
  • Robert Deniston Hume, Oregon politician and businessman
  • Eastman Johnson, artist
  • Roger Katz, mayor of Augusta and state legislator
  • George W. Ladd, U.S. congressman
  • Dorianne Laux, poet
  • Sumner Lipman, state legislator and attorney
  • Ben Lucas, football player
  • Henry A. McMasters, recipient of the Medal of Honor
  • Rachel Nichols, actress
  • Frederick G. Payne, Mayor of Augusta and 60th governor of Maine
  • David Peoples, athlete and golfer
  • Frederick W. Plaisted, mayor of Augusta, 48th governor of Maine
  • John F. Potter, U.S. congressman, judge
  • Travis Roy, hockey player
  • Luther Severance, publisher, U.S. congressman and senator
  • Olympia Snowe, U.S. senator
  • John L. Stevens, U.S. minister to Kingdom of Hawaii, accused of attempting to overthrow Hawaiian queen, 1893
  • Manch Wheeler, quarterback with the Buffalo Bills
  • Gil Whitney, television news anchorman and meteorologist
  • Reuel Williams, U.S. senator
  • Willard G. Wyman, general

Images for kids

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Augusta (Maine) para niños

National Hispanic Heritage Month on Kiddle
Notable Hispanic writers
Marie Arana
Sandra Cisneros
Sergio Troncoso
Nina Serrano
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