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Bromley
Market Square, Bromley - geograph.org.uk - 1162719.jpg
Market Square, Bromley
Bromley shown within Greater London
Population 71,983 (five wards 2011)
OS grid reference TQ405695
• Charing Cross 9.3 mi (15.0 km) NW
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town BROMLEY
Postcode district BR1
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament
  • Bromley and Chislehurst
London Assembly
  • Bexley and Bromley
List of places
UK
England
London

Bromley is a large suburban town, the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Bromley in Greater London, England, United Kingdom. It was historically a market town chartered since 1158 and an ancient parish in the county of Kent. Its location on a coaching route and the opening of a railway station in 1858 were key to its development, and the economic history of Bromley is underpinned by a shift from an agrarian village to commerce and retail. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Bromley significantly increased in population and was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1903. It has developed into one of a handful of regionally significant commercial and retail districts outside central London and has formed part of Greater London since 1965, but is still considered by some to be part of Kent because of the postal county. Most of Bromley including the town centre falls under the BR1 postcode district, whereas areas to the west towards Shortlands are part of BR2 instead.

History

Bromley is first recorded in a charter of 862 as Bromleag and means 'woodland clearing where broom grows'. It shares this Old English etymology with Great Bromley in Essex, but not with the Bromley in Tower Hamlets.

The history of Bromley is closely connected with the See of Rochester. In AD 862 Ethelbert, the King of Kent, granted land to form the Manor of Bromley. It was held by the Bishops of Rochester until 1845, when Coles Child, a wealthy local merchant and philanthropist, purchased Bromley Palace (now the hub of the Bromley Civic Centre) and became lord of the manor. The town was an important coaching stop on the way to Hastings from London, and the now defunct Royal Bell Hotel (just off Market Square) is referred to in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. It was a quiet rural village until the arrival of the railway in 1858 in Shortlands, which led to rapid growth, and outlying suburban districts such as Bickley (which later overflowed into Bromley Common) were developed to accommodate those wishing to live so conveniently close to London.

Bromley, also known as Bromley St Peter and St Paul, formed an ancient parish in the Bromley and Beckenham hundred and the Sutton-at-Hone lathe of Kent. In 1840 it became part of the expanded Metropolitan Police District. The parish adopted the Local Government Act 1858 and a local board was formed in 1867. The board was reconstituted as Bromley Urban District Council in 1894 and the parish became Bromley Urban District. It formed part of the London Traffic Area from 1924 and the London Passenger Transport Area from 1933. In 1934, as part of a county review order, the borough was expanded by taking in 1,894 acres (7.66 km2) from the disbanded Bromley Rural District; an area including parts of the parishes of Farnborough, Hayes, Keston and West Wickham. Bromley became part of the newly created Greater London in 1965, in the new London Borough of Bromley.

Geography

Bromley is located 9.3 miles (15 km) south east of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Bromley is a post town in the BR postcode area, consisting of BR1 and part of the BR2 postcode district. BR1 covers Bromley, Bickley, Sundridge Park and part of Downham; and the BR2 portion covers Hayes, Shortlands, Bickley and Bromley Common.

Other nearby areas:

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).

Transport

Bromley North Railway Station - geograph.org.uk - 1161717
Bromley North Railway Station

Rail

Bromley is served by two rail stations:

Bromley South station with services to London Victoria nonstop or, via Herne Hill // Kentish Town via Blackfriars and also London St.Pancras (Intl) // trains are available to many other stations incl. Orpington, Sevenoaks via Swanley, Gillingham, Ashford International via Maidstone East and a splitting service to Ramsgate and Dover Priory via Chatham.

Bromley North station with services to London Bridge and Charing Cross by changing at Grove Park.

Buses

Bromley is served by many Transport for London services and an Arriva Kent route, these connect it with areas including Beckenham, Bexleyheath, Catford, Chislehurst, Croydon, Crystal Palace, Eltham, Hayes, Lewisham, New Addington, Orpington, Penge, Sevenoaks, Sidcup, Tonbridge, Tunbridge Wells and West Wickham.

Culture

Bromley has a number of theatres, the most notable being the Churchill Theatre in the town centre and the Bromley Little Theatre close to Bromley North railway station. The Churchill Theatre was opened on 19 July 1977 by HRH Prince of Wales, and seats 785. It is run on a contract currently held by the Ambassador Theatre Group acting as both a receiving and producing house, with productions transferring to the West End or touring nationally. An example being recent tours of The Rocky Horror Picture Show. Bromley also has a central library in the same building as the Churchill Theatre with a large book stock, Internet and wifi access, reference library and local studies department. It functions as the central library of the broader Bromley Borough Libraries Service. Empire Cinemas own a four-screen site in Bromley, with screen 1 being its biggest with a capacity of 392. Screens 2 and 3 have disabled access.

Bromley also has the cultural distinctiveness of having its own Morris team, The Ravensbourne Morris Men. Founded in 1947 as a post war revival team following an inaugural meeting at the then Jean's Café, which was located opposite Bromley South Station.

Popular culture

In the famous Monty Python Spam sketch Bromley was stated to be the location of the fictional Green Midget Café, where every item on the menu was composed of spam in varying degrees. In another Monty Python sketch it was stated that all seven continents are visible from the top of the Kentish Times building in Bromley.

The Mall in Bromley appeared on the cover of the 1982 album Sounds Like Bromley by Bromley born Billy Jenkins. The picture is of the rear of the then Bromley Toy Fayre, Bramber Womenswear and car park above a supermarket.

Sport and leisure

The town has four Non-League football clubs. Two teams play their home games at the Hayes Lane Stadium: Bromley F.C. and Cray Wanderers F.C.. The other teams, Holmesdale F.C. and Greenwich Borough F.C., play at Oakley Road. Bromley F.C. are in the Conference National, one level below the Football League. Cray Wanderers F.C. are currently three divisions below Bromley F.C. in the Isthmian League Division One North.

Four rugby clubs in Bromley are, Old Elthamians a National League 2 side, Parkhouse FC, Bromley RFC and Beckenham RFC. Beccehamians RFC is a club that was founded in 1933 which plays competitive rugby at Sparrows Den at the bottom of Corkscrew Hill in nearby West Wickham.

Landmarks

Geograph-1766695-by-John-Salmon
St Peter and St Paul
St Mark, Westmoreland Road, Bromley - geograph.org.uk - 1766670
St Mark

The parish church of St Peter and St Paul stands on Church Road. It was largely destroyed by enemy action on 16 April 1941 and rebuilt in the 1950s incorporating the medieval tower and reusing much of the flint and fragments of the original stone building. The most noteworthy historic building is Bromley College, London Road. The central public open spaces are; Queen's Gardens, Martin's Hill, Church House Gardens, Library Gardens and College Green.

Another parish church in Bromley worth noting is St Mark's, which stands in Westmoreland Road. The present church is the third. The first was built as a temporary iron church in 1884 to cope with Bromley's growing population, on land slightly to the east of the present church, donated by a local man called Eley Soames. The road name St Mark's Road preserves the rough location of the former site.

The second church was built in brick and stone on the present site, and designed by Evelyn Hellicar, son of the then vicar of St Peter and St Paul's. It was completed in 1898 in the Perpendicular Gothic style and consecrated by William Walsh, Bishop of Dover, on 22 October that year. The tower, though, was not completed until 1904. Like St Peter and St Paul's, St Mark's was heavily damaged in the London Blitz of 1941. Only the tower survived intact.

On 3 June 1952, the Duchess of Kent laid the foundation stone of the present church, which was designed by T W G Grant and built by David Nye. Besides the tower, other parts of the fabric of the original church were used in the rebuilding. Inside there are some interesting monuments: to Samuel Ajayi Crowther, John Cole Patteson and Vedanayagam Samuel Azariah, who were all bishops in the Commonwealth.


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