Gadsden, Alabama facts for kids
Quick facts for kids
Aerial photo of downtown Gadsden
"City of Champions"
|• Type||Mayor-Council (w. seven councilmen)|
|• City||38.3 sq mi (99.2 km2)|
|• Land||37.1 sq mi (96.2 km2)|
|• Water||1.1 sq mi (2.9 km2)|
|Elevation||541 ft (165 m)|
| • Estimate
|• Density||977/sq mi (377.1/km2)|
|• Metro||103,931 (US: 345th)|
|Time zone||UTC-6 (Central Time)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (CDT)|
|Area code(s)||256, 938|
|GNIS feature ID||0157961|
Gadsden is a city in and the county seat of Etowah County in the U.S. state of Alabama. It is located on the Coosa River about 56 miles (90 km) northeast of Birmingham and 90 miles (140 km) southwest of Chattanooga, Tennessee. It is the primary city of the Gadsden Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 103,931. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 36,856, with an estimated population of 36,295 in 2014. Gadsden and Rome, Georgia, are the largest cities in the triangular area defined by the Interstate highways between Atlanta, Birmingham, and Chattanooga.
Gadsden was at one time in the 19th century Alabama's second most important center of commerce and industry, trailing only the seaport of Mobile. The two cities were important shipping centers: Gadsden for riverboats and Mobile for international trade. Through the 1980s, Gadsden was a center of heavy industry, including the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and the Republic Steel Corporation.
More than a decade after the sharp decline in industry, in 1991 Gadsden was awarded the honor of All-America City by the National Civic League, an award that honored the way Gadsden's citizens, government, businesses, and voluntary organizations work together to address critical local issues.
The first substantial white settlement in what is now Gadsden was a village called "Double Springs". It was founded in about 1825 by John Riley, a mixed-race American Indian and European-American settler who built his house near two springs. Riley used his house for a stagecoach stop on the Huntsville-to-Rome route. The original building still stands as the oldest in Gadsden.
The house was purchased by brothers Gabriel and Asenath Hughes in 1840. The Hughes brothers purchased much of the land between Lookout Mountain, the Coosa River, and the mouth of Wills Creek. The brothers proposed constructing a railroad from Savannah to Nashville through their land. The original 120 acres (49 ha) survey of Gadsden included the Hughes brothers' land, plus that of John S. Moragne and Lewis L. Rhea.
On July 4, 1845, Captain James Lafferty piloted the steamboat Coosa to the settlement, landing near the site of the current Memorial Bridge. The Hughes brothers suggested renaming the town as "Lafferty's Landing", but instead "Gadsden" was adopted in honor of Colonel James Gadsden of South Carolina, later to become famous for negotiating the United States' Gadsden Purchase from Mexico.
In 1867, with the organization of Baine County, Gadsden was incorporated and made the county seat. Baine County was dissolved in 1868 and Etowah County created in its place and Gadsden retained its standing as county seat.
After most of Gadsden's major industries closed in the 1970s and 1980s, the city began to decline. A Rand McNally article in 1989 listed Gadsden as one of the "Seven Worst Cities to Live in the United States". The city government was spurred to action by these reports.
Redevelopment efforts such as the Cultural Arts Center and downtown revitalization earned Gadsden first place in the 2000 City Livability Awards Program. Underemployment continues to be a severe problem, as indicated by the economic data presented below.
Geography and climate
Gadsden is located in central Etowah County at Coosa River. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 38.3 square miles (99.2 km2), of which 37.1 square miles (96.2 km2) is land and 1.1 square miles (2.9 km2), or 2.96%, is water. The southern end of Lookout Mountain rises to the north of the city center.(34.010147, −86.010356), on both sides of the
Winter lasts from early December to late-February; the daily average temperature in January is 41.3 °F (5.2 °C). On average, the low temperature falls to the freezing mark or below on 60 days a year, and to or below 20 °F (−7 °C) on 6.9 days. While rain is abundant (January and February are on average the wettest months), measurable snowfall is rare, with most years receiving none. Summers are hot and humid, lasting from mid-May to mid-September, and the July daily average temperature is 80.6 °F (27.0 °C). There are 60–61 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs annually and 2.1 days of 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs. The latter part of summer tends to be drier. Autumn, which spans from mid-September to early-December, tends to be similar to spring in terms of temperature and precipitation, although it begins relatively dry.
With a period of record dating only back to 1953, the highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on June 30, 2012, while the lowest recorded temperature was −6 °F (−21 °C) on January 20–21, 1985.
|Climate data for Gadsden, Alabama (1981–2010 normals)|
|Average high °F (°C)||51.8
|Average low °F (°C)||30.7
|Precipitation inches (mm)||4.95
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.3||9.3||9.0||8.9||8.9||9.2||9.8||7.8||6.7||7.1||8.6||9.6||104.2|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 38,978 people, 16,456 households, and 10,252 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,083.6 people per square mile (418.4/km2). There were 18,797 housing units at an average density of 522.6 per square mile (201.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 62.69% White, 34.00% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.22% from other races, and 1.17% from two or more races. 2.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 16,456 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 18.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.7% were non-families. 33.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.91.
In the city, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 20.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 85.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $24,823, and the median income for a family was $31,740. Males had a median income of $29,400 versus $19,840 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,610. About 18.1% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 36,856 people, 15,171 households, and 9,183 families residing in the city. The population density was 990.8 people per square mile (382.7/km2). There were 17,672 housing units at an average density of 475.1 per square mile (183.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 57.3% White, 36.3% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 3.2% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. 5.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 15,171 households out of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.9% were married couples living together, 19.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.5% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the city, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, and 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.3 years. For every 100 females there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,386, and the median income for a family was $34,643. Males had a median income of $33,827 versus $27,342 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,610. About 20.2% of families and 24.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.9% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over.
Citing statistics from the Alabama Department of Industrial Relations and the Center for Business and Economic Research at the University of Alabama, the Gadsden-Etowah County Industrial Development Authority reports that approximately 12,000 residents of Etowah County were underemployed and 2,179 residents were unemployed as of 2008.
Gadsden was home to Congregation Beth Israel, a Reform synagogue founded in 1908. In a 1960 attack, the synagogue was fire-bombed, its windows smashed, and two members wounded with a shotgun by a Nazi sympathizer. The congregation ceased operations in 2010.
Gadsden also houses churches of Christ, Methodist, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Baptist, Pentecostal, Mormon, and Catholic faiths.
Points of interest
- Noccalula Falls Park
- Gilliland-Reese Covered Bridge
- Coosa River
- Downtown Gadsden
- James D. Martin Wildlife Park
- Lookout Mountain
- Gadsden Mall
- Gadsden Museum of Art
- Mary G. Hardin Center for Cultural Arts
- Interstate 59
- Interstate 759
- U.S. Highway 411
- U.S. Highway 431
- U.S. Highway 278
- Norfolk Southern Railway
- Alabama and Tennessee River Railway
- Northeast Alabama Regional Airport (municipal airport)
Gadsden, Alabama Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.