Hillsboro, Oregon facts for kids
|Nickname(s): The Hub City|
Location of Hillsboro in the state of Oregon
|Incorporated||October 19, 1876|
|Named for||David Hill|
|• Total||24.25 sq mi (62.8 km2)|
|• Land||24.24 sq mi (62.8 km2)|
|• Water||0.01 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||194 ft (60 m)|
|• Estimate (2015)||102,347|
|• Rank||1st in Washington County
5th in Oregon
303rd in United States
|• Density||3,833.1/sq mi (1,480.0/km2)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|ZIP codes||97123, 97124, 97006|
|Area code(s)||503 and 971|
|GNIS feature ID||1163049|
Hillsboro (//) is the fifth-largest city in the State of Oregon and is the county seat of Washington County. Lying in the Tualatin Valley on the west side of the Portland metropolitan area, the city hosts many high-technology companies, such as Intel, that comprise what has become known as the Silicon Forest. At the 2010 Census, the city's population was 91,611.
For thousands of years before the arrival of European-American settlers, the Atfalati tribe of the Kalapuya lived in the Tualatin Valley near the later site of Hillsboro. The climate, moderated by the Pacific Ocean, helped make the region suitable for fishing, hunting, food gathering, and agriculture. Settlers founded a community here in 1842, later named after David Hill, an Oregon politician. Transportation by riverboat on the Tualatin River was part of Hillsboro's settler economy. A railroad reached the area in the early 1870s and an interurban electric railway about four decades later. These railways, as well as highways, aided the slow growth of the city to about 2,000 people by 1910 and about 5,000 by 1950, before the arrival of high-tech companies in the 1980s.
Hillsboro has a council–manager government consisting of a city manager and a city council headed by a mayor. In addition to high-tech industry, sectors important to Hillsboro's economy are health care, retail sales, and agriculture, including grapes and wineries. The city operates more than twenty parks and the mixed-use Hillsboro Stadium, and ten sites in the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Modes of transportation include private vehicles, public buses and light rail, and aircraft using the Hillsboro Airport. The city is home to Pacific University's Health Professions Campus. Notable residents include two Oregon governors.
The first people of the Tualatin Valley were the Atfalati or Tualaty tribe of the Kalapuya, who inhabited the region for up to 10,000 years before white settlers arrived. The valley consisted of open grassland maintained through annual burning by the Atfalati, with scattered groves of trees along the streams. The Kalapuya moved from place to place in good weather to fish and hunt and to gather nuts, seeds, roots, and berries. Important foods included camas and wapato, and the Atfalati traded for salmon from Chinookan tribes near Willamette Falls on the Willamette River. During the winter, they lived in longhouses in settled villages, some near what became Hillsboro and Beaverton. Their population was greatly reduced after contact in the late 18th century with Europeans, who carried smallpox, syphilis, and malaria. Of the original population of 1,000 to 2,000 Atfalati reported in 1780, only 65 remained in 1851. In 1855, the U.S. government sent the survivors to the Grande Ronde reservation further west.
The European-American community was founded by David Hill, Isaiah Kelsey, and Richard Williams, who arrived in the Tualatin Valley in 1841, followed by six more pioneers in 1842. The locality went by two other names—East Tualatin Plains and Columbia—before it was named "Hillsborough" in February 1850 in honor of Hill, when he sold part of his land claim to the county. On February 5, 1850, commissioners chosen by the territorial legislature selected the community to be the seat of the county government. Hill was to be paid $200 for his land after plots had been sold for the town site, but he died before this occurred, and his widow Lucinda received the funds. The town's name was later simplified to Hillsboro. A log cabin was built in 1853 to serve as the community's first school, which opened in October 1854. Riverboats provided transportation to Hillsboro as early as 1867 when the side-wheel steamer Yamhill worked on the Tualatin River.
In 1871, the Oregon and California Railroad line was extended to the area, but it ran just south of town because the city did not want to give the railroad land in exchange for the rail connection. Hillsboro was incorporated as the Town of Hillsboro on October 19, 1876, by the Oregon Legislature. The first mayor was A. Luelling, who took office on December 8, 1876, and served a one-year term. Notable later mayors included Congressman Thomas H. Tongue (1882 and 1886) and state senator William D. Hare (1885). In 1923, the city altered its charter and adopted a council-manager government with a six-person city council, a part-time mayor who determined major policies, and a city manager who ran day-to-day operations.
On September 30, 1908, 5,000 people gathered as the Oregon Electric Railway opened a connection between the city and Portland with an interurban electric rail line, the first to reach the community. In January 1914, the Southern Pacific Railroad introduced its own interurban service, known as the Red Electric, on a separate line and serving different communities between Hillsboro and Portland. SP discontinued its Hillsboro service on July 28, 1929, while the Oregon Electric Railway's passenger service to Hillsboro lasted until July 1932.
A brick building was constructed in 1852 to house the county government, followed by a brick courthouse in 1873. In 1891, the courthouse was remodeled and a clock tower was added, and the building was expanded with an annex in 1912. A new courthouse replaced the brick structure in 1928. The last major remodel of the 1928 structure occurred in 1972, when the Justice Services Building was built and incorporated into the existing building.
The city's first fire department was a hook and ladder company organized in 1880 by the board of trustees (now city council). A drinking water and electricity distribution system added in 1892–93 gave the town three fire hydrants and minimal street lighting. Hillsboro built its first sewer system in 1911, but sewage treatment was not added until 1936. In 1913, the city built its own water system, and the first library, Carnegie City Library, opened in December 1914. From 1921 to 1952, the world's second-tallest radio tower stood on the south side of the city, but in 1952, the wireless telegraph tower was demolished.
In 1972, the Hillsboro City Council passed a Green River Ordinance banning door-to-door solicitation, but it was ruled unconstitutional by the Oregon Supreme Court in a 1988 decision. The court determined that the city ordinance was overly broad, in a case that was seen as a test case for many similar laws in the state. In 1979, Intel opened its first facility in Hillsboro. The Hawthorn Farm campus was followed by the Jones Farm campus adjacent to the airport in 1982, and finally by the Ronler Acres campus in 1994. TriMet opened a Metropolitan Area Express (MAX) light rail line into the city in 1998. A cultural center was added in 2004, and a new city hall was completed in 2005. In 2008, SolarWorld opened a facility producing solar wafers, crystals, and cells, the largest plant of its kind in the Western Hemisphere. U.S. President Barack Obama visited the city and Intel's Ronler Acres campus in February 2011.
Registered Historic Places
Properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in and around Hillsboro include the Old Scotch Church, completed in 1876 north of the city. Near the Orenco neighborhood is Imbrie Farm, which includes a house built in 1866 and the Frank Imbrie Barn, both of which McMenamins converted for use as a brewpub. Built in 1935, the Harold Wass Ray House is near Intel's Hawthorn Farm campus. Historic properties in downtown include the Zula Linklater House (completed 1923), Rice–Gates House (1890), Edward Schulmerich House (c. 1915), and Charles Shorey House (c. 1908). The Richard and Helen Rice House is adjacent to the Sunset Highway on the north side of the city and houses the Rice Northwest Museum of Rocks and Minerals. The Old Washington County Jail had been at the Washington County Fairgrounds in the city, but was restored and moved to the Washington County Museum outside the city in 2004, and was de-listed from the NRHP in 2008. In 2007, the Manning–Kamna Farm was added to the NRHP and includes 10 buildings, dating to as early as 1883. The Malcolm McDonald House in Orenco was added to the Registry in 2015.
Hillsboro is located at . The United States Census Bureau reports the city has a total area of 21.6 square miles (55.9 km2), all of which is land. In 2013, Hillsboro itself reported an area of 23.88 square miles (61.8 km2), equivalent to 15,283 acres (61.8 km2). The city is located in the Tualatin Valley, and the Tualatin River forms part of the southern city limits. The city's terrain is fairly level, consistent with an agricultural past and the farms still in operation. Hillsboro is about 17 miles (27 km) west of Portland and immediately west of Beaverton, at an elevation of 194 feet (59 m) above sea level. In addition to the Tualatin River, streams include Dairy Creek, McKay Creek, Rock Creek, Dawson Creek, and Turner Creek. Neighboring communities in addition to Beaverton are Aloha, Cornelius, North Plains, Reedville, Scholls, and West Union.
Hillsboro's street system differs from many others in the county. Most cities in Washington County use a numbering system and cardinal direction orientation based on a grid that begins at the Willamette River in downtown Portland, which was originally part of Washington County. For example, the street names in Beaverton generally include Southwest (SW) prefixes because Beaverton lies in the southwest quadrant of the Portland grid. In Hillsboro, some county road names and addresses conform to the Portland grid instead of Hillsboro's internal cardinal direction grid, and the city has been working to make addresses and streets within Hillsboro conform to the internal grid.
The internal grid in Hillsboro centers on the downtown intersection of Main Street, which runs east–west, and First Avenue, which runs north–south. Most addresses within the city include a quadrant prefix: NW, NE, SW, or SE. Main Street is simply designated as East Main or West Main, and First Avenue is only North First or South First. Addresses on the streets' south side and the avenues' east side have even numbers, while odd numbers are on the opposite side. Hillsboro's street system contains 20 blocks per mile (12.5 blocks per kilometer).
North–south through roadways are called avenues, while east–west roadways are called streets. All cul-de-sacs are named as either places or courts. Roads that curve can be named drives. Non-city streets may not conform to these naming conventions.
The city is divided into eight planning areas, each of which contains several neighborhoods. The east planning area contains the Tanasbourne neighborhood and Oregon Health & Science University's West Campus. The northeast planning area includes the Orenco, Orenco Station, Airport, and West Union neighborhoods. Jackson School, Sunrise, and Glencoe neighborhoods lie in the northwest area, and the Dennis, Garibaldi, and Connell neighborhoods are in the west area. The central area includes the Downtown, Jackson Bottom, Henry, and Eastwood neighborhoods. Blocks in the downtown core are 400 feet (120 m) long on each side. The Minter Bridge, Rood Bridge, and River Road neighborhoods are in the south planning area; the southeast area consists of the Reedville and Witch Hazel neighborhoods, and the Brookwood planning area in the center of the city contains the Cedar, Bentley, and Brogden neighborhoods.
Landmarks in Hillsboro include the Washington County Courthouse, the seat of county government. Along the western edge of the city is Hillsboro Pioneer Cemetery, established in 1870, which serves as the final resting place of city pioneers and politicians. Next to the airport is the Washington County Fair Complex, home to the annual county fair. Located at Shute Park is the 25-foot (7.6 m) tall wood sculpture Chief Kno-Tah, donated to Hillsboro and dedicated in 1987 as part of Peter Wolf Toth's Trail of the Whispering Giants.
Summers in Hillsboro are generally warm, but temperatures year-round are moderated by a marine influence from the Pacific Ocean. The Willamette Valley in which Hillsboro lies receives the majority of its precipitation during the winter months, with the wettest period from November through March. This occasionally includes snowfall. Hillsboro receives precipitation on 161 days per year, on average. The average yearly precipitation between 1930 and 1998 was 38 inches (970 mm). August is the warmest month with an average high temperature of 81 °F (27 °C), while January is the coolest month with an average high of 46 °F (8 °C). The highest recorded temperature, 108 °F (42 °C), occurred on July 19, 1956, and the lowest, −10 °F (−23 °C), occurred on January 31, 1950.
|Climate data for Hillsboro|
|Record high °F (°C)||69
|Average high °F (°C)||45
|Average low °F (°C)||32.7
|Record low °F (°C)||-14
|Precipitation inches (mm)||5.99
|Avg. precipitation days||20||16||17||14||11||8||3||4||7||12||19||20||151|
|U.S. Decennial Census
Hillsboro's population grew from 402 in 1880 to 2,016 by 1910, making it the county's most populated city, according to the 1910 census data. By 1970, it had increased to more than 15,000, although neighboring Beaverton had overtaken it as the county's most populous city. By 1990 there were more than 37,000 residents, and commuters raised this to 110,000 during daytime. At the 2010 Census, the population was 91,611, fifth in rank among the state's largest cities behind Portland, Eugene, Salem and Gresham and slightly ahead of Beaverton, which ranked sixth. This figure was a 30.5 percent increase from Hillsboro's 70,186 residents in 2000, which made Hillsboro the fourth fastest-growing city in the state during the 2000s (decade), and the fastest-growing city in the Willamette Valley over the same period. In 2007, there were 17,126 houses lived in by their owners, with an average home price in the city of $246,900. Bloomberg Businessweek listed the city as the fastest-growing in Oregon for the period between 1990 and 2010, for cities with populations over 10,000.
As of the census of 2010, there were 91,611 people, 33,289 households, and 22,440 families residing in the city. The population density was about 3,800 inhabitants per square mile (1,500/km2). There were 35,487 housing units at an average density of about 1,500 per square mile (600/km2). The racial makeup of the city was approximately 73% White, 2% African American, 1% Native American, 9% Asian, less than 1% Pacific Islander, 10% from other races, and 5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were about 23% of the population.
There were 33,289 households of which about 38% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51% were married couples living together, 11% had a female householder with no husband present, 5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 33% were non-families. About 24% of all households were made up of individuals and 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.24.
The median age in the city was 32 years. About 27% of residents were under the age of 18; 9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 35% were from 25 to 44; 21% were from 45 to 64; and 8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 50.2% male and 49.8% female.
At the time of the 2000 census, there were 25,079 households, of which about 38% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55% were married couples living together, 9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32% were non-families. About 23% of all households were made up of individuals and 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.8 and the average family size was 3.3.
City residents included about 28% under the age of 18, 11% from 18 to 24, 37% from 25 to 44, 17% from 45 to 64, and 6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were about 106 males.
The median household income was about $52,000 and the median family income was $57,000. Males had a median income of $41,000 compared to $30,000 for females. The per capita income for the city was about $22,000. Approximately 6% of families and 9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11% of those under age 18 and 8% of those age 65 or over. In 2007, 28% of people 25 and older held at least a bachelor's degree, while an additional 11% held an associate degree. Those with less than a high school diploma made up 15% of the population, and 22% of residents had more than a high school diploma but less than a college degree.
Within the city are three commercial movie theaters with a total of 30 screens. This includes the Venetian Theatre that re-opened at the site of the old Town Theater in 2008. The Oregon Chorale (a 60-person symphonic choir), a men's barbershop chorus, the Hillsboro Symphony Orchestra, and the Hillsboro Artists' Regional Theatre are also located in Hillsboro. The orchestra was founded in 2001 under the direction of Stefan Minde. In 2004, the city opened the Glenn & Viola Walters Cultural Arts Center in a remodeled church in downtown. The center provides space for galleries and performances, as well as classrooms for art instruction. The Rice Northwest Museum of Rocks and Minerals is located on the northern edge of the city. The Washington County Museum returned to downtown Hillsboro in 2012 when it moved into the Civic Center.
Hillsboro operates two library branches. Opened in 2007 after a smaller location was closed, the 38,000-square-foot (3,500 m2) main branch is located in the north-central section of the city. The older, smaller second branch is in Shute Park in the southwest area of the city. The Hillsboro libraries are part of Washington County Cooperative Library Services, which allows residents to use other libraries in the county and includes interlibrary loans.
AM radio station KUIK, the weekly Hillsboro Argus newspaper (twice-weekly until 2015), and the Hillsboro Tribune are based in Hillsboro. The Argus is published on Wednesdays, and has been in circulation since 1873. KUIK is a 5,000-watt station broadcasting at the 1360 frequency. The Tribune started in September 2012 and now publishes weekly. The city is also served by Portland-area media outlets including The Oregonian, Willamette Week, and all broadcast stations.
Hillsboro's Department of Parks and Recreation operates more than 20 facilities, including Hillsboro Stadium. There are 23 parks, two sports complexes, the Walters Cultural Arts Center, the Shute Park Aquatic & Recreation Center, and three other mixed-use facilities. The city also owns the Jackson Bottom Wetlands Preserve along the Tualatin River on the south side of the community. South of city is Bald Peak State Scenic Viewpoint, which is day-use only, and is the closest state park to Hillsboro. L.L. "Stub" Stewart Memorial State Park is the closest full-service state park.
Local golf courses include The Reserve Vineyards and Golf Club (36 holes) that was completed in 1997, Meriwether National Golf Course (27 holes) established in 1961, and the 9-hole McKay Creek Golf Course that was built in 1995. Other courses in the area include Killarney West Golf Club (9 holes), Rock Creek Country Club (18 holes), Forest Hills Country Club (18 holes), and Pumpkin Ridge Golf Club (36 holes).
Hillsboro's annual Fourth of July Parade is the second-largest Independence Day parade in Oregon. The Oregon International Air Show, Oregon's largest air show, is held each year during the summer at the Hillsboro Airport. Each summer the city offers a free concert series at Shute Park (Showtime at Shute), while the Washington County Fair is held annually at the county fairgrounds adjacent to the airport.
Hillsboro Farmers' Markets operates weekend farmers' markets on Saturdays downtown and on Sundays at Orenco Station, from May to October. The Saturday market began in 1982 and sells arts and crafts, food, produce, and plants. A different organization, Hillsboro Tuesday Marketplace, operates a downtown farmers' market on Tuesdays from mid-June through September 1. Farmers' markets also operate on Wednesday afternoons from June through August at Kaiser Permanente and on Thursday afternoons at Tuality Hospital from June through August.
The city has one professional sports team, the Hillsboro Hops of the Northwest League, a Minor League Baseball club affiliated with the Arizona Diamondbacks. The baseball team relocated from Yakima, Washington in 2012 and began play as the Hops on June 14, 2013, with its inaugural home game at the new Ron Tonkin Field on June 17.
Hillsboro's only sister city relationship is with Fukuroi, a city of about 85,000 residents in the Shizuoka Prefecture in central Japan. The cities, which have similar economic bases in agriculture and high technology, began their relationship in November 1988. The relationship has included exchanges of students between schools in each city. In the late 2000s, Hillsboro unsuccessfully explored finding a sister city in Mexico and also neglected the relationship with Fukuroi. However, in 2008, a Fukuroi contingent of adults visited Hillsboro to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Sister City agreement.
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