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Penge
Penge Congregational Church.jpg
Congregational Church, Penge
Penge is located in Greater London
Penge
Penge
OS grid reference TQ345705
• Charing Cross 7.1 mi (11.4 km) NNW
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SE20
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament
  • Lewisham West and Penge
London Assembly
  • Bexley and Bromley
List of places
UK
England
London
51°25′01″N 0°03′43″W / 51.417°N 0.062°W / 51.417; -0.062
Penge Watermen's Almshouses
The Watermen's Almshouses

Penge is an area of South East London, England, in the London Borough of Bromley, 3.5 miles (5.6 km) west of Bromley, 3.7 miles (6.0 km) north east of Croydon and 7.1 miles (11.4 km) south east of Charing Cross.

History

Penge was once a small town, which was recorded under the name Penceat in an Anglo-Saxon deed dating from 957. Most historians believe the name of the town is derived from the Celtic word Penceat which means "edge of wood" and refers to the fact that the surrounding area was once covered in a dense forest. The original Celtic words of which the name was composed referred to "pen" ("head"), as in the Welsh "pen", and "ceat" ("wood"), similar to the Welsh "coed", as in the name of the town of Pencoed in Wales.

Pensgreene and the Crooked Billet

Penge was an inconspicuous area with few residents before the arrival of the railways. A traveller passing through Penge would have noticed the large green with a small inn on its boundary. Penge Green appears as Pensgreene on Kip's 1607 map. The green was bounded to the north by Penge Lane, the west by Beckenham Road and the southeast by the Crooked Billet. On a modern map that area is very small area but the modern day Penge Lane and Crooked Billet are not in their original locations and Beckenham Road would have been little more than a cart track following the property line on the west side of Penge High Street. Penge Lane was the road from Penge to Sydenham which is now named St John's Road and Newlands Park Road. There was also an old footpath crossing the Green leading to Sydenham that was known as Old Penge Lane. After the London, Chatham and Dover Railway was built, Penge Lane crossed the line by level crossing. When this crossing was closed Penge Lane was renamed and Old Penge Lane became the present day Penge Lane.

The 1868 Ordnance Survey map shows the Old Crooked Billet located to the southeast of the current location. This earlier location was on the eastward side of Penge Green, which disappeared as a result of The Penge Enclosure Act, 1827 which enclosed the whole Green. This left the Crooked Billet with no frontage to Beckenham Road, so new premises were constructed on the present site in 1827 and subsequently replaced in 1840 with a three-storey building. This was severely damaged by enemy action in World War II and subsequently rebuilt.

The Crooked Billet is by far the oldest public house in Penge. Peter Abbott states that it was there in 1601 and speculates that it might be much more ancient. In modern times it is particularly well known for lending its name as a bus route terminus. From 1914 General Omnibus routes 109 and 609 both operated between Bromley Market and the Crooked Billet following different routes. The 109 was renumbered 227 by London Transport and continued to terminate at the Crooked Billet. (Route 609 was shortened terminating in Beckenham ). Around 1950 some services were extended past the Crooked Billet to the Crystal Palace. Eventually nearly all buses traveled the extended route. The 354 buses now use the terminus, as do so short running buses on route 194 which carry the destination 'Penge High Street'.

William Hone wrote about a visit to the Crooked Billet in 1827 and included a detailed sketch of the last building on the original site.

Expansion

The London and Croydon Canal was built across Penge Common along what is now the line of the railway through Penge West railway station, deviating to the south before Anerley railway station. There is a remnant at the northern corner of Betts Park, Anerley. Following the closure of the canal, the London and Croydon Railway was built largely along the same course, opening in 1839. Isambard Kingdom Brunel built an Atmospheric Railway along this alignment as far as Croydon. The Crystal Palace pneumatic railway underground between the Sydenham and Penge entrances to Crystal Palace park operated for a short while but proved not to be economically viable..

In the Victorian era, Penge developed into a fashionable suburb because of the railway line and its proximity to the relocated Crystal Palace. It became a fashionable day out to visit the Crystal Palace during the day and to take the tram down the hill to one of the 'twenty-five pubs to the square mile' or two Music Halls—The King's Hall (later the Gaumont cinema) and. in 1915. the Empire Theatre (later the Essoldo cinema).

By 1862 Stanford's map of London shows large homes had been constructed along Penge New Road (now Crystal Palace Park Road, Sydenham and Penge High Street), Thick Wood (now Thicket) Road and Anerley Road. This all came to an end in 1875 and 1877 with the notorious Penge murders. In 1875 Frederick Hunt murdered his wife and children then in 1877 a wealthy heiress, Harriet Staunton, together with her infant son, was starved to death by her husband and his associates. In 1934, Elizabeth Jenkins published the novel Harriet, based on the case, whilst Forbes Road was renamed to Mosslea Road because of its connection with the murders.

Geography

It borders the London Borough of Lewisham. It lies west of Bromley and north east of Croydon, and is located 7.1 miles (11.4 km) southeast of Charing Cross. The largest amosite mine in the world, in South Africa, was named Penge because apparently one of the British directors thought the two areas were similar in appearance.

Nearby areas

Culture and community

  • Penge is home to a number of taverns and public houses, indeed it was noted in Victorian times for its '25 pubs to the square mile'. The Crooked Billet is by far the oldest.
  • The Pawleyne Arms is currently the terminus for the 176 bus service. It was previously an intermediate turning point for short running buses on the 12, 75 and 194 bus services, becoming the southern terminus for route 12 between 1986 and 1988 when the route was again shortened.
  • The public houses in Maple Road have nearly all changed their names. The Dew Drop Inn was known as The Market Tavern (and featured in the television series The Bill as the Market Tavern in Canley Market) before its closure. The London Tavern became The Hop Exchange and then The Hop House. As of 2006, it was closed, and as of 2009 the pub's facade has been removed and the building is undergoing conversion into residential accommodations. The Lord Palmerston has been delicensed and is now a pizza outlet. The King William IV became The Crown and is now The Maple Tree. Only The Golden Lion has retained its name, although it has extended its premises substantially; it was listed in every edition of the Good Beer Guide from 1976 to 1987.
  • Other public houses in the area include: The Goldsmith Arms, Bridge House Tavern, Queen Adelaide Arms (closed 2010), The Alexandra (due to reopen in late 2015 or early 2016), Graces (formerly Dr W G Grace), Kent House Tavern, Robin Hood (closed, subsequently destroyed by fire in 2006 and demolished), Royal Oak (closed 2011), The Mitre, The Goat House (destroyed by fire and now demolished), The Waterman's Arms (now Superdrug), The Anchor (closed circa 1910), The General Simpson (closed), The General Jackson (closed), The Retreat (closed), The Cornish Arms (closed), The Railway Bell (closed), The Thicket Tavern and Hollywood East (formerly The Park Tavern). The last named was the venue for the inquest into the Murder of Harriet Staunton in 1877.
  • Penge also has several clubs including a Conservative Club. The Penge & District Trade Union & Labour Social Club (CIU) built by local tradesmen in 1922, the former Liberal Club closed in 2005.

Community facilities

Fragments of the original Penge Common still survive as Betts Park and Cator Park. Winsford Gardens formed part of the grounds of Chesham Park and later Winsford House.

Landmarks

Royal Waterman`s Almhouses, Penge
Waterman's Almhouses in 1890
  • There are several Victorian almshouses in Penge, the oldest being the Royal Watermen's Almshouses, built around 1840 by the Company of Watermen and Lightermen of the City of London for retired company Freemen and their widows. It is also known as the Free Watermen and Lightermen's Almshouses on Beckenham Road, built 1840–1841 to designs by George Porter. It is the most prominent building in Penge, Kent. In 1973, the residents were moved to a new site in Hastings, and the original buildings were converted into private homes.
  • The Queen Adelaide Almshouses, also known as the King William Naval Asylum, St. John’s Road, founded 1847 and built in 1848 to designs by Philip Hardwick at the request and expense of Queen Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, the widow of King William IV, to provide shelter for twelve widows or orphan daughters of naval officers. Again, the almshouses are now in private residences.
  • St. John's Cottages on Maple Road were built as almshouses in 1863, designed by the architect Edwin Nash. As with their predecessors, the cottages are now privately owned homes. On New Years Day 1959 No.8 was destroyed by a gas explosion killing one person. The cottage was rebuilt to closely resemble the original.
  • The Police Station at the corner of the High Street and Green Lane is believed to have been London's oldest working police station when it was closed in 2010.
  • When completed in 1956 the Crystal Palace Transmitter was the tallest structure in the UK, a record it lost to the Anglia Television transmitter at Belmont, Lincolnshire in 1959. It remained the tallest structure in the London area until 1991.

Transport

Rail

Penge West station serves the area with National Rail services to London Bridge. All services from London Bridge continue to Anerley and Norwood Junction. Most weekday London Bridge services are extended to East Croydon and have ultimate destinations of East Croydon, South Croydon, Epsom or Purley. On Saturdays the ultimate destination is Coulsdon Town. Sunday services terminate at Caterham or Tattenham Corner. Penge West station is also served by London Overground services to Dalston Junction and West Croydon.

Penge East and Kent House also serve the area with National Rail services to London Victoria, Bromley South and Orpington. On Sundays some services are extended beyond Orpington to Sevenoaks.

Buses

Penge is served by London Buses routes 75, 176, 194, 197, 227, 354, 356, 358 and N3. These connect it with areas including Beckenham, Bromley, Camberwell, Catford, Central London, Croydon, Crystal Palace, Elephant & Castle, Elmers End, Farnborough, Forest Hill, Lewisham, Orpington, Peckham, Shirley, South Norwood, Sydenham and West Wickham.

Road

Three A roads, the A213, A214 and A234 pass through the area. The A213 intersects with the A234 at the Pawleyne Arms and the A214 at the Robin Hood.

Religious sites

St. John the Evangelist's Church, Penge, Beckenham Road, built 1850 to designs by Edwin Nash & J. N. Round Penge Congregational Church, built 1912 to designs by P. Morley Horder with passage aisles and clerestory. Shafts on large, excellently carved corbels. and has a stained glass window by William Morris.

Sport

Crystal Palace Park contains the National Sports Centre, which includes an international-class athletic stadium, and a former motorsport circuit that was used in the 1969 film The Italian Job. The Crystal Palace Park once housed a football ground, which hosted the FA Cup final from 1895 to 1914, as well as London County Cricket Club games from 1900 to 1908, when the club folded, and Crystal Palace FC's matches from their formation in 1905 until the club was forced to relocate during the First World War. Other facilities include Alexandra Recreation Ground, Penge Recreation Ground and Royston Playing Fields. There is a municipal golf course across the borough boundary in Beckenham Place Park.

Education

St Johns C.E. Primary School was originally part of the Old Penge Chapel, which opened in 1837. Early in the 1850s, following the completion of St John the Evangelist, the school took over the entire old chapel building. The school's site was extended in 1977, and a new school building was opened in September 1978.

The Beckenham and Penge County Grammar School for boys, formerly the Beckenham Technical Institute which opened in 1901, moved to a new site on Penge High Street between Kent House Road and Kingsdale Road in 1931. It moved from Penge to its present location in Eden Park, Beckenham, in January 1969.

Notable residents

  • Thomas Crapper (1836-1910), the famous Victorian manufacturing plumber, retired to live at 12 Thornsett Road (c. 1897–1910). He is commonly, but erroneously, credited with inventing the flush toilet. He did however develop the U-bend, a significant improvement on the S-bend, which the BBC has nominated as one of the 50 Things That (have) Made the Modern Economy.
  • Barbara Strang (1925-1982), an English language scholar was born here in 1925.
  • Joseph Petrus Hendrik Crowe (1826-1876), Victoria Cross recipient, died at Penge in 1876.
  • Walter de la Mare (1873-1956), famous poet and author of ghost stories, resided at 195 Mackenzie Road, Beckenham (1899–1908) then moved to 5 Worbeck Road (1908–1912) and 14 Thornsett Road (1912–1925).
  • John Freeman (1880-1929), Georgian poet and essayist. He was a friend of Walter de la Mare.
  • Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), French impressionist painter, lived in Penge in the 1870s.
  • H. T. Muggeridge (1864-1942), British politician, father of Malcolm Muggeridge
  • Malcolm Muggeridge (1903-1990), British journalist, author, satirist, media personality, soldier-spy and latterly Christian apologist.
  • Andrew Bonar Law (1858-1923), Prime Minister, who was the Member of Parliament for Dulwich and lived in Oakfield Road in Penge.
  • John Clunies-Ross (1786-1854), first King of the Cocos Islands
  • Tom Hood (1835–1874), author, playwright and editor of Fun magazine lived at 12 Queen Adelaide Road.
  • Helena Normanton (1882–1957), was the first woman to practise as a barrister in the UK.
  • Herbert Strudwick (1880-1970), Surrey and England wicket-keeper, lived at 4 Worbeck Road.
  • Bill Wyman (born 1936), bassist with The Rolling Stones, lived in Penge as a child.
  • Frank Spencer (died 1988), band leader, and his wife Peggy Spencer (1920-2016), choreographer (both MBE), were regular contributors to the BBC TV show Come Dancing in the 1960s and 1970s, and lived at 12 Percy Road.
  • George Daniels, CBE (1926–2010), watchmaker and inventor of the Coaxial escapement as used by Omega watches, lived in Thornsett Road and is commemorated by a blue plaque.
  • Monica Furlong (1930–2003), celebrated religious affairs correspondent, journalist and novelist lived in Station Road and once edited Spire, the magazine of Holy Trinity Church, Lennard Road.
  • Arthur Carnall (1853–1904), composer and organist, lived at 20 Avington Grove. For many years he was the organist of St John the Evangelist Church on Penge High Street. His music has seen a revival and is played and recorded throughout Europe.

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