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The Alaska Native Regional Corporations were established in 1971 when the United States Congress passed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) which settled land and financial claims made by the Alaska Natives and provided for the establishment of 13 regional corporations to administer those claims.

Associations, regional and village corporations

Under ANCSA the state was originally divided into twelve regions, each represented by a "Native association" responsible for the enrollment of past and present residents of the region. Individual Alaska Natives enrolled in these associations, and their village level equivalents, were made shareholder in the Regional and Village Corporations created by the Act. The twelve for-profit regional corporations, and a thirteenth region representing those Alaska Natives who were no longer residents of Alaska in 1971, were awarded the monetary and property compensation created by ANCSA. Village corporations and their shareholders received compensation through the regional corporations. The fact that many ostensibly Alaska Native villages throughout the state were not empowered by the ANCSA to form village corporations later led to a number of lawsuits.

The regional and village corporations are now owned by Alaska Native people through privately owned shares of corporation stock. Alaska Natives alive at ANCSA's enactment on December 17, 1971, who enrolled in a Native association (at the regional and/or village level) received 100 shares of stock in the respective corporation. In 2006, the 109th Congress passed S.449 which amended ANCSA, and allowed for shares to be more easily issued to those who had missed the enrollment, or were born after the enrollment period by reducing the requirement for voting from a majority of shareholders to a majority of attending shareholders at corporation meetings.

During the 1970s, ANCSA regional and village corporations selected land in and around native villages in the state in proportion to their enrolled populations. Village corporations own the surface rights to the lands they selected, but regional corporations own the subsurface rights of both their own selections and of those of the village corporations.

Text of the Act

The Act lays out the specifics of the corporations' status. Here is an excerpt of the relevant portion:

43 U.S.C. § 1606
(a) Division of Alaska into twelve geographic regions; common heritage and common interest of region; area of region commensurate with operations of Native association; boundary disputes, arbitration. For purposes of this chapter, the State of Alaska shall be divided by the Secretary within one year after December 18, 1971, into twelve geographic regions, with each region composed as far as practicable of Natives having a common heritage and sharing common interests. In the absence of good cause shown to the contrary, such regions shall approximate the areas covered by the operations of the following existing Native associations:
(1) Arctic Slope Native Association (Utqiaġvik, Point Hope, Point Lay, Wainwright, Atqasuk, Nuiqsut, Kaktovik, Anaktuvuk Pass);
(2) Bering Straits Association (Seward Peninsula, Unalakleet, Saint Lawrence Island);
(3) Northwest Alaska Native Association (Kotzebue);
(4) Association of Village Council Presidents (southwest coast, all villages in the Bethel area, including all villages on the Lower Yukon River and the Lower Kuskokwim River);
(5) Tanana Chiefs' Conference (Koyukuk, Middle and Upper Yukon Rivers, Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana River);
(6) Cook Inlet Association (Kenai, Tyonek, Eklutna, Iliamna);
(7) Bristol Bay Native Association (Dillingham, Upper Alaska Peninsula);
(8) Aleut League (Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands and that part of the Alaska Peninsula which is in the Aleut League);
(9) Chugach Native Association (Cordova, Tatitlek, Port Graham, English Bay, Valdez, and Seward);
(10) Tlingit-Haida Central Council (southeastern Alaska, including Metlakatla);
(11) Kodiak Area Native Association (all villages on and around Kodiak Island); and
(12) Copper River Native Association (Copper Center, Glennallen, Chitina, Mentasta).
(c) Establishment of thirteenth region for nonresident Natives; majority vote; Regional Corporation for thirteenth region. [...]
(d) Incorporation; business for profit; eligibility for benefits; provisions in articles for carrying out chapter. Five incorporators within each region, named by the Native association in the region, shall incorporate under the laws of Alaska a Regional Corporation to conduct business for profit, which shall be eligible for the benefits of this chapter so long as it is organized and functions in accordance with this chapter. The articles of incorporation shall include provisions necessary to carry out the terms of this chapter.
ANCSA Regional Corporations Map
Regional corporations established by the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.

The thirteen regional corporations created under ANCSA are:

1 ASRC Arctic Slope Native Association Arctic Slope Regional Corporation Utqiaġvik, Point Hope, Point Lay, Wainwright, Atqasuk, Nuiqsut, Kaktovik, Anaktuvuk Pass
2 BSNC Bering Straits Association Bering Straits Native Corporation Seward Peninsula, Unalakleet
3 NANA Northwest Alaska Native Association NANA Regional Corporation Kotzebue
4 AVCP Association of Village Council Presidents Calista Corporation Southwest coast, all villages in the Bethel area, including all villages on the Lower Yukon River and the Lower Kuskokwim River
5 DOYON Tanana Chiefs' Conference Doyon, Limited Koyukuk, Middle and Upper Yukon Rivers, Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana River
6 CIRI Cook Inlet Association Cook Inlet Region, Inc. Kenai, Tyonek, Eklutna, Iliamna
7 BBNC Bristol Bay Native Association Bristol Bay Native Corporation Dillingham, upper Alaska Peninsula
8 TAC Aleut League The Aleut Corporation Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands and that part of the Alaska Peninsula which is in the Aleut League
9 CAC Chugach Native Association Chugach Alaska Corporation Cordova, Tatitlek, Port Graham, English Bay, Valdez, and Seward
10 SEAC Tlingit-Haida Central Council Sealaska Corporation Southeastern Alaska, including Metlakatla
11 KANA Kodiak Area Native Association Koniag, Incorporated All villages on and around Kodiak Island
12 AHTNA Copper River Native Association Ahtna, Incorporated Copper Center, Glennallen, Chitina, Mentasta
13 Regional Corporation for thirteenth region The 13th Regional Corporation Non-resident Alaska Native

Alaska Native village corporations

There are over 200 village corporations, corresponding to the list of villages published in the text of ANCSA. Most corporations serve a single village, though some smaller villages have consolidated their corporations over the years.

Village corporation Community Regional corporation Website
Afognak Native Corporation Afognak Koniag, Incorporated
Port Lions
Akhiok-Kaguyak, Inc. Akhiok
Akiachak Limited Akiachak Calista Corporation
Akuliuk Inc. Selawik NANA Regional Corporation
Akutan Corporation Akutan Aleut Corporation
Alakanuk Corporation Alakanuk Calista Corporation
Alaska Peninsula Corporation Kokhanok Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Port Heiden
South Naknek
Aleknagik Natives Limited Aleknagik Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Alexander Creek Inc. Alexander Creek Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Anton Larsen Inc. Anton Larsen Bay Koniag, Incorporated
Arvig Inc. Platinum Calista Corporation
Askinuk Corporation Scammon Bay Calista Corporation
Atkasook Corporation Atqasuk Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Atmauthluak Limited Atmautluak Calista Corporation
Atxam Corporation Atka Aleut Corporation
Ayakulik Inc. Ayakulik Koniag, Incorporated
Azachorok Inc. Mountain Village Calista Corporation
Baan-o-yeel kon Corporation Rampart Doyon, Limited
Bay View Inc. Ivanof Bay Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Bean Ridge Corporation Manley Hot Springs Doyon, Limited
Beaver Kwit'Chin Corporation Beaver Doyon, Limited
Becharof Corporation Egegik Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Belkofski Corporation Belkofski Aleut Corporation
Bells Flats Native Group Inc. Bells Flats Koniag, Incorporated
Bethel Native Corporation Bethel Calista Corporation
Brevig Mission Native Corporation Brevig Mission Bering Straits Native Corp.
Buckland Nunachiak Corporation Buckland NANA Regional Corporation
Cape Fox Corporation Saxman Sealaska Corporation
Caswell Native Assoc. Inc. Caswell Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Chalkyitsik Native Corporation Chalkyitsik Doyon, Limited
Chaluka Corporation Nikolski Aleut Corporation
Chefarnrmute Inc. Chefornak
(Chefornakes Slough)
Calista Corporation
Chenega Corporation Chenega Chugach Alaska Corporation
Chevak Co Chevak Calista Corporation
Chigik River Limited Chignik Lake Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Chignik Lagoon Native Corporation Chignik
Chickaloon Moose Creek Native Assoc. Chickaloon Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Chitina Native Corporation Chitina Ahtna, Incorporated
Choggiung Limited Dillingham Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Chugach Natives Inc. Icy Bay Chugach Alaska Corporation
Chuloonawick Corporation Chuloonawik Calista Corporation
Council Native Corporation Council Bering Straits Native Corp.
Cully Corporation Point Lay Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Danzhit Hanlaii Corporation Circle Doyon, Limited
Deacons Landing Inc. Deacons Landing Doyon, Limited
Deering Ipnatchiak Corporation Deering NANA Regional Corporation
Deloycheet Inc. Holy Cross Doyon, Limited
Dineega Corporation Ruby
Dinyea Corporation Stevens Village
Doratoi Inc. Flat
Dot Lake Native Corporation Dot Lake
Eklutna Inc. Eklutna Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Ekuk Native Limited Ekuk Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Ekwok Natives Limited Ekwok
Elim Native Corporation Elim (Elim Reserve) Bering Straits Native Corp.
Elim Native Corporation St. Lawrence
Emmonak Corporation Emmonak Calista Corporation
English Bay Corporation Nanwalek (English Bay) Chugach Alaska Corporation
Evansville Inc. Evansville Doyon, Limited
The Eyak Corporation Cordova Chugach Alaska Corporation
Far West Inc. Chignik Bay Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Forty-Mile Inc. Chicken Doyon, Limited
Gakona Corporation Gakona Ahtna, Incorporated
Gana-a'yoo Limited Galena Doyon, Limited
Ganawas Corporation Knight Island Sealaska Corporation
Gold Creek-Susitna Native Association Gold Creek Calista Corporation
Goldbelt Inc. Juneau (4 cities) Sealaska Corporation
Golovin Native Corporation Golovin Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Grouse Creek Corporation Grouse Creek Doyon, Limited
Gwitchyaazhee Corporation Fort Yukon Doyon, Limited
Haida Corporation Hydaburg Sealaska Corporation
Haycock Native Group Corporation Haycock Calista Corporation
Hee-yea Lingde Corporation Grayling Doyon, Limited
Huna Totem Corporation Hoonah Sealaska Corporation
Hungwitchin Corporation Eagle Doyon, Limited
Igiugig Native Corporation Igiugig Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Iliamna Native Corporation Iliamna
Ingalik Inc. Anvik Doyon, Limited
Iqfijouq Co Eek Calista Corporation
Isanotski Corporation False Pass Aleut Corporation
Isingnakmeut Shungnak NANA Regional Corporation
Ivaisaapaagmit Corporation Ambler
Kake Tribal Corporation Kake Sealaska Corporation
Kaktovik Inupiat Corporation Kaktovik Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Karluk Native Corporation Karluk Koniag, Incorporated
Kasigluk Inc. Kasigluk Calista Corporation
Katyaak Corporation Kiana NANA Regional Corporation
Kavilco Inc. Kassan Sealaska Corporation
Kenai Native Assoc. Inc. Kenai Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Kian Tr'ee Corporation Canyon Village Doyon, Limited
Kikiktagruk Inupiat Corporation Kotzebue NANA Regional Corporation
King Cove Corporation King Cove Aleut Corporation
King Island Native Corporation King Island Bering Straits Native Corp.
Kiutsarak Inc. Goodnews Bay Calista Corporation
Kivalina Sinnigaakmiut Kivalina NANA Regional Corporation
Klawaock Heenya Corporation Klawock Sealaska Corporation
Klukwan, Inc. Klukwan Sealaska Corporation
Kluti-Kaah Corporation Copper Center Ahtna, Incorporated
Knikatnu Inc. Knik Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Kokarmiut Corporation Akiak Calista Corporation
Kokrines Ic. Kokrines Doyon, Limited
Koliganek Natives Limited Koliganek Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Kongnikilnomuit Yuita Corporation Bill Moores Slough Calista Corporation
Kootznoowoo Inc. Angoon Sealaska Corporation
Koovukmeut Inc. Kobuk NANA Regional Corporation
Kotlik Yupik Corporation Kotlik Calista Corporation
K'oyitl'ots'ina Limited Hughes Doyon, Limited
Koyuk Native Corporation Koyuk Bering Straits Native Corp.
Kugkaktilk Limited Kipnuk Calista Corporation
Kuskokwim Corporation Aniak
Crooked Creek
Georgetown Doyon, Limited
Lower Kalskag Calista Corporation
Upper Kalskag
Red Devil
Stony River
Kuukpik Corporation, Inc. Nuiqsut Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Kwethluk Inc. Kwethluk Calista Corporation
Kwik Inc. Kwigillingok
Leisnoi, Inc. Woody Island Koniag, Incorporated
Levelock Natives Limited Levelock Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Lime Village Co Lime Village Calista Corporation
Litnik Inc. Litnik Koniag, Incorporated
Little Lake Louise Inc. Little Lake Louise Ahtna, Incorporated
Lower Tonsina Inc. Lower Tonsina Ahtna, Incorporated
Manokotak Natives Limited Manokotak Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Mary's Igloo Native Corporation Mary's Igloo Bering Straits Native Corp.
Maserculig Inc. Marshall Calista Corporation
Medfra Native Council Inc. Medfra Doyon, Limited
Mendas Cha-ag Native Corporation Healy Lake Doyon, Limited
Mentasta Inc. Mentasta Lake Ahtna, Incorporated
Minchumina Natives Inc. Minchumina Doyon, Limited
Montana Creek Native Assoc. Montana Creek Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
MTNT Limited McGrath Doyon, Limited
Nagamut Limited Nagamut Calista Corporation
Napakiak Corporation Napakiak
Napaskiak Inc. Napaskiak
Native of Kodiak Inc. Kodiak Koniag, Incorporated
Nebesna Native Group Inc. Nebesna Ahtna, Incorporated
Neechootaalichaagat Corporation Birch Creek Doyon, Limited
Kantishna Doyon, Limited
Nelson Lagoon Corporation Nelson Lagoon Aleut Corporation
Nerklikmute Native Corporation Andereafsky Calista Corporation
Newtok Inc. Newtok
NGTA Inc. Nightmute
Nima Corporation Mekoryuk
Ninilchik Natives Assoc., Inc. Ninilchik Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Noatak Napaaktukmeur Corporation Noatak NANA Regional Corporation
Nondalton Native Corporation Nondalton Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Northway Natives Inc. Northway Doyon, Limited
Nu-Nachk Pit Inc. Larsen Bay Koniag, Incorporated
Nunakauiak Yupik Corporation Toksook Bay Calista Corporation
Nunamiut Corporation Anaktuvuk Pass Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Nunapiglluraq Corporation Hamilton Calista Corporation
Nunapitchuk Limited Nunapitchuk
Oceanside Corporation Perryville Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Ohgsenskale Corporation Portage Creek
Ohog Inc. Ohogamiut Calista Corporation
Old Harbor Native Corporation Old Harbor Koniag, Incorporated
Olgoonik Corporation, Inc. Wainwright Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Olsonville Inc. Olsonville Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Oscarville Native Corporation Oscarville Calista Corporation
Ounalashka Corporation Unalaska Aleut Corporation
Ouzinkie Native Corporation Ouzinkie Koniag, Incorporated
Paimiut Corporation Paimiut Calista Corporation
Paug-Vik Inc. Limited Naknek Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Pedro Bay Corporation Pedro Bay
Pilot Point Native Corporation Pilot Point
Pilot Station Native Corporation Pilot Station Calista Corporation
Pitkas Point Native Corporation Pitkas Point Calista Corporation
Point Possession Inc. Point Possession Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Port Graham Corporation Port Graham Chugach Alaska Corporation
Putoo Corporation Noorvik NANA Regional Corporation
Qanirtuuq Inc. Quinhagak Calista Corporation
Qemirtalek Coast Corporation Kongiganek
Saguyak Inc. Clarks Point Bristol Bay Native Corporation
St. George Tanadax Corporation St. George Aleut Corporation
St. Marys Native Corporation St. Marys Calista Corporation
St. Michael native Corporation St. Michaels Bering Straits Native Corp.
Salamatoff Native Assoc. Inc. Salamatoff Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Sanak Corporation Pauloff Harbor Aleut Corporation
Savonski Corporation Savonski Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Sea Lion Corporation Hooper Bay Calista Corporation
Seldovia Native Assoc. Inc. Seldovia Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Seth-do-ya-ah Corporation Minto Doyon, Limited
Shaan-Seet Inc. Craig Sealaska Corporation
Shaktoolik Native Corporation Shaktoolik Bering Straits Native Corp.
Shee Atiká, Inc. Sitka Sealaska Corporation
Shishmaref Natrive Corporation Shishmaref Bering Straits Native Corp.
Shumagin Corporation Sand Point Aleut Corporation
Shuyak Inc. Port William Koniag, Incorporated
Sitnasuak Native Corporation Nome Bering Straits Native Corp.
Slana Native Corporation Slana Ahtna, Incorporated
Solomon Native Corporation Solomon Bering Straits Native Corp.
Sta-Keh Corporation Gulkana Chugach Alaska Corporation
Stebbins Native Corporation Stebbins Bering Straits Native Corp.
Stuyahok Limited New Stuyahok Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Swan Lake Corporation Sheldon Point Calista Corporation
Talzina Inc. Tazlina Ahtna, Incorporated
Tanacross Inc. Tanacross Doyon, Limited
Tanadgusik Corporation St. Paul Aleut Corporation [1]
Tanalian Inc. Port Alsworth Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Tatitlek Corporation Tatitlek Chugach Alaska Corporation [2]
Teller Native Corporation Teller Bering Straits Native Corp.
Tetlin Indian Reservation Tetlin Doyon, Limited
Tikigaq Corporation Point Hope Arctic Slope Regional Corp. [3]
Tihteet'aii Inc. Birch Creek Doyon, Limited
Toghotthele Corporation Nenana
Togiak Natives Limited Togiak Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Tozitna Limited Tananna Doyon, Limited
Tulkisarmute Inc. Tuluksak Calista Corporation
Tuntutuliak Land Limited Tuntutuliak
Tununrmiut Rinit Corporation Tununak
Twin Hills Native Corporation Twin Hills Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Twin Lake Native Group Inc. Twin Lake Ahtna, Incorporated
Tyonek Native Corporation Tyonek Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Uganik Natives, Inc. Uganik Koniag, Incorporated
Ukpeaġvik Iñupiat Corporation Utqiaġvik Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Umkumiute Limited Umkumiute Calista Corporation
Unalakleet Native Corporation Unalakleet Bering Straits Native Corp.
Unga Corporation Unga Aleut Corporation
Uyak, Inc. Uyak Koniag, Incorporated
Venetie Indian Reservation Venetie Doyon, Limited
Wales Native Corporation Wales Bering Straits Native Corp.
White Mountain Native Corporation White Mountain
Wisenak Inc. Wisenak Doyon, Limited
Yak-tat Kwaan Inc. Yakutat Sealaska Corporation
Yedetena Na Corporation Cantwell Ahtna, Incorporated
Zho-Tse, Inc. Shageluk Doyon, Limited


The Afognak Native Corporation was organized in 1977 through the merger of two ANCSA village corporations: Port Lions Native Corporation and Natives of Afognak, Inc. It is governed by a nine-member board of directors. Afognak Native Corporation has many business interests. For 18 years it participated in and profited from timber development ventures on Afogank Island. It also operates a number of successful subsidiaries including Leasing, Bioenergy Operations and Oil Field Services. In the late 1990s, the Afognak Native Corporation launched a government contracting business. The Afognak Native Corporation is a wealthy corporation and was listed in the Top 100 Contractors of the Federal Government in 2010. Coming in at No. 79, The Afognak Native Corporation's contracts were $749,557,576.49. Afognak Native Corporation entities also received NASA Small Business Contractor of the Year Award in 2013. The Corporation's profile is listed as "Construction and Engineering" services. The Afognak Native Corporation has approximately 900 shareholders and pays over $12 million in dividends annually. The Afognak Native Corporation controls over 160,000 acres of land in the Kodiak Archipelago and the lands form the core of financial success of the corporation.

Subsequent legislation and litigation

The federal Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 (ISDA) gave self-autonomy to both Native Indian tribal governments and to ANCs.

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, the CARES Act had set aside about $8 billion in funds for federally-recognized "tribal governments". The U.S. Treasury Department earmarked about $500 million of those funds for ANCs. While the federal government had generally recognized that ANCs fell under "tribal governments" since the passage of the ISDA, three Native Indian tribes from the lower 48 states sued the Treasury, asserting that the ANCs were not federally-recognized "tribal governments" under a statutory interpretation of the law. This led to the United States Supreme Court case, Yellen v. Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation, which was decided in June 2021 that under ISDA, the ANCs were federally-recognized "tribal governments" and thus qualified for CARES funds.

Financial Performance

Financial Performance of each ANRC in 2016
# Abbreviation ANCSA Alaska Native Regional Corporation 2016 Annual Revenue Approximate No. of Shareholders
1 ASRC Arctic Slope Native Association Arctic Slope Regional Corporation $2,370,000,000 13,000
2 BSNC Bering Straits Association Bering Straits Native Corporation $326,000,000 7,500
3 NANA Northwest Alaska Native Association NANA Regional Corporation $1,300,000,000
4 AVCP Association of Village Council Presidents Calista Corporation $492,000,000 13,000
5 DOYON Tanana Chiefs' Conference Doyon, Limited $305,410,000 19,000
6 CIRI Cook Inlet Association Cook Inlet Region, Inc. $289,000,000
7 BBNC Bristol Bay Native Association Bristol Bay Native Corporation $1,510,000,000 10,350
8 TAC Aleut League The Aleut Corporation $171,660,000 3,900
9 CAC Chugach Native Association Chugach Alaska Corporation $842,400,000 2,600
10 SEAC Sealaska Corporation Sealaska Corporation $145,510,000 23,000
11 KANA Kodiak Area Native Association Koniag, Incorporated $252,000,000 3,850
12 AHTNA Copper River Native Association Ahtna, Incorporated $218,000,000 1,900
13 Regional Corporation for Thirteenth Region Insolvent
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