Chesapeake, Virginia facts for kids

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Chesapeake, Virginia
Independent city
City of Chesapeake
Great Dismal Swamp Canal
Great Dismal Swamp Canal
Flag of Chesapeake, Virginia
Flag
Official seal of Chesapeake, Virginia
Seal
Motto: "One Increasing Purpose"
Location in the State of Virginia
Location in the State of Virginia
Country  United States
State  Virginia
County None (Independent city)
Founded 1963 (1919 as South Norfolk, became city in 1922)
Area
 • Independent city 910 km2 (351 sq mi)
 • Land 880 km2 (341 sq mi)
 • Water 0 km2 (10 sq mi)  2.9%
Population (2014)
 • Independent city 233,479
 • Density 252/km2 (652/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,672,319
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 23320-23328
Area code(s) 757
FIPS code 51-16000
GNIS feature ID 1496841
Website www.cityofchesapeake.net

Chesapeake is an independent city located in the U.S. commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 222,209; in 2013, the population was estimated to be 232,977, making it the third-most populous city in Virginia.

Chesapeake is included in the Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News, VA–NC MSA. One of the cities in the South Hampton Roads, Chesapeake was organized in 1963 by voter referendums approving the political consolidation of the city of South Norfolk with the remnants of the former Norfolk County, which dated to 1691. (Much of the territory of the county had been annexed by other cities.) Chesapeake is the second-largest city by land area in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Chesapeake is a diverse city in which a few urban areas are located; it also has many square miles of protected farmland, forests, and wetlands, including a substantial portion of the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Extending from the rural border with North Carolina to the harbor area of Hampton Roads adjacent to the cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach, Chesapeake is located on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. It has miles of waterfront industrial, commercial and residential property.

In 2011, Chesapeake was named the 21st best city in America by Bloomberg Businessweek.

History

Norfolk
Norfolk County, Virginia (from 1895 map), existed from 1691-1963, now extinct

In 1963, the new independent city of Chesapeake was created when the former independent city of South Norfolk consolidated with Norfolk County. The consolidation was approved and the new name selected by the voters of each community by referendum, and authorized by the Virginia General Assembly.

Formed in 1691 in the Virginia Colony, Norfolk County had originally included essentially all the area which became the towns and later cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth, and South Norfolk. Its area was reduced after 1871 as these cities added territory through annexations. Becoming an independent city was a method for the former county to stabilize borders with neighbors, as cities could not annex territory from each other.

The relatively small city of South Norfolk had become an incorporated town within Norfolk County in 1919, and became an independent city in 1922. Its residents wanted to make a change to put their jurisdiction on a more equal footing in other aspects with the much larger cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth. In addition, by the late 1950s, although immune from annexation by the bigger cities, South Norfolk was close to losing all the county land adjoining it to the city of Norfolk in another annexation suit.

The consolidation that resulted in the city of Chesapeake was part of a wave of changes in the structure of local government in southeastern Virginia which took place between 1952 and 1975.

The Chesapeake region was among the first areas settled in the state's colonial era, when settlement started from the coast. Along Chesapeake's segment of the Intracoastal Waterway, where the Great Bridge locks marks the transition between the Southern Branch Elizabeth River and the Chesapeake and Albemarle Canal, lies the site of the Battle of Great Bridge. Fought on December 9, 1775, in the early days of the American Revolutionary War, the battle resulted in the removal of Lord Dunmore and all vestiges of English Government from the Colony and Dominion of Virginia.

Dismal Swamp01
Photograph of Lake Drummond, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia

Until the late 1980s and early 1990s, much of Chesapeake was either suburban or rural, serving as a bedroom community of the adjacent cities of Norfolk and Virginia Beach with residents commuting to these locations. Beginning in the late 1980s and accelerating in the 1990s, however, Chesapeake saw significant growth, attracting numerous and significant industries and businesses of its own. This explosive growth quickly led to strains on the municipal infrastructure, ranging from intrusion of saltwater into the city's water supply to congested roads and schools.

Chesapeake made national headlines in 2003 when, under a court-ordered change of venue, the community hosted the first trial of alleged Beltway sniper Lee Boyd Malvo for shootings in 2002. A jury convicted him of murder but spared him a potential death sentence; it chose a sentence of "life in prison without parole" for the young man, who was 17 years old at the time of the crime spree. A jury in neighboring Virginia Beach convicted his older partner John Allen Muhammad and sentenced him to death for another of the attacks.

Geography

Chesapeake is located at Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:mw' not found. (36.767398, -76.287405).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 351 square miles (910 km2), of which 341 square miles (880 km2) is land and 10 square miles (26 km2) (2.9%) is water.

The northeastern part of the Great Dismal Swamp is located in Chesapeake.

Diverse environment

Chesapeake is one of the larger cities in Virginia and the nation in terms of land area. This poses challenges to city leaders in supporting infrastructure to serve this area. In addition, the city has many historically and geographically distinct communities. City leaders are faced with conflicts between development of residential, commercial and industrial areas and preservation of virgin forest and wetlands. Within the city limits in the southwestern section is a large portion of the Great Dismal Swamp.

Adjacent counties and cities

Communities

Chesapeake is formally divided politically into six boroughs: South Norfolk, Pleasant Grove, Butts Road, Deep Creek, Washington, and Western Branch.

Of the current boroughs, one, South Norfolk, was formerly a separate incorporated town and independent city for much of the 20th century. Within the other boroughs, a number of communities also developed. Some of these include:

  • Benefit (Pleasant Grove Borough)
  • Bower's Hill (notable as a major highway junction)
  • Buell
  • Camelot (Western Branch Borough)
  • Crestwood (Washington Borough)
  • Deep Creek (Deep Creek Borough)
  • Eva Gardens (Crestwood community, Washington Borough)
  • Fentress (Butts Road Borough)
  • Gertie
  • Gilmerton
  • Grassfield (Deep Creek Borough)
  • Great Bridge
  • Greenbrier (Washington Borough)
  • Hickory (Pleasant Grove Borough)
  • Hodges Ferry
  • Indian River (Washington Borough)
  • Mount Pleasant (Pleasant Grove Borough)
  • Northwest
  • Oak Grove
  • Oaklette
  • Portlock
  • South Norfolk (South Norfolk Borough)
  • Wallaceton

Climate

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Chesapeake has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1960 73,647
1970 89,580 21.6%
1980 114,486 27.8%
1990 151,976 32.7%
2000 199,184 31.1%
2010 222,209 11.6%
Est. 2015 235,429 5.9%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790-1960 1900-1990
1990-2000
[1]
USA Chesapeake city, Virginia age pyramid
Age distribution in Chesapeake

As of the census of 2010, there were 222,209 people, 69,900 households, and 54,172 families residing in the city. The population density was 584.6 people per square mile (225.7/km²). There were 72,672 housing units at an average density of 213.3 per square mile (82.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 62.6% White, 29.8% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. 4.4% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. According to 2012 estimates 59.7% of the population is non-Hispanic white.

There were 69,900 households out of which 41.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.7% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.5% were non-families. 18.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.17.

The age distribution was: 28.8% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $50,743, and the median income for a family was $56,302. Males had a median income of $39,204 versus $26,391 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,949. About 6.1% of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.7% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.

Points of interest

  • Chesapeake Arboretum
  • Chesapeake and Albemarle Canal
  • Dismal Swamp Canal

In popular culture

In 2015, in honor of the game's 80th birthday, Hasbro held an online vote in order to determine which cities would make it into an updated version of the Monopoly Here and Now: The US Edition of the game. Chesapeake, Virginia won the wildcard round, earning it a brown spot.

Images for kids


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